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    [A personal rhinoplasty concept for patients with cleft lip, jaw, palate]. Gubisch W,Bromba M Laryngo- rhino- otologie In the treatment of patients with cheilognathouranoschisis, rhinoplasty is a great challenge, since the cleft lip and palate will also produce nasal deformation requiring surgical correction. Unilateral cleft lip and palate is usually associated with a pronounced septal deformity resulting in "crooked nose" as well as typical asymmetry of the apex of the nose and of the nasal vestibule. The anterior part of the septum is dislocated in the direction of the unaffected side and the lower border of the septum is at the same time subluxated to the opposite side. The dorsal part of the septum presents with a convex deformity towards the cleft side extending in horizontal and vertical direction. Severe septal deformities cannot usually be adequately corrected on the spot, i.e. loco, but since septal correction is of paramount importance for the appearance and functioning of the nose we performed an extracorporeal correction of the septum in 191 cleft patients during the period from January 1980 through May 1993. Another characteristic feature of the cleft nose is the oblique modiolus, or columella cochleae, which is shortened on the cleft side, and the S-shaped deformity of the lateral alar cartilage, which presents with a cranial dislocation in the dome, caudal deviation in the lateral part, and an overhanging ala. After correction of the entire cartilaginous nasal framework the surgeon is usually confronted with asymmetry of the soft tissue. Satisfactory correction can be achieved by means of a three-flap technique in the region of the modiolus, nasal ala and vestibular skin: A modiolus-based transpositional flap results in a symmetrical height of the modiolus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 10.1055/s-2007-997204
    Lip repair techniques and their influence on the nose. Farmand Mostafa Facial plastic surgery : FPS The cleft nose has long been a problem when closing the lip in a cleft palate patient. More today than in the past, close attention is paid to the outcome of the nasal form, nasal base, and the position of distorted structures like the alar cartilage and the septum. The different techniques of lip closure can be used simultaneously with the nasal correction. But different methods of lip repair without primary nasal correction also influence the nasal form. It seems that the reconstruction of the nasolabial muscles (including the orbicularis muscle) is an important factor to gain a symmetrical nose after the primary operation. Although the results are very promising, it cannot be stated that no further operations will be needed later. But since growth disturbance has not been reported until now, most of the authors dealing with primary nasal correction recommend it simultaneously with the lip repair. Further investigations are needed to define the outcome after the cessation of growth. 10.1055/s-2002-33062
    Improved nasal tip projection in the treatment of bilateral cleft nasal deformity. Garri Joe I,O'Leary Kevin,Gabbay Joubin S,Urrego Andres F,Heller Justin B,O'Hara Catherine M,Tuchman Mario,Bradley James P The Journal of craniofacial surgery The cleft nose deformity in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients with severely flattened alar cartilages, a short, scarred columella, and thickened skin is a reconstructive challenge. The Wolfe double-arch tip rhinoplasty technique was compared with a cartilage release and tip grafting technique to determine the optimal modality for tip projection and columella lengthening. Patients with significant bilateral cleft nasal deformities and previous bilateral cleft lip repairs were divided into two groups (n = 22). Group 1 (double-arch) patients underwent an open rhinoplasty using conchal cartilage grafts to create a columellar strut and new lower lateral arches placed over the existing arches (n = 12). In group 2 (release and tip graft), the lower lateral cartilages were released, and nasal tip grafting was performed (n = 10). Preoperative and 6-month postoperative measurements, including (1) columellar length, (2) alar base-nasal tip-columellar base (ATC) angle, and (3) lateral tip projection, were compared. The lateral tip projection is the perpendicular distance between the nasal tip and a line created from the connection of points at the nasion to the subnasale. In group 1 (double arch), the mean columella length increased 47.2%, whereas in group 2 (release and tip graft), it only increased 14.1%. The ATC angle had a mean decrease or narrowing of 26.7 degrees in group 1, compared with a 12.5 degrees decrease in group 2. Lateral tip projection improvement was greater in group 1 (52.2% increase) compared with group 2 (19.9% increase). The authors' data showed that for the difficult bilateral cleft nasal deformity with significant tip flattening, the double-arch tip rhinoplasty provides improved nasal tip projection.
    The anchor of the nasal ala in cleft lip-nose patients: a morphological description and a new surgical approach. Morselli P G The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this article is to describe a morphological condition that is readily seen in both primary and secondary deformed noses of cleft patients and to present a new surgical technique to correct this specific deformity that afflicts the alar dome. This anomaly resembles a taut cord-like tissue that runs vertically from the pyriform aperture and is anchored onto the alar cartilage, thus impeding the cartilage's normal growth process. This new surgical technique releases the anchor and corrects the deformity of the nasal rim by using a triangular flap V-Y advancement technique. RESULTS:From 1994 to 1997, 88 cleft lip-nose cases were operated on by the author using the triangular flap V-Y advancement technique for releasing the anchor. Forty-two cases were primary repairs and 46 were secondary repairs. CONCLUSIONS:By studying the normal and pathological anatomy of the nose and its proportions, the surgeon can obtain ideas for new surgical corrective techniques that can be used to restore anatomical balance and harmony between the nose and the face. Only in the last 15 to 20 years has the plastic surgeon begun to be interested in primary rhinoplasty in cleft lip-nose patients. Within this time, many different techniques have been proposed. All primary and secondary cases that have undergone this specific technique for release of the anchor have shown good results for restoring the height of the alar dome's affected side to that of the noninvolved side, thus establishing a more anatomically balanced nose. 10.1597/1545-1569_2000_037_0130_taotna_2.3.co_2
    Three-dimensional Z-plasty in the correction of the unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity. Han S,Choi M S The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association OBJECTIVE:Numerous methods have been introduced for correction of the cleft lip nasal deformities, but no single procedure has given sufficiently satisfactory results to provide a surgical standard. Much effort has been put on restoring cartilaginous structures using alar cartilage modification and suspension. But even after the cartilage framework is repositioned well, redundant alar webbing is still unsightly and frequently conspicuous. This paper presents a procedure combining the usual open rhinoplasty technique and three-dimensional Z-plasty in an external approach to remove the alar web and to lengthen the columella at the same time. METHODS:Open rhinoplasty was performed in 26 consecutive patients with unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity from 1991 to 1996. We used an open rhinoplasty approach, which is a combination of the usual infracartilaginous incision on the noncleft side and a small triangular flap on the cleft side. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:This external rhinoplasty incision can provide a wide surgical field for the handling of the whole cartilage framework. The three-dimensional Z-plasty utilizing redundant alar skin not only removes the alar web but also helps lengthen the columella and provides soft tissue to the nasal vestibule. This technique is easy, and the postoperative result is very consistent. Our open rhinoplasty approach has several advantages and can be a useful approach in the correction of the unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity. 10.1597/1545-1569_2001_038_0264_tdzpit_2.0.co_2
    Three-dimensional computed tomographic analysis of the primary nasal deformity in 3-month-old infants with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Fisher D M,Lo L J,Chen Y R,Noordhoff M S Plastic and reconstructive surgery The purpose of this study was to analyze the geometry of the primary cleft lip nasal deformity using three-dimensional computerized tomography in a group of 3-month-old infants with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate before surgical intervention. Coordinates and axes were reconfigured after the three-dimensional image was oriented into neutral position (Frankfurt horizontal, true anteroposterior, and vertical midline). Display and measurement of skin surface and osseous tissues were achieved by adjusting the computed tomographic thresholds. S-N, N-ANS, S-N-O, and S-N-ANS were measured from true lateral views. Biorbital (LO-LO), interorbital (MO-MO), intercanthal (en-en), and nasal (al-al) widths were measured from the anteroposterior view. The bony alveolar cleft width was measured from the inferior view. The study group was divided into two groups on the basis of skeletal alveolar cleft width: six patients with clefts narrower than 10 mm and six patients with clefts wider than 10 mm. Only the S-N-ANS angle differed between the two groups, i.e., it was greater in the group with the wider clefts (p < 0.05). Coordinates of six landmarks at the base of the nose [sellion (se), subnasale (sn), cleft-side and noncleft-side subalare (sbal-cl and sbal-ncl), and the most posterior point on the lateral piriform margins (PPA-CL and PPA-NCL)] were obtained for analysis of the nasal deformity. On average, the subnasale point was anterior to sellion and deviated to the noncleft side; the cleft-side sbal point was more medial, posterior, and inferior than the noncleft-side sbal point; and the PPA point on the cleft-side piriform margin was more lateral, posterior, and inferior than the PPA point on the noncleft side. These discrepancies were not universally observed. However, in all patients, four findings were observed without exception (p < 0.01): (1) subnasale (sn) was deviated to the noncleft side (mean distance from midline, 5.0 mm; range, 2 to 9.5 mm), (2) the cleft-side alar base (sbal-cl) was more posterior than the noncleft-side alar base (sbal-ncl) (mean difference, 3.6 mm; range, 1 to 5.5 mm), (3) the noncleft-side alar base (sbal-ncl) was further from the midline than the cleft-side alar base (sbal-cl) (mean difference in lateral distances of sbal-ncl and sbal-cl from the midline, 2.8 mm; range, 0.5 to 7 mm), and (4) the cleft-side piriform margin (PPA-CL) was more posterior than the noncleft side piriform margin (PPA-NCL) (mean difference, 2.1 mm; range, 0.5 to 4 mm). In conclusion, the nasal deformity in unilateral cleft lip and palate that has not been operated on is characterized by these four features and increased S-N-ANS angle with increased alveolar cleft width. 10.1097/00006534-199906000-00003
    Analysis of nasal and labial deformities in cleft lip, alveolus and palate patients by a new rating scale: preliminary report. Anastassov Y,Chipkov C Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery INTRODUCTION:In this study the nasal deformities in patients with cleft lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) were analysed and the relevant role of the perinasal-perioral muscular balance, and the inborn dislocation of the alar cartilages is presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS:50 CLAP patients were analysed in whom 29 primary cheiloplasties, 12 lip revisions and 9 rhinoplasties were performed. The lip repair was done by a modification of Millard's technique, the nose by either a closed or open-sky rhinoplasty. The severity of the cleft appearance was evaluated pre- and postoperatively, according to a pre-agreed visual rating scale. There were 4 degrees of severity of the deformity preoperatively (mild, moderate, severe and very severe), and postoperatively 5 categories of outcome (excellent, very good, good, satisfactory and poor) depending on the scores obtained by summing up the points corresponding to different types of deformity. This scale is closely related to the American Cleft Palate classification of clefts. RESULTS:17 excellent, 4 very good, 2 good, 5 satisfactory and 1 poor result were obtained in the group of primary cheiloplasty. Eight excellent, 4 very good results were obtained by the lip revisions. Seven excellent and 2 satisfactory results were obtained following rhinoplasty. CONCLUSIONS:During the primary lip repair, it is important to correct the abnormal position of ala nasi, the nasal floor and the base of the columella. When correct insertion of m. transversus nasi to the nasal spine is achieved and a good repair of m. orbicularis oris, symmetry of the alae and normal growth of lip and columella was obtained even in most severe bilateral cases. In cases of diastasis of the orbicularis and transversus nasi muscles, in combination with other soft tissue deformities or scars, a secondary musculo-periosteal revision is recommended. The defect of the soft tissue triangle of the nose is best corrected via an open rhinoplasty. 10.1016/s1010-5182(03)00054-4
    Patient evaluation of outcomes of external rhinoplasty for unilateral cleft lip and palate. Sàndor G K B,Ylikontiola L P International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery Thirty-five patients (range 16-59 years) with cleft-lip nasal deformity treated by external rhinoplasty were evaluated for satisfaction and perception of outcomes. Treatment involved alar base relocation and augmentation of the asymmetric nasal tip with auricular cartilage grafts. The patients completed a satisfaction survey and interview at the 2-year follow-up visit. A visual analogue scale (VAS) numbered 0-10 was also used by the patients to grade outcome compared to preoperative appearance at 4 anatomic sites. Prior to surgery, the nasal tip was perceived as being most deformed (15/35), followed by alar position (12/35) and nasal apertures (8/35). The site on the nose most improved by surgery was the tip (15), followed by alar position (10), symmetry of nostrils (6) and dorsum (4). The highest VAS score was for the tip (8.32), followed by alar position (7.59), dorsum (7.41) and symmetry of nostrils (6.73). No patients suffered long-term pain for more than 2 months following surgery. All patients were prepared to undergo such procedure for a second time, if necessary. The unilateral cleft-lip nasal deformity can be improved in the eyes of the patient, using the combination of external rhinoplasty with alar base relocation, where necessary, and auricular cartilage augmentation of the nasal tip. 10.1016/j.ijom.2006.01.020
    Measurement and evaluation of the alar base in unilateral secondary lip nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography. Wu Yilai,Yang Yusheng,Chen Yang,Zhang Yong,Wang Guomin The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Objective : This study aimed to analyze the asymmetry of the pyriform aperture and alar base in patients with unilateral secondary nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Methods : 3D-CT images of the subject group of 101 adult patients and of a control group of 65 normal adults were examined. Sixty-nine patients without alveolar bone grafting (ABG) were classified as Group A, and 32 patients with ABG were classified as Group B. Seven landmarks (INM, LPA, IPA, Gbase, Gsup, Glat, and Sbal) were measured for both the subject and control groups, and comparative analyses were done to assess the degree of asymmetry in the subject group. Results : For over 95% of Group A and 80% to 85% of Group B, the index of LPA and IPA showed asymmetry or marked asymmetry. The index of Gbase, Glat, Gsup, and Sbal showed symmetry for around 50% of Group A and about 60% of Group B. In Group A, dorsal, lateral, and caudal translocation was found on the cleft side in LPA and IPA, while all soft landmarks showed dorsal translocation. In Group B, caudal translocation was found in both LPA and IPA, but only LPA appeared dorsal on the cleft side, while Glat showed dorsal and caudal translocation. Conclusion : The results indicated that the degree of asymmetry of hard tissue landmarks far exceeded that of the soft tissue landmarks, and the degree of asymmetry of pyriform aperture was higher than expected for patients after ABG. 10.1597/11-144.1
    Clinical Practice Patterns and Evidence-Based Medicine in Secondary Cleft Rhinoplasty: A 14-Year Review of Maintenance of Certification Tracer Data From the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Rokni Alex M,Kearney Aaron M,Brandt Keith E,Gosain Arun K The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association OBJECTIVE:To evaluate evolving practice patterns in secondary cleft rhinoplasty. DESIGN:Retrospective review of data submitted during Maintenance of Certification (MOC). SETTING:Evaluation of MOC data from the American Board of Plastic Surgery. PARTICIPANTS:Tracer data for secondary cleft rhinoplasty were reviewed from August 2006 through March 2020, and the data subdivided from 20062012 and 20132020 to evaluate changes in practice patterns. INTERVENTIONS:Practice patterns in tracer data were compared to those from evidence-based medicine (EBM) literature over this time period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Practice patterns were compared to EBM trends during the study period. RESULTS:A total of 90 cases of secondary cleft rhinoplasty were identified. The average age at operation was 13 years (range 4-77). Cumulative data demonstrated 61% to present with nasal airway obstruction and 21% to have undergone primary nasal correction at the time of cleft lip repair; 72% of patients experienced no complications, with the most common complications being asymmetry (10%) and vertical asymmetry of alar dome position (6%). Cartilage graft was used in 68% of cases, with 32% employing septal cartilage. Change in practice patterns between 2006 to 2012 and 2013 to 2020 demonstrated increase in dorsal nasal surgery (26% vs 43%, = .034), use of osteotomies (14% vs 38%, = .010), septal resection and/or straightening (26% vs 48%, = .034), and turbinate reduction (8% vs 30%, = .007). CONCLUSIONS:These tracer data provide long-term data by which to evaluate evolving practice patterns for secondary cleft rhinoplasty. When evaluated relative to EBM literature, future research to further improve outcomes can be better directed. 10.1177/1055665620977367
    Nasal tip surgery for cleft nose in Asians. Sakamoto Yoshiaki,Miyamoto Junpei,Tamada Ikkei,Kishi Kazuo The Journal of craniofacial surgery "Collapsed nasal tip," one of the most characteristic features of cleft lip nose, resembles the effect of pushing the nose tip with a finger and is especially noticeable among Asians. The authors examined a rhinoplasty technique for improving collapsed nasal tip. Using an intercartilaginous incision, the distal nasal framework, including the alar cartilages, and the caudal septum were widely exposed. A septal extension graft was fixed to the caudal septum, and the alar cartilages were precisely sutured to the extension graft using markings transferred to the extension graft. This procedure was applied to 15 Asian rhinoplasties, with all patients having substantial improvement in the shape of their nasal tip. Comparing those with and without a history of rhinoplasty, effecting a projection of the nasal tip was more difficult in patients with a history of previous rhinoplasties. The advantages of this technique include inconspicuous scarring and versatility in the modification of the nasal tip. Rhinoplasty during the growth period should be planned with consideration of future augmentation rhinoplasties. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000001112
    The Microsurgical Approach in Primary Cleft Rhinoplasty-An Anthropometric Analysis. Bschorer Frizzi,Schneider Daniel,Schön Gerhard,Heiland Max,Bschorer Reinhard Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons PURPOSE:Oral and maxillofacial surgeons use different approaches to repair the nasal deformity of patients with a cleft lip deformity, differing in technique and timing. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze a new surgical technique to treat the cleft nasal deformity at 4 to 6 weeks of life using a microscope. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-seven newborn patients with a cleft lip deformity were treated by primary repair of the nasal deformity using a microscope at 4 to 6 weeks of life. The procedure includes a columellar incision, alar cartilage plication sutures according to Daniel (Plast Reconstr Surg 103:1491, 1999), and trans-columellar sutures. All patients were photographed at specific time points up to 1 year after surgery. Established angles and distances were analyzed and compared with normal values of age-matched children by Farkas (Anthropometry of the Head and Face [ed 2]. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1994). RESULTS:All parameters improved through surgery and showed stable values at follow-up assessments. Almost ideal values concerning symmetry, as indicated by columellar deviation and nostril comparison, were obtained. Measurements of nasal morphology were similar to established norm values. CONCLUSION:The authors recommend the early treatment of cleft nasal deformity using microscopic surgery because it shows stable and symmetrical results at least up to 1 year after surgery. Clinical observations up to adolescence suggest no growth disturbance or deterioration of nasal shape. 10.1016/j.joms.2018.03.018
    Primary simultaneous lip and nose repair in the unilateral cleft lip and palate. Anderl Hans,Hussl Heribert,Ninkovic Milomir Plastic and reconstructive surgery BACKGROUND:"Do not touch the nose in primary repair of the unilateral cleft lip and palate!" In the past, this dogmatic attitude caused functional and aesthetic (psychological) problems for the child until secondary corrections during adolescence were performed. In the 1950s, surgeons started to correct at least a few features of the nasal deformity and to develop radically corrective measures. Since 1970, a new and very comprehensive concept of correction has been used at the authors' department of plastic and reconstructive surgery. METHODS:Methods of primary nasal repair by various surgeons are presented chronologically. The main features of the authors' strategy are special incision lines, extensive mobilization of all dislocated structures, straightening of the deviated septum, correction of the deformed ala and nasal tip, induction of bone growth in hypoplastic areas under the alar base and along the piriform aperture, and a special suture technique of the orbicularis muscle to form a better philtrum. RESULTS:Improvement of the aesthetic and functional results can be achieved with this type of nasal repair. Since 1970, approximately 500 patients have been operated on with this method at the authors' hospital and elsewhere, with 80 percent showing satisfactory results and 20 percent revealing deficiencies. Severe nasal deformities, which were common when no primary repair was applied, were not observed. This observation period provides evidence that no growth retardation occurs. CONCLUSIONS:Because of the good results of this method and the lack of growth retardation, this approach is to be recommended. It also benefits children in underdeveloped countries, where frequent surgery is not possible. 10.1097/01.prs.0000299942.84302.16
    Does the Nostril Shape Change After Le Fort I Advancement in Patients With Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip? Ganske Ingrid M,Tan Robin A,Langa Olivia C,Calabrese Carly E,Padwa Bonnie L Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons PURPOSE:Patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) may require Le Fort I advancement to correct maxillary hypoplasia after reaching skeletal maturity. The underlying cleft anatomy, previous operations, and scarring can affect nostril changes after maxillary advancement. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether Le Fort I advancement affects the nostril configuration (ie, width, axis, shape) in patients with UCLP. The specific aims were to (1) compare cleft and noncleft nostrils in patients with UCLP after maxillary advancement and (2) compare the changes in nostril configuration in patients with UCLP with those in noncleft controls after Le Fort advancement. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A retrospective case-control study of nonsyndromic, skeletally mature patients with UCLP and a case-matched control group without UCLP who had undergone single-piece Le Fort I advancement with alar cinch suture from 2010 to 2014. Patients were included if they had undergone pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry without intervening nasal revision. Three-dimensional anthropometry was used to evaluate changes in nostril axis and width, soft triangle angle, columellar show, and nasal width after orthognathic correction. RESULTS:The present study included 19 patients with UCLP (11 males; mean age, 18.0 years) and 19 noncleft controls (11 males; mean age, 18.7 years; P = .276). The mean sagittal advancement in the patients with UCLP and noncleft controls was 7.5 mm and 6.3 mm, respectively (P = .143). On average, the nostrils widened, the soft triangles flattened, and the columellar show increased. No significant difference was found in the changes to the nostril configuration between the cleft and noncleft sides in the patients with UCLP. No significant differences were found in the nostril changes between patients with UCLP and noncleft controls. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline nostril asymmetry is not altered by Le Fort osteotomy in patients with UCLP because both nostrils respond similarly to the deforming forces of maxillary advancement. Similarly, no differences were found in the nostril changes between the cleft and noncleft controls. These findings can aid proper surgical planning for cleft nasal revisions. 10.1016/j.joms.2020.01.010
    Morphological Correlations in Nasolabial Formation After Primary Lip Repair for Unilateral Cleft Lip. Yamanishi Tadashi,Kondo Takahide,Kirikoshi Shoko,Otsuki Koichi,Uematsu Setsuko,Nishio Juntaro Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons PURPOSE:We aim to reveal postoperative morphological correlations between the nasolabial components in patients with unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The hypothetical correlations are first, a correlation between the vertical height of the cleft-side alar base and the length of the cleft-side red lip, and second, a correlation between the length of the cleft-side red lip and the vertical position of the cleft-side oral commissure. We explain how these morphological balances are controlled by surgery. METHODS:Three-dimensional bilateral measurements of the length of the red lip, vertical height of the nasal alar base, and vertical height of the oral commissure were conducted retrospectively on 31 patients with UCL and palate (complete UCL: 26; incomplete UCL: 5) who underwent primary lip plasty at Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital from 2017 to 2019. RESULTS:We found a statistically significant correlation between the vertical height of the cleft-side alar base and cleft-side red lip length (P = .012, r = 0.45); thus, the longer the red lip, the lower was the nasal alar base. The correlation between the cleft-side red lip length and the vertical height of the cleft-side oral commissure also showed a statistical significance (P = .00074, r = 0.57); thus, the shorter the red lip, the higher was the oral commissure. CONCLUSIONS:The present results provided objective evidence showing basic morphological relationships between the postoperative nasolabial features of patients with UCL. The results lead to a reasonable approach to define the proposed peak of the Cupid's bow, an unsettled major controversy in cleft lip surgery. 10.1016/j.joms.2021.05.019
    Evaluation of cleft lip bony depression of piriform margin and nasal deformity with cone beam computed tomography: "retruded-like" appearance and anteroposterior position of the alar base. Miyamoto Junpei,Nagasao Tomohisa,Nakajima Tatsuo,Ogata Hisao Plastic and reconstructive surgery BACKGROUND:As the nasal platform, the piriform margin is considered the most important nasal structure. An insufficient bony structure has been suggested to be the major factor in secondary nasal deformities such as the "depressed alar base." It is unclear, however, how the piriform margin is depressed or how bony depression influences nasal shape. METHODS:Using cone beam computed tomography, the anteroposterior positions of the cleft-side piriform margin and alar base were compared with those of the noncleft side in 52 postoperative unilateral cleft lip patients with no alveolar bone graft. Patients were divided based on cleft type into either the unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate group or the unilateral cleft lip and alveolus group. RESULTS:In all cases, the cleft-side piriform margin was depressed. The anteroposterior position of the alar base was related to the piriform depression in both groups. However, in contrast with bony depression, the cleft-side alar base was located more anteriorly than the non-cleft-side alar base in 35 of 52 patients. CONCLUSIONS:The authors' study suggests that bony depression does not necessarily lead to postoperative alar depression. The postoperative cleft lip alar position can be maintained independently of the collapsed lesser segment of the maxilla. In addition, in many cleft lip newborns the cleft alar crease is hypoplastic, and the paranasal triangle is easily elevated by operative manipulation because of the muscular dysfunction. This shallowness leads to a "retruded" appearance. For improvement, preservation of the paranasal triangle and alar crease plasty are important. 10.1097/01.prs.0000267421.69284.c7
    110 infants with unrepaired unilateral cleft lip: An anthropometric analysis of the lip and nasal deformities. He Xing,Shi Bing,Jiang Shao,Li Sheng,Zheng Qian,Yan Wang International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery The aim of this retrospective study was to correlate the width of the cleft lip with the severity of the nasal deformity in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients before primary lip repair. Preoperative impression casts were made. Measurements were taken of the width of the cleft lip (CW), nose (NW), and nasal floor (NFW), alar base height (ABH), columella length (CL), nasal length (NL) and nasal tip protrusion (NTP). The ratio of the non-cleft side (NFW) to the cleft side (NFWR), the ratio of the non-cleft side (ABH) to the cleft side (ABHR), and the ratio of the cleft side (CL) to the non-cleft side (CLR) were calculated. The average NW, NL and CW were higher in the group with complete clefts. There was a negative linear relationship between CW and NFWR, and a positive linear relationship between CW and ABHR in the complete group. In the incomplete group, negative correlations were obtained between CW and NFWR and between CW and ABHR. These findings show that there are correlations between CW and the transverse and vertical imbalance of nose in both groups but not between CW and anteroposterior imbalance of nose. 10.1016/j.ijom.2010.04.007
    Difference in nasolabial features between awake and asleep infants with unilateral cleft lip: Anthropometric measurements using three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry. Morioka Daichi,Sato Nobuhiro,Kusano Taro,Muramatsu Hideyuki,Tosa Yasuyoshi,Ohkubo Fumio,Yoshimoto Shinya Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery PURPOSE:Cleft lip repair is performed in the supine position, tilting the head back under general anesthesia. However, postoperative results are evaluated in the upright position while patients are awake. The purpose of this study was to anthropometrically assess whether nasolabial features of infants with unilateral cleft lip are influenced by posture and anesthesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Three-dimensional facial images in a preoperative upright position and operating supine position under general anesthesia were captured from 51 consecutive infants with unilateral cleft lip. Twenty-four indirect anthropometric measurements (11 for the nose and 13 for the lip elements) were considered on each infant. RESULTS:In the supine position under general anesthesia, alar surface distance was significantly shorter (p < 0.001). Regarding lip measurements, medial lip height of the cleft side and philtrum height were significantly smaller (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively), whereas vermilion height was greater (p < 0.01). In addition, the cleft width and lip width were significantly broader (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) after general anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS:Several nasolabial alteration patterns are found after general anesthesia that are presumably attributable to cessation of nasal breathing and the action of muscle relaxation. Surgeons should take these nasolabial changes into account during preoperative planning and postoperative assessment. 10.1016/j.jcms.2015.09.002
    Three-dimensional analyses of nasal forms after secondary treatment of bilateral cleft lip-nose deformity in comparison to those of healthy young adults. Nakamura Norifumi,Okawachi Takako,Nozoe Etsuro,Nishihara Kazuhide,Matsunaga Kazuhide Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons PURPOSE:To 3-dimensionally analyze outcomes after the secondary treatment of bilateral cleft lip-nose deformity at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Hospital, Kagoshima, Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Ten Japanese male young adults with bilateral cleft lip with or without palate (BCL±P) who had undergone definitive nose correction and were followed up for 1 to 4 years were enrolled in this study. Ten unaffected race- and gender-matched young adults were used as controls. All patients underwent secondary correction of the nose by open rhinoplasty through a bilateral reverse-U incision, columellar strut graft, and medial-upward advancement of the nasolabial components with vestibular expansion by use of a free mucosal graft. In 3 patients with an extremely short columella, an inferiorly based small pedicle flap from rim skin rotated into the columellar base was added for columella lengthening. Nasal forms were periodically measured by use of a 3-dimensional noncontact laser scanner. The angular and linear measurements and the curvature of the alar groove arch were compared between patients and control subjects. RESULTS:Comparison of the preoperative and postoperative nasal forms showed significant improvements in the nasal dorsum and tip angles, as well as nasal height. The size of the nasal alar grooves was also increased to the same size range as the control subjects. There were persistent differences between postoperative columellar angle and nasal width in patients and those in the control subjects. CONCLUSIONS:Our surgical procedures can provide an acceptably protruded nasal form for patients with BCL±P without damaging the upper lip tissue, but further improvement to prevent nasal tip overprojection may be useful. 10.1016/j.joms.2011.03.041
    Surgical technique for secondary correction of unilateral cleft lip-nose deformity: clinical and 3-dimensional observations of preoperative and postoperative nasal forms. Nakamura Norifumi,Okawachi Takako,Nishihara Kazuhide,Hirahara Narihiro,Nozoe Etsuro Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons PURPOSE:Despite recent developments in cleft surgery, a surgical method for secondary correction of unilateral cleft lip-nose deformity has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to describe the surgical techniques for secondary correction of unilateral cleft lip-nose deformity with 3-dimensional (3D) observations of preoperative and postoperative nasal forms. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Secondary corrections of unilateral cleft lip-nose deformity were performed on 13 patients with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, and these patients were followed up for 1 year to more than 3 years. All patients were treated by open rhinoplasty through a bilateral reverse-U incision and transcolumellar incision, correction of the columella base with/without septoplasty, nasal tip cartilage graft, and medial-upward advancement of nasolabial components with vestibular expansion by free mucosal graft. Preoperative and postoperative nasal forms were observed by use of photos and 3D data obtained serially. RESULTS:The postoperative nasal forms were improved in all patients. The preoperative 3D color images indicated asymmetry of the alar groove and nasal tip visually. The top of the alar groove on the cleft side was dislocated distally and downwardly, resulting in a small snub ala. The postoperative 3D color images showed symmetric nasal forms with the adequately recovered nasal tip projection and the appropriate circle of the nasal ala groove on the cleft side. There were no serious postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS:Repositioning of the nasalis muscle and sufficient expansion of the nasal vestibule as well as reconstruction of nasal cartilages are important for correction of unilateral cleft lip-nose deformity. 10.1016/j.joms.2009.06.012
    Assessment of facial asymmetry before and after the surgical repair of cleft lip in unilateral cleft lip and palate cases. Al-Rudainy D,Ju X,Mehendale F,Ayoub A International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery This study was performed to assess facial asymmetry in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) before and after primary lip repair. Three-dimensional facial images of 30 UCLP cases (mean age 3.7±0.8months) captured 1-2days before surgery and 4 months after surgery using stereophotogrammetry were analysed. A generic mesh - a mathematical facial mask consisting of thousands of points (vertices) - was conformed on the three-dimensional images. Average preoperative and postoperative conformed facial meshes were obtained and mirrored by reflecting on the lateral plane. Facial asymmetry was assessed by measuring the distances between the corresponding vertices of the superimposed facial meshes. Asymmetries were further examined in three directions: horizontal, vertical, and anteroposterior. Preoperatively, the philtrum and bridge of the nose were deviated towards the non-cleft side. The maximum vertical asymmetry was at the upper lip. The greatest anteroposterior asymmetry was at the alar base and in the paranasal area. The overall facial asymmetry improved markedly after surgery. Residual anteroposterior asymmetry was noted at the alar base, upper lip, and cheek on the cleft slide. In conclusion, dense correspondence analysis provided an insight into the anatomical reasons for the residual dysmorphology following the surgical repair of cleft lip for future surgical consideration. 10.1016/j.ijom.2017.08.007
    The Effects of Secondary Cleft Procedures on Alar Base Position and Nostril Morphology in Patients with Unilateral Clefts. Power Stephanie M,Matic Damir B The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association OBJECTIVE:To compare effects of secondary cleft procedures on alar base position and nostril morphology. DESIGN:Retrospective review. SETTING:Multidisciplinary cleft clinic at tertiary center. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS:Seventy consecutive patients with unilateral clefts were grouped according to secondary procedure. INTERVENTIONS:Alveolar bone graft versus total lip takedown with anatomic muscle repair versus single-stage total lip with cleft septorhinoplasty (nose-lip) versus rhinoplasty alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Anthropometric measurements were recorded from pre- and postoperative photographs. Ratios of cleft to noncleft side were compared within and across groups pre- and postoperatively using parametric and nonparametric tests. RESULTS:Within the bone graft group, no differences were seen postoperatively in alar base position in long-term follow-up. The total lip group demonstrated greater symmetry at the alar base (P < .001), increased vertical lip dimension (P < .001), and decreased nostril height (P = .004) postoperatively. Within the nose-lip group, increased vertical dimension and alar base support (P < .001) were also seen postoperatively. Across groups, the single-stage nose-lip group demonstrated greatest alar base symmetry on worm's-eye view (P < .04). CONCLUSIONS:Alar base asymmetry in patients with unilateral clefts may be related to soft tissue deficiency and was not affected by alveolar bone grafting. Total lip takedown with anatomic muscle reapproximation was associated with increased alar base symmetry and vertical lip dimension on cleft to noncleft side. Greatest symmetry at the alar base was seen following single-stage nose-lip reconstruction, which may be an effective technique for correcting the secondary cleft lip nasal deformity. 10.1597/15-158
    Nostril suspension and lip adhesion improve nasal symmetry in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Wakami S,Fujikawa H,Ozawa T,Harada T,Ishii M Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS BACKGROUND:There is a difference between complete and incomplete cleft lip with regard to the nasal shape. Severe nasal deformity is found in almost all cases of complete cleft lip. This problem has been approached by preoperative nasoalveolar moulding, primary nasal correction and the use of a nostril retainer. We corrected the nasal deformity associated with complete cleft lip by using the combination of a nostril suspender and lip adhesion before cleft lip repair. The present article outlines this treatment strategy and assesses the effects of our treatment on nasal deformity. METHODS:Fourteen patients with complete cleft lip and palate were assigned to two groups for retrospective analysis: group A comprised seven patients, who underwent cleft lip repair after a combination of nostril suspension and lip adhesion, while group B had seven patients, who received cleft lip repair alone. In group A, a nostril suspender was fabricated and fitted to each patient at the initial visit, while lip adhesion was done at 1 month of life. At 1 year postoperatively, four parameters (nostril symmetry, alar cartilage slump, alar base level and columellar tilt) were scored on a scale of 1-4 to compare nasal shape between the two groups. RESULTS:With respect to nostril symmetry, alar cartilage slump and columellar tilt, group A showed less deformity compared with group B and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:The use of a nostril suspender and lip adhesion can achieve dynamic correction of the nasal deformity associated with complete cleft lip. 10.1016/j.bjps.2010.04.010
    Anthropometric analysis of the maxillary bone and the alar base in unilateral cleft lip with secondary nasal deformity: classification of a piriform margin bony depression. Zhang Lei,Lu Li,Li Zeng-Jian,Liu Qiang,Yang Ming-Liang,Wang Xu-Kai,Bai Xiao-Feng The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association OBJECTIVES:This study was conducted to measure the soft tissue of the alar base and the piriform aperture area of the maxillary bone of unilateral cleft lips with secondary nasal deformities when secondary operation are necessary to classify the alar base depression and to provide a clinical reference for the second surgery. METHODS:Twenty-six patients with unilateral cleft lip with secondary nasal deformity were treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medial University. Nose data were attained preoperatively and postoperatively. Correlations were made between the soft tissue and the bony depression and patient satisfaction with the nasi basis. Classifications were then made based on these data. RESULTS:When the distance discrepancy of the bilateral piriform aperture depression was less than 4.5 mm, we obtained a fine appearance for the nose by repairing only the soft tissues. When it was more than 5 mm, we had to combine repair of the soft tissue with a bone graft or the restitution of the alveolar cleft. When the distance was between 4.5 mm and 5 mm, the surgeon considered both the wishes of the patient and the clinic's standard procedure. CONCLUSIONS:For patients with cleft lips and palates, the bony depression was not the only factor that resulted in postoperative alar depression. Anthropometry of the nose prior to surgery was important for choosing the methods that would yield satisfactory results. 10.1597/11-205
    A 12-year anthropometric evaluation of the nose in bilateral cleft lip-cleft palate patients following nasoalveolar molding and cutting bilateral cleft lip and nose reconstruction. Garfinkle Judah S,King Timothy W,Grayson Barry H,Brecht Lawrence E,Cutting Court B Plastic and reconstructive surgery BACKGROUND:Patients with bilateral cleft lip-cleft palate have nasal deformities including reduced nasal tip projection, widened ala base, and a deficient or absent columella. The authors compare the nasal morphology of patients treated with presurgical nasoalveolar molding followed by primary lip/nasal reconstruction with age-matched noncleft controls. METHODS:A longitudinal, retrospective review of 77 nonsyndromic patients with bilateral cleft lip-cleft palate was performed. Nasal tip protrusion, alar base width, alar width, columella length, and columella width were measured at five time points spanning 12.5 years. A one-sample t test was used for statistical comparison to an age-matched noncleft population published by Farkas. RESULTS:All five measurements demonstrated parallel, proportional growth in the treatment group relative to the noncleft group. The nasal tip protrusion, alar base width, alar width, columella length, and columella width were not statistically different from those of the noncleft, age-matched control group at age 12.5 years. The nasal tip protrusion also showed no difference in length at 7 and 12.5 years. The alar width and alar base width were significantly wider at the first four time points. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to describe nasal morphology following nasoalveolar molding and primary surgical repair in patients with bilateral cleft lip-cleft palate through the age of 12.5 years. In this investigation, the authors have shown that patients with bilateral cleft lip-cleft palate treated at their institution with nasoalveolar molding and primary nasal reconstruction, performed at the time of their lip repair, attained nearly normal nasal morphology through 12.5 years of age. 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31820a64d7
    Computed Tomography-Assisted Auricular Cartilage Graft for Depression of the Alar Base in Secondary Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair: A Preliminary Report. Chen Hong,Chen Chun-Ye,Fang Qing-Qing,Zhang Min-Xia,Zhao Wan-Yi,Wang Xiao-Feng,Tan Wei-Qiang,Zhang Li-Yun The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of computed tomography-assisted auricular cartilage grafting for treating alar base depression secondary to unilateral cleft lip. DESIGN AND SETTING:For patients with obvious depression of the alar base, the difference in heights of the alar base and the piriform margin between the cleft side and the noncleft side were measured with computed tomography. If both were >3.0 mm, the cartilage was harvested postauricularly and subdivided into 2 to 4 pieces. A multiple layer graft was inserted under the depressed alar base. The procedure was performed from 2006 to 2013, and the follow-up period was 3 to 15 months. PARTICIPANTS:Chinese patients with alar base depression secondary to unilateral cleft lip were selected. INTERVENTION:Suture and cartilage graft techniques. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:Differences in bilateral alar base heights and piriform apertures. RESULTS:There was no wound dehiscence, exposure of bone, or donor site morbidity. The difference in heights in the bilateral alar bases and piriform apertures decreased. There were no obvious scars in any of the cases. CONCLUSIONS:This technique has several advantages including ease of operation, minimal trauma, satisfactory outcomes, and useful references for operation provided by computed tomography. It is a superior alternative for reconstruction of secondary alar depression. 10.1177/1055665618770306
    The Performance of Secondary Nasal Alar Base Revision for Unilateral Cleft Lip by Single YV-Plasty (the Importance of Overcorrection During Surgery). Matsuura Yoshitaka,Kishimoto Hideaki The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association Although primary surgery for cleft lip has improved over time, the degree of secondary cleft or nasal deformity reportedly varies from a minimum degree to a remarkable degree. Patients with cleft often worry about residual nose deformity, such as a displaced columella, a broad nasal floor, and a deviation of the alar base on the cleft side. Some of the factors that occur in association with secondary cleft or nasal deformity include a deviation of the anterior nasal spine, a deflected septum, a deficiency of the orbicularis muscle, and a lack of bone underlying the nose. Secondary cleft and nasal deformity can result from incomplete muscle repair at the primary cleft operation. Therefore, surgeons should manage patients individually and deal with various deformities by performing appropriate surgery on a case-by-case basis. In this report, we applied the simple method of single VY-plasty on the nasal floor to a patient with unilateral cleft to revise the alar base on the cleft side. We adopted this approach to achieve overcorrection on the cleft side during surgery, which helped maintain the appropriate position of the alar base and ultimately balanced the nose foramen at 13 months after the operation. It was also possible to complement the height of the nasal floor without a bone graft. We believe that this approach will prove useful for managing cases with a broad and low nasal floor, thereby enabling the reconstruction of a well-balanced nose. 10.1177/10556656211010609
    Long-Term Nasal Growth after Primary Rhinoplasty for Bilateral Cleft Lip Nose Deformity: A Three-Dimensional Photogrammetric Study with Comparative Analysis. Seo Hyung Joon,Denadai Rafael,Lo Lun-Jou Journal of clinical medicine Nasal deformity is associated with congenital cleft lip and palate. Primary rhinoplasty for reconstruction of the nasal deformity at the time of bilateral cleft lip repair is a controversial issue in cleft care due to traditional teaching concerning the potential impairment of nasal growth. This study assessed long-term nasal growth in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate who underwent primary rhinoplasty by a single surgeon between 1995 and 2002 and reached skeletal maturity ( = 39; mean: 19 ± 2 years). Normal age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched subjects ( = 52) were enrolled for comparative analyses. Three-dimensional nasal photogrammetric measurements (10 linear, 4 angular, 6 proportional, 1 surface area, and 1 volume parameter) were collected from patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate and normal subjects. Patients who underwent rhinoplasty presented with significantly (all < 0.05) smaller nasal tip projection and nasal tip angles, but greater values for nasal dorsum length, nasal protrusion, alar width, columellar height, dome height, columellar angle, labiocolumellar angle, nasal tip height ratio, nasal index, alar width/intercanthal distance ratio, and alar width/mouth width ratio compared to normal subjects. There were no differences (all > 0.05) in nasal height, tip/midline deviation, nasal dorsum angle, dome-to-columella ratio, columella height/alar width ratio, area surface, and volume parameters between the two groups. This study shows that primary rhinoplasty performed in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate during infancy does not result in deficiency of the nasal dimensions relative to controls. 10.3390/jcm8050602
    Unilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Primary Deformity and Longitudinal Changes following Primary Correction of the Nasal Foundation. Tse Raymond W,Knight Robert,Oestreich Makinna,Rosser Mica,Mercan Ezgi Plastic and reconstructive surgery BACKGROUND:Objective assessment of the unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity and the longitudinal changes with treatment is critical for optimizing cleft care. METHODS:Consecutive patients undergoing cleft lip repair and foundation-based rhinoplasty were included (n = 102). Three-dimensional images preoperatively, postoperatively, and at 5 years of age were assessed and compared to age-matched controls. Images were normalized to standard horizontal, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior axes. RESULTS:Cleft subalare was similar in position relative to controls but was 1.6 mm retrodisplaced. Subnasale was deviated 4.6 mm lateral to midline and had the greatest displacement of any landmark. Noncleft subalare was displaced 2.3 mm laterally. Regression analysis with deviation of subnasale from the midline as a dependent variable revealed progressive lateral displacement of noncleft subalare, narrowing of noncleft nostril, and intercanthal widening. Surgery corrected nasal base displacements along all axes, resulting in landmark positions similar to controls. Symmetry of nasal base correction persisted at 5-year follow-up, with no recurrent cleft alar base retrusion, regardless of initial cleft type. CONCLUSIONS:Unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity may be "driven" by displacement of the anterior nasal spine and caudal septum. The cleft alar base is normal in position but retruded, whereas the noncleft alar base is displaced laterally. Changes with surgery involve anterior movement of the cleft alar base but also include medial movement of the noncleft alar base and columella. Symmetry of correction, including alar base retrusion, was stable over time and did not rely on alveolar bone grafting. 10.1097/PRS.0000000000006389
    Beware of Optical Illusion of the Alar Base in Unilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity. Sakamoto Yoshiaki,Miyamoyo Junpei,Kishi Kazuo Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Background:It is generally accepted that the alar base on the cleft side in the cleft lip nose is displaced outward and downward; therefore, it is rotated inward and upward in almost all procedures for cleft lip closure. However, nostril narrowing and collapse of the lower lateral cartilage on the cleft side are sometimes experienced. In this retrospective study, we investigated whether the preoperative alar base on the cleft side is displaced outward and downward. Methods:This was a retrospective evaluation using preoperative frontal images obtained from patients with unilateral cleft lip (n = 245). The midcolumellar and subalare points were placed, and each ratio was analyzed and compared to those of age-matched controls (n = 40). Results:The subalare on the noncleft side and subnasale were displaced upward and outward. In contrast, the subalare on the cleft side was displaced downward and inward. The displacement of the subalare was greater on the noncleft than on the cleft side. There were no significant differences between male and female patients and between the left and right sides. Among the complete cleft lip and palate, incomplete cleft lip and palate, complete cleft lip and alveolus, incomplete cleft lip and alveolus, and microform cleft lip groups, the complete cleft lip and palate group showed the greatest displacement. Conclusion:The cleft alar base appeared to shift outward and downward because of an optical illusion, but in fact, both alar bases shifted; the alar base on the cleft side was displaced inward and downward, and the alar base on the noncleft side was displaced outward and upward. 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003523
    Postoperative alar base symmetry in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate:A prospective study. Vyloppilli Suresh,Krishnakumar K S,Sayd Shermil,Latheef Sameer,Narayanan Saju V,Pati Ajit Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS In the evolution of cleft lip repair, there have been continuous attempts to minimize local trauma and to improve lip and nasal appearances. In order to obtain an aesthetically balanced development of midface, the primary surgical correction of the nasolabial area is of paramount importance. In this study, the importance of a back-cut extending cephalically above the inferior turbinate at the mucocutaneous junction which elevates the nostril floor on the cleft side for the purpose of achieving symmetry of the alar bases are analyzed by pre and postoperative photographic anthropometry. This study comprised of fifty cases of the unilateral complete cleft lip. At the time of surgery, the patient age ranged from 3-9 months. The surgeries, performed by a single surgeon, employed the standard Millard technique, incorporating Mohler modifications of lip repair. Anthropometric analysis revealed that the preoperative mean difference between the normal side and the cleft side was 0.2056 with a standard deviation of 0.133. In the postoperative analysis, the mean difference was reduced to 0.0174 with a standard deviation of 0.141. The paired t-test showed that the p-value is <0.001, indicating high statistical significance. To conclude, in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, the geometrically placed nasal back-cut incision has a definite role in the correction of the alar base symmetry during primary surgery. 10.1016/j.bjps.2017.05.052
    The Effects of Alar Base Augmentation in Secondary Unilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity. Kim Yong Bae,Nam Seung Min,Park Eun Soo,Choi Chang Yong,Kang Moon Seok,Cha Han Gyu The Journal of craniofacial surgery ABSTRACT:In unilateral cleft lip and palate patients, the alar base is displaced inferoposterolaterally due to the depression of the pyriform aperture in the cleft side, and the drooping of the nostril rim is provoked by displacement of the alar base. This study was conducted between May 1998 and December 2012. In total, 82 patients with secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities were treated using alar base augmentation. The patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of their preoperative alar base asymmetry. Patients with alar base asymmetry <3 mm were treated with a soft tissue augmentation procedure. Those with alar base asymmetry >3 and <6 mm were treated with a bony augmentation procedure. Soft tissue augmentation was conducted in 42 patients, and bony augmentation was conducted in 40 patients. In the soft tissue augmentation group, the degree of alar base asymmetry was improved from 2.42 ± 0.38 mm preoperatively to 0.45 ± 0.21 mm postoperatively (P  < 0.05). In the bony augmentation group, the degree of alar base asymmetry was improved from 4.33 ± 0.50 mm preoperatively to 0.81 ± 0.20 mm postoperatively (P  < 0.05). In the amount of alar base augmentation, there were statistically significant differences between the soft tissue augmentation group and the bony augmentation group (P  < 0.05). This clinical study shows that secondary cleft lip nasal deformities can be corrected with alar base augmentation using soft tissue and bony augmentation and that these procedures can provide reliable, satisfactory, and safe clinical outcomes. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007238