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    The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP mediates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of PRMT5. Zhang Huan-Tian,Zeng Ling-Fei,He Qing-Yu,Tao W Andy,Zha Zhen-Gang,Hu Chang-Deng Biochimica et biophysica acta Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an important member of the protein arginine methyltransferase family that regulates many cellular processes through epigenetic control of target gene expression. Because of its overexpression in a number of human cancers and its essential role in cell proliferation, transformation, and cell cycle progression, PRMT5 has been recently proposed to function as an oncoprotein in cancer cells. However, how its expression is regulated in cancer cells remains largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the transcription of PRMT5 can be negatively regulated by the PKC/c-Fos signaling pathway through modulating the transcription factor NF-Y in prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that PRMT5 undergoes polyubiquitination, possibly through multiple lysine residues. We also identified carboxyl terminus of heat shock cognate 70-interacting protein (CHIP), an important chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that couples protein folding/refolding to protein degradation, as an interacting protein of PRMT5 via mass spectrometry. Their interaction was further verified by co-immuoprecipitation, GST pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. In addition, we provided evidence that the CHIP/chaperone system is essential for the negative regulation of PRMT5 expression via K48-linked ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Given that down-regulation of CHIP and overexpression of PRMT5 have been observed in several human cancers, our finding suggests that down-regulation of CHIP may be one of the mechanisms underlying PRMT5 overexpression in these cancers. 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.12.001
    UbcH5 Interacts with Substrates to Participate in Lysine Selection with the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP. Kanack Adam,Vittal Vinayak,Haver Holly,Keppel Theodore,Gundry Rebekah L,Klevit Rachel E,Scaglione Kenneth Matthew Biochemistry The E3 ubiquitin ligase C-terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein (CHIP) plays a critical role in regulating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of misfolded proteins. CHIP mediates the ubiquitination of the α-amino-terminus of substrates with the E2 Ube2w and facilitates the ubiquitination of lysine residues with the E2 UbcH5. While it is known that Ube2w directly interacts with the disordered regions at the N-terminus of its substrates, it is unclear how CHIP and UbcH5 mediate substrate lysine selection. Here, we have decoupled the contributions of the E2, UbcH5, and the E3, CHIP, in ubiquitin transfer. We show that UbcH5 selects substrate lysine residues independent of CHIP, and that CHIP participates in lysine selection by fine-tuning the subset of substrate lysines that are ubiquitinated. We also identify lysine 128 near the C-terminus of UbcH5 as a critical residue for the efficient ubiquitin transfer by UbcH5 in both the presence and absence of CHIP. Together, these data demonstrate an important role of the UbcH5/substrate interactions in mediating the efficient ubiquitin transfer by the CHIP/UbcH5 complex. 10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00084
    Chaperone functions of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. Rosser Meredith F N,Washburn Erin,Muchowski Paul J,Patterson Cam,Cyr Douglas M The Journal of biological chemistry The carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an Hsp70 co-chaperone as well as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that protects cells from proteotoxic stress. The abilities of CHIP to interact with Hsp70 and function as a ubiquitin ligase place CHIP at a pivotal position in the protein quality control system, where its entrance into Hsp70-substrate complexes partitions nonnative proteins toward degradation. However, the manner by which Hsp70 substrates are selected for ubiquitination by CHIP is not well understood. We discovered that CHIP possesses an intrinsic chaperone activity that enables it to selectively recognize and bind nonnative proteins. Interestingly, the chaperone function of CHIP is temperature-sensitive and is dramatically enhanced by heat stress. The ability of CHIP to recognize nonnative protein structure may aid in selection of slow folding or misfolded polypeptides for ubiquitination. 10.1074/jbc.M700513200
    Curcumin-induced degradation of ErbB2: A role for the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP and the Michael reaction acceptor activity of curcumin. Jung Yunjin,Xu Wanping,Kim Heejung,Ha Namchul,Neckers Len Biochimica et biophysica acta We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying curcumin depletion of ErbB2 protein. Curcumin induced ErbB2 ubiquitination but pretreatment with proteasome inhibitors neither prevented curcumin depletion of ErbB2 protein nor further accumulated ubiquitinated ErbB2. Curcumin increased association of endogenous and ectopically expressed CHIP, a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin ligase, with ErbB2. In COS7 cells cotransfected with ErbB2 and various CHIP plasmids followed by curcumin treatment, CHIP-H260Q (a mutant lacking ubiquitin ligase activity) promoted less curcumin-induced ErbB2 ubiquitination than did wild type CHIP, and CHIP-K30A (a mutant incapable of binding Hsp90 and Hsp70) neither associated with ErbB2 nor promoted its ubiquitination. ErbB2 mutants lacking the kinase domain failed to associate with CHIP and were completely resistant to ubiquitination and depletion induced by curcumin. Finally, curcumin's Michael reaction acceptor functionality was required for both covalent association of curcumin with ErbB2 and curcumin-mediated ErbB2 depletion. These data suggest (1) that CHIP-dependent ErbB2 ubiquitination is implicated in curcumin-stimulated ErbB2 depletion, and (2) that covalent modification of ErbB2 by curcumin is the proximal signal which initiates this process. 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2006.11.004
    CHIP involves in non-small cell lung cancer prognosis through VEGF pathway. Tingting Qian,Jiao Wang,Qingfeng Wang,Yancheng Liu,Shijun Y U,Zhaoqi Wang,Dongmei Sun,ShiLong Wang Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie AIM:CHIP (c-terminal Hsp70-interacting protein) is an E3 ligase playing vital roles in various cancers. The VEGF pathway has become an important therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known about the role of CHIP and the relationship between CHIP and VEGF-VEGFR2 (VEGF receptor 2) pathway in NSCLC. In this study we aimed to investigate the clinical function of CHIP in NSCLC and explore the relevant regulatory mechanism. METHODS:QRT-PCR was performed to detect CHIP expression in NSCLC tissues. The association of CHIP expression and clinical parameters was analyzed using the Chi-square test. Kaplan- Meier and Cox analyses were performed to identify the role of CHIP in the prognosis of NSCLC patients. ELISA test was used to detect the VEGF secretion of NSCLC cells and western blot were used to detected the protein expression of VEGFR2 in NSCLC cells. RESULTS:and the results revealed that CHIP expression was decreased in NSCLC tissues and significantly correlated with clinical stages, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis (P<0.05). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses showed that patients with negative expression of CHIP had a shorter survival time and CHIP could be an independent prognostic biomarker. In addition, ELISA tests showed that CHIP negatively regulated the secretion level of VEGF. Furthermore, western blot assay indicated that the VEGFR2 protein level was reduced after CHIP over-expression. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that CHIP may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker for NSCLC patients and it may be involved in NSCLC angiogenesis through regulating VEGF secretion and expression of VEGFR2. 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.06.015
    CHIP functions an E3 ubiquitin ligase of Runx1. Shang Yu,Zhao Xinghui,Xu Xialian,Xin Hong,Li Xueni,Zhai Yonggong,He Dacheng,Jia Baoqing,Chen Wei,Chang Zhijie Biochemical and biophysical research communications Runx1 is a key factor in the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Improper expression and mutations in Runx1 are frequently implicated in human leukemia. Here, we report that CHIP, the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein, also named Stub1, physically interacts with Runx1 through the TPR and Charged domains in the nucleus. Over-expression of CHIP directly induced Runx1 ubiquitination and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Interestingly, we found that CHIP-mediated degradation of Runx1 is independent of the molecular chaperone Hsp70/90. Taken together, we propose that CHIP serves as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates Runx1 protein stability via an ubiquitination and degradation mechanism that is independent of Hsp70/90. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.06.043
    The ubiquitin ligase CHIP regulates c-Myc stability and transcriptional activity. Paul I,Ahmed S F,Bhowmik A,Deb S,Ghosh M K Oncogene c-Myc is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor and its rapid turnover mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is critical for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis. Multiple ubiquitin ligases have been assigned for c-Myc regulation till date. However, the available data suggest for the possible existence of additional E3 ligase(s). Here, we report a new E3 ligase for c-Myc, the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein or CHIP, which is a chaperone-associated Ubox-containing E3 ligase. In this report, we show that CHIP interacts and ubiquitinates c-Myc, thus targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation. Overexpression of CHIP could accelerate the turnover rate of c-Myc protein. Conversely, knockdown of CHIP by RNAi stabilizes endogenous c-Myc. The interaction between CHIP and c-Myc depends on the N-terminally located tetratricopeptide repeats of CHIP, which has been implicated as a chaperone-binding motif. Inhibition of Hsp90 chaperone activity by 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin reduces c-Myc protein level. We found that the association between CHIP and c-Myc is dependent on the chaperones; particularly Hsp70. CHIP antagonizes the transcriptional activity of c-Myc and decreases the abundance of the transcripts of its target genes. Overall, CHIP-knockdown increases malignant behavior of C6 glioma cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of c-Myc being regulated by a bona-fide chaperone-associated E3 ligase in HEK293 as well as glioma cells. Because CHIP has been reported earlier to be negatively regulating Akt1, BCR-ABL and hTERT, and now c-Myc, the present study may strengthen the view that CHIP acts as a tumor suppressor. 10.1038/onc.2012.144
    Carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP) down-regulates NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) and suppresses NIK-induced liver injury. Jiang Bijie,Shen Hong,Chen Zheng,Yin Lei,Zan Linsen,Rui Liangyou The Journal of biological chemistry Ser/Thr kinase NIK (NF-κB-inducing kinase) mediates the activation of the noncanonical NF-κB2 pathway, and it plays an important role in regulating immune cell development and liver homeostasis. NIK levels are extremely low in quiescent cells due to ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation, and cytokines stimulate NIK activation through increasing NIK stability; however, regulation of NIK stability is not fully understood. Here we identified CHIP (carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) as a new negative regulator of NIK. CHIP contains three N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), a middle dimerization domain, and a C-terminal U-box. The U-box domain contains ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that promotes ubiquitination of CHIP-bound partners. We observed that CHIP bound to NIK via its TPR domain. In both HEK293 and primary hepatocytes, overexpression of CHIP markedly decreased NIK levels at least in part through increasing ubiquitination and degradation of NIK. Accordingly, CHIP suppressed NIK-induced activation of the noncanonical NF-κB2 pathway. CHIP also bound to TRAF3, and CHIP and TRAF3 acted coordinately to efficiently promote NIK degradation. The TPR but not the U-box domain was required for CHIP to promote NIK degradation. In mice, hepatocyte-specific overexpression of NIK resulted in liver inflammation and injury, leading to death, and liver-specific expression of CHIP reversed the detrimental effects of hepatic NIK. Our data suggest that CHIP/TRAF3/NIK interactions recruit NIK to E3 ligase complexes for ubiquitination and degradation, thus maintaining NIK at low levels. Defects in CHIP regulation of NIK may result in aberrant NIK activation in the liver, contributing to live injury, inflammation, and disease. 10.1074/jbc.M114.635086
    On the structure and function of Sorghum bicolor CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein): A link between chaperone and proteasome systems. Gonçalves Conrado de C,Pinheiro Glaucia M S,Dahlström Käthe M,Souto Dênio E P,Kubota Lauro T,Barbosa Leandro R S,Ramos Carlos H I Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology The co-chaperone CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein) is very important for many cell activities since it regulates the ubiquitination of substrates targeted for proteasomal degradation. However, information on the structure-function relationship of CHIP from plants and how it interacts and ubiquitinates other plant chaperones is still needed. For that, the CHIP ortholog from Sorghum bicolor (SbCHIP) was identified and studied in detail. SbCHIP was purified and produced folded and pure, being capable of keeping its structural conformation up to 42 °C, indicating that cellular function is maintained even in a hot environment. Also, SbCHIP was able to bind plant Hsp70 and Hsp90 with high affinity and interact with E2 enzymes, performing E3 ligase activity. The data allowed to reveal the pattern of plant Hsp70 and Hsp90 ubiquitination and described which plant E2 enzymes are likely involved in SbCHIP-mediated ubiquitination. Aditionally, we obtained information on the SbCHIP conformation, showing that it is a non-globular symmetric dimer and allowing to put forward a model for the interaction of SbCHIP with chaperones and E2 enzymes that suggests a mechanism of ubiquitination. Altogether, the results presented here are useful additions to the study of protein folding and degradation in plants. 10.1016/j.plantsci.2020.110506
    Identifying the substrate proteins of U-box E3s E4B and CHIP by orthogonal ubiquitin transfer. Bhuripanyo Karan,Wang Yiyang,Liu Xianpeng,Zhou Li,Liu Ruochuan,Duong Duc,Zhao Bo,Bi Yingtao,Zhou Han,Chen Geng,Seyfried Nicholas T,Chazin Walter J,Kiyokawa Hiroaki,Yin Jun Science advances E3 ubiquitin (UB) ligases E4B and carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) use a common U-box motif to transfer UB from E1 and E2 enzymes to their substrate proteins and regulate diverse cellular processes. To profile their ubiquitination targets in the cell, we used phage display to engineer E2-E4B and E2-CHIP pairs that were free of cross-reactivity with the native UB transfer cascades. We then used the engineered E2-E3 pairs to construct "orthogonal UB transfer (OUT)" cascades so that a mutant UB (xUB) could be exclusively used by the engineered E4B or CHIP to label their substrate proteins. Purification of xUB-conjugated proteins followed by proteomics analysis enabled the identification of hundreds of potential substrates of E4B and CHIP in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinase MAPK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3), methyltransferase PRMT1 (protein arginine -methyltransferase 1), and phosphatase PPP3CA (protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha) were identified as the shared substrates of the two E3s. Phosphatase PGAM5 (phosphoglycerate mutase 5) and deubiquitinase OTUB1 (ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1) were confirmed as E4B substrates, and β-catenin and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) were confirmed as CHIP substrates. On the basis of the CHIP-CDK4 circuit identified by OUT, we revealed that CHIP signals CDK4 degradation in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. 10.1126/sciadv.1701393
    Androgen receptor degradation by the E3 ligase CHIP modulates mitotic arrest in prostate cancer cells. Sarkar S,Brautigan D L,Parsons S J,Larner J M Oncogene The androgen receptor (AR) has a vital role in the onset and progression of prostate cancer by promoting G1-S progression, possibly by functioning as a licensing factor for DNA replication. We here report that low dose 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous estrogen metabolite, induces mitotic arrest in prostate cancer cells involving activation of the E3 ligase CHIP (C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) and degradation of the AR. Depletion of the AR by small interfering RNA (siRNA) eliminates 2-ME-induced arrest and introducing AR into PC3-M cells confers 2-ME-induced mitotic arrest. Knockdown of CHIP or MDM2 (mouse homolog of double minute 2 protein) individually or in combination reduced AR degradation and abrogated M phase arrest induced by 2-ME. Our data link AR degradation via ubiquitination to mitotic arrest. Targeting the AR by activating E3 ligases such as CHIP represents a novel strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. 10.1038/onc.2012.561
    E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP facilitates Toll-like receptor signaling by recruiting and polyubiquitinating Src and atypical PKC{zeta}. Yang Mingjin,Wang Chen,Zhu Xuhui,Tang Songqing,Shi Liyun,Cao Xuetao,Chen Taoyong The Journal of experimental medicine The carboxyl terminus of constitutive heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70)-interacting protein (CHIP, also known as Stub1) is a U box-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that is important for protein quality control. The role of CHIP in innate immunity is not known. Here, we report that CHIP knockdown inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4- and TLR9-driven signaling, but not TLR3-driven signaling; proinflammatory cytokine and type 1 interferon (IFN) production; and maturation of antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. We demonstrate that CHIP can recruit the tyrosine kinase Src and atypical protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) to the TLR complex, thereby leading to activation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, TANK-binding kinase 1, and IFN regulatory factors 3 and 7. CHIP acts as an E3 ligase for Src and PKCζ during TLR signaling. CHIP-mediated enhancement of TLR signaling is inhibited by IFNAR deficiency or expression of ubiquitination resistant mutant forms of Src or PKCζ. These findings suggest that CHIP facilitates the formation of a TLR signaling complex by recruiting, ubiquitinating, and activating Src and PKCζ. 10.1084/jem.20102667
    Covalent ISG15 conjugation to CHIP promotes its ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and inhibits lung cancer cell growth in response to type I interferon. Yoo Lang,Yoon A-Rum,Yun Chae-Ok,Chung Kwang Chul Cell death & disease The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) acts as a ubiquitin E3 ligase and a link between the chaperones Hsp70/90 and the proteasome system, playing a vital role in maintaining protein homeostasis. CHIP regulates a number of proteins involved in a myriad of physiological and pathological processes, but the underlying mechanism of action via posttranslational modification has not been extensively explored. In this study, we investigated a novel modulatory mode of CHIP and its effect on CHIP enzymatic activity. ISG15, an ubiquitin-like modifier, is induced by type I interferon (IFN) stimulation and can be conjugated to target proteins (ISGylation). Here we demonstrated that CHIP may be a novel target of ISGylation in HEK293 cells stimulated with type I IFN. We also found that Lys143/144/145 and Lys287 residues in CHIP are important for and target residues of ISGylation. Moreover, ISGylation promotes the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP, subsequently causing a decrease in levels of oncogenic c-Myc, one of its many ubiquitination targets, in A549 lung cancer cells and inhibiting A549 cell and tumor growth. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that covalent ISG15 conjugation produces a novel CHIP regulatory mode that enhances the tumor-suppressive activity of CHIP, thereby contributing to the antitumor effect of type I IFN. 10.1038/s41419-017-0138-9
    Hsp70 acts as a fine-switch that controls E3 ligase CHIP-mediated TAp63 and ΔNp63 ubiquitination and degradation. Wu H Helena,Wang Benfan,Armstrong Stephen R,Abuetabh Yasser,Leng Sarah,Roa Wilson H Y,Atfi Azeddine,Marchese Adriano,Wilson Beverly,Sergi Consolato,Flores Elsa R,Eisenstat David D,Leng Roger P Nucleic acids research The major clinical problem in human cancer is metastasis. Metastases are the cause of 90% of human cancer deaths. TAp63 is a critical suppressor of tumorigenesis and metastasis. ΔNp63 acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor to block the function of p53 and TAp63. Although several ubiquitin E3 ligases have been reported to regulate p63 stability, the mechanism of p63 regulation remains partially understood. Herein, we show that CHIP, an E3 ligase with a U-box domain, physically interacts with p63 and promotes p63 degradation. Notably, Hsp70 depletion by siRNA stabilizes TAp63 in H1299 cells and destabilizes ΔNp63 in SCC9 cells. Loss of Hsp70 results in a reduction in the TAp63-CHIP interaction in H1299 cells and an increase in the interaction between ΔNp63 and CHIP in SCC9 cells. Our results reveal that Hsp70 acts as a molecular switch to control CHIP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p63 isoforms. Furthermore, regulation of p63 by the Hsp70-CHIP axis contributes to the migration and invasion of tumor cells. Hence, our findings demonstrate that Hsp70 is a crucial regulator of CHIP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p63 isoforms and identify a new pathway for maintaining TAp63 or ΔNp63 stability in cancers. 10.1093/nar/gkab081
    Ubiquitin ligase CHIP functions as an oncogene and activates the AKT signaling pathway in prostate cancer. Cheng Li,Zang Jin,Dai Han-Jue,Li Feng,Guo Feng International journal of oncology Carboxyl terminus of Hsc-70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that induces the ubiquitination and degradation of numerous tumor-associated proteins and serves as a suppressor or promoter in tumor progression. To date, the molecular mechanism of CHIP in prostate cancer remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the biological function of CHIP in prostate cancer cells and obtained evidence that CHIP expression is upregulated in prostate cancer tissues. The CHIP vector was introduced into DU145 cancer cells and the cell biological behaviour was examined through a series of experiments, including cell growth, cell apoptosis and migration and invasion assays. The results indicated that the overexpression of CHIP in DU145 prostatic cancer cells promoted cell proliferation through activation of the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway, which subsequently increased cyclin D1 protein levels and decreased p21 and p27 protein levels. The overexpression of CHIP significantly increased the migration and invasion of the DU145 cells, which is possible due to activation of the AKT signaling pathway and upregulation of vimentin. The expression level of CHIP was observed to be increased in human prostate cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, the CHIP expression level exhibited a positively association with the Gleason score of the patents. These findings indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in prostate cancer. 10.3892/ijo.2018.4377
    C-terminus of HSC70-Interacting Protein (CHIP) Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Ubiquitin- and Proteasome-Mediated Degradation of PPARγ. Kim Jung-Hoon,Shin Soyeon,Seo Jinho,Lee Eun-Woo,Jeong Manhyung,Lee Min-Sik,Han Hyun-Ji,Song Jaewhan Scientific reports PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) is a nuclear receptor involved in lipid homeostasis and related metabolic diseases. Acting as a transcription factor, PPARγ is a master regulator for adipocyte differentiation. Here, we reveal that CHIP (C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) suppresses adipocyte differentiation by functioning as an E3 ligase of PPARγ. CHIP directly binds to and induces ubiquitylation of the PPARγ protein, leading to proteasome-dependent degradation. Stable overexpression or knockdown of CHIP inhibited or promoted adipogenesis, respectively, in 3T3-L1 cells. On the other hand, a CHIP mutant defective in E3 ligase could neither regulate PPARγ protein levels nor suppress adipogenesis, indicating the importance of CHIP-mediated ubiquitylation of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation. Lastly, a CHIP null embryo fibroblast exhibited augmented adipocyte differentiation with increases in PPARγ and its target protein levels. In conclusion, CHIP acts as an E3 ligase of PPARγ, suppressing PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis. 10.1038/srep40023
    Liver cytochrome P450 3A ubiquitination in vivo by gp78/autocrine motility factor receptor and C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) E3 ubiquitin ligases: physiological and pharmacological relevance. Kim Sung-Mi,Acharya Poulomi,Engel Juan C,Correia Maria Almira The Journal of biological chemistry CYP3A4 is a dominant human liver cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the metabolism and disposition of >50% of clinically relevant drugs and held responsible for many adverse drug-drug interactions. CYP3A4 and its mammalian liver CYP3A orthologs are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored monotopic proteins that undergo ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent proteasomal degradation (UPD) in an ER-associated degradation (ERAD) process. These integral ER proteins are ubiquitinated in vivo, and in vitro studies have identified the ER-integral gp78 and the cytosolic co-chaperone, CHIP (C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein), as the relevant E3 Ub-ligases, along with their cognate E2 Ub-conjugating enzymes UBC7 and UbcH5a, respectively. Using lentiviral shRNA templates targeted against each of these Ub-ligases, we now document that both E3s are indeed physiologically involved in CYP3A ERAD/UPD in cultured rat hepatocytes. Accordingly, specific RNAi resulted in ≈80% knockdown of each hepatic Ub-ligase, with a corresponding ≈2.5-fold CYP3A stabilization. Surprisingly, however, such stabilization resulted in increased levels of functionally active CYP3A, thereby challenging the previous notion that E3 recognition and subsequent ERAD of CYP3A proteins required ab initio their structural and/or functional inactivation. Furthermore, coexpression in HepG2 cells of both CYP3A4 and gp78, but not its functionally inactive RING-finger mutant, resulted in enhanced CYP3A4 loss greater than that in corresponding cells expressing only CYP3A4. Stabilization of a functionally active CYP3A after RNAi knockdown of either of the E3s, coupled with the increased CYP3A4 loss on gp78 or CHIP coexpression, suggests that ERAD-associated E3 Ub-ligases can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism by effectively regulating the physiological CYP3A content and consequently its function. 10.1074/jbc.M110.167189
    Prognostic Significance of CHIP and RIPK3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Kim Jisup,Chung Joon-Yong,Park Young Soo,Jang Se Jin,Kim Hyeong Ryul,Choi Chang-Min,Song Joon Seon Cancers RIPK3 is a key regulator of necroptosis, which plays a double-edged sword role in tumor progression. CHIP is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates necroptosis by degrading RIPK3. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of RIPK3 and CHIP expression in 404 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expressions of CHIP and RIPK3 showed opposite correlations with survival. CHIP expression was associated with the longer overall survival (OS), whereas RIPK3 expression was associated with the shorter OS. RIPK3 positivity showed marginal association with shorter OS and disease-free survival (DFS) in adjuvant radiotherapy recipients but not in non-recipients, suggesting that necroptosis may induce radioresistance. In multivariate analysis, CHIP expression was associated with longer OS. Compared with other patients, CHIP(-)/RIPK3(+) patients had shorter OS and DFS. In summary, in patients with NSCLC, the expression of CHIP was an independent favorable prognostic factor while that of RIPK3 was an adverse prognostic factor. 10.3390/cancers12061496
    The E3 ligase CHIP: insights into its structure and regulation. Paul Indranil,Ghosh Mrinal K BioMed research international The carboxy-terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein (CHIP) is a cochaperone E3 ligase containing three tandem repeats of tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs and a C-terminal U-box domain separated by a charged coiled-coil region. CHIP is known to function as a central quality control E3 ligase and regulates several proteins involved in a myriad of physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have highlighted varied regulatory mechanisms operating on the activity of CHIP which is crucial for cellular homeostasis. In this review article, we give a concise account of our current knowledge on the biochemistry and regulation of CHIP. 10.1155/2014/918183
    E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP interacts with C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC-2 and promotes its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Shao Miaomiao,Li Lili,Song Shushu,Wu Weicheng,Peng Peike,Yang Caiting,Zhang Mingming,Duan Fangfang,Jia Dongwei,Zhang Jie,Wu Hao,Zhao Ran,Wang Lan,Ruan Yuanyuan,Gu Jianxin Cellular signalling C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) was originally identified as a member of non-classical C-type lectin-like receptors in platelets and immune cells. Activation of CLEC-2 is involved in thrombus formation, lymphatic/blood vessel separation, platelet-mediated tumor metastasis and immune response. Nevertheless, the regulation of CLEC-2 expression is little understood. In this study, we identified that the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) interacted with CLEC-2 by mass spectrometry analysis, and CHIP decreased the protein expression of CLEC-2 through lysine-48-linked ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Deleted and point mutation also revealed that CHIP controlled CLEC-2 protein expression via both tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) domain and Ubox domain in a HSP70/90-independent manner. Moreover, reduced CHIP expression was associated with decreased CLEC-2 polyubiquitination and increased CLEC-2 protein levels in PMA-induced differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages. These results indicate that CLEC-2 is the target substrate of E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP, and suggest that the CHIP/CLEC-2 axis may play an important role in the modulation of immune response. 10.1016/j.cellsig.2016.07.007
    The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance. Biswas Kuntal,Sarkar Sukumar,Du Kangping,Brautigan David L,Abbas Tarek,Larner James M Molecular cancer research : MCR Lung cancer resists radiotherapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here, we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically, ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 protein, is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene ( in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, overexpression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone HSP70. These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity, thus suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. . 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-16-0466
    Specificity for latent C termini links the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP to caspases. Ravalin Matthew,Theofilas Panagiotis,Basu Koli,Opoku-Nsiah Kwadwo A,Assimon Victoria A,Medina-Cleghorn Daniel,Chen Yi-Fan,Bohn Markus F,Arkin Michelle,Grinberg Lea T,Craik Charles S,Gestwicki Jason E Nature chemical biology Protein-protein interactions between E3 ubiquitin ligases and protein termini help shape the proteome. These interactions are sensitive to proteolysis, which alters the ensemble of cellular N and C termini. Here we describe a mechanism wherein caspase activity reveals latent C termini that are then recognized by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. Using expanded knowledge of CHIP's binding specificity, we predicted hundreds of putative interactions arising from caspase activity. Subsequent validation experiments confirmed that CHIP binds the latent C termini at tau and caspase-6. CHIP binding to tau, but not tau, promoted its ubiquitination, while binding to caspase-6 mediated ubiquitin-independent inhibition. Given that caspase activity generates tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD), these results suggested a concise model for CHIP regulation of tau homeostasis. Indeed, we find that loss of CHIP expression in AD coincides with the accumulation of tau and caspase-6. These results illustrate an unanticipated link between caspases and protein homeostasis. 10.1038/s41589-019-0322-6
    The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP in normal cell function and in disease conditions. Wang Tingyu,Wang Wenbo,Wang Qishan,Xie Rong,Landay Alan,Chen Di Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences In eukaryotic cells, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation is an essential mechanism for regulating protein functions. For example, critical signaling proteins play their roles by controlling different cellular functions. Once a signaling protein has been activated, its activity needs to be quickly downregulated by different mechanisms, including ubiquitination/proteasome regulation. Failure to regulate the activity or expression levels of these proteins may cause human diseases. Protein ubiquitination involves a cascade of biochemical processes and requires three types of ubiquitin enzymes: E1 activating enzyme, E2 conjugating enzyme, and E3 ligase. Among these enzymes, E3 ubiquitin ligases play a specific role in recognizing specific protein substrates. There are several structurally diverse groups of E3 ubiquitin ligases in eukaryotic cells, and one type of these E3 ligases is the U-box ubiquitin ligases. Carboxyl terminus of HSP70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a member of a family of U-box E3 ligases. It plays critical roles in multiple organs and tissues in the body. In this review article, we provide an update on some of the most recent discoveries about CHIP in normal physiological function and in disease. 10.1111/nyas.14206
    Organ-on-a-chip platforms for accelerating the evaluation of nanomedicine. Chen Xi,Zhang Yu Shrike,Zhang Xinping,Liu Changsheng Bioactive materials Nanomedicine involves the use of engineered nanoscale materials in an extensive range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications and can be applied to the treatment of many diseases. Despite the rapid progress and tremendous potential of nanomedicine in the past decades, the clinical translational process is still quite slow, owing to the difficulty in understanding, evaluating, and predicting nanomaterial behaviors within the complex environment of human beings. Microfluidics-based organ-on-a-chip (Organ Chip) techniques offer a promising way to resolve these challenges. Sophisticatedly designed Organ Chip enable in vitro simulation of the in vivo microenvironments, thus providing robust platforms for evaluating nanomedicine. Herein, we review recent developments and achievements in Organ Chip models for nanomedicine evaluations, categorized into seven broad sections based on the target organ systems: respiratory, digestive, lymphatic, excretory, nervous, and vascular, as well as coverage on applications relating to cancer. We conclude by providing our perspectives on the challenges and potential future directions for applications of Organ Chip in nanomedicine. 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.09.022
    Investigation of the effect of hepatic metabolism on off-target cardiotoxicity in a multi-organ human-on-a-chip system. Oleaga Carlota,Riu Anne,Rothemund Sandra,Lavado Andrea,McAleer Christopher W,Long Christopher J,Persaud Keisha,Narasimhan Narasimhan Sriram,Tran My,Roles Jeffry,Carmona-Moran Carlos A,Sasserath Trevor,Elbrecht Daniel H,Kumanchik Lee,Bridges L Richard,Martin Candace,Schnepper Mark T,Ekman Gail,Jackson Max,Wang Ying I,Note Reine,Langer Jessica,Teissier Silvia,Hickman James J Biomaterials Regulation of cosmetic testing and poor predictivity of preclinical drug studies has spurred efforts to develop new methods for systemic toxicity. Current in vitro assays do not fully represent physiology, often lacking xenobiotic metabolism. Functional human multi-organ systems containing iPSC derived cardiomyocytes and primary hepatocytes were maintained under flow using a low-volume pumpless system in a serum-free medium. The functional readouts for contractile force and electrical conductivity enabled the non-invasive study of cardiac function. The presence of the hepatocytes in the system induced cardiotoxic effects from cyclophosphamide and reduced them for terfenadine due to drug metabolism, as expected from each compound's pharmacology. A computational fluid dynamics simulation enabled the prediction of terfenadine-fexofenadine pharmacokinetics, which was validated by HPLC-MS. This in vitro platform recapitulates primary aspects of the in vivo crosstalk between heart and liver and enables pharmacological studies, involving both organs in a single in vitro platform. The system enables non-invasive readouts of cardiotoxicity of drugs and their metabolites. Hepatotoxicity can also be evaluated by biomarker analysis and change in metabolic function. Integration of metabolic function in toxicology models can improve adverse effects prediction in preclinical studies and this system could also be used for chronic studies as well. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.07.062
    The ubiquitin ligase CHIP modulates cellular behaviors of gastric cancer cells by regulating TRAF2. Dai Hanjue,Chen Hao,Xu Jingjing,Zhou Jun,Shan Zhili,Yang Hengying,Zhou Xiaojun,Guo Feng Cancer cell international Background:CHIP is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays contrast roles in diverse human malignancies, depending on its targets. To date, the mechanisms underlying the function of CHIP in gastric cancer remains unclear. Here, we aim to further clarify the effects of CHIP on the development and progression of gastric cancer and explore its potential target. Methods:Stably transfected CHIP-shRNA and TRAF2-shRNA AGS gastric cancer cell lines were established using Lipofectamine 2000. Cell growth was measured by an xCelligence real-time monitoring system and colony formation assay. Cell proliferation was detected using CCK-8, Ki-67, or CFSE assays. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay or Annexin V/PI-staining followed by flow cytometric analysis. Cell cycle distribution was detected by PI-staining followed by flow cytometric analysis. Cell migration and invasion abilities were measured by a real-time xCelligence system, Transwell insert, and scratch assays. The expression of cell cycle-related proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, AKT, ERK, NF-κB signaling subunits, MMP2, MMP9, and Integrin β-1 were detected by Western blotting analysis. NF-κB DNA-binding capability was quantified using an ELISA-based NF-κB activity assay. Gastric cancer tissue microarray was analyzed to investigate the expression of both CHIP and TRAF2, and their clinical significance. Results:The CHIP-silencing in the AGS cells was oncogenic evidenced by the appearance of capable of anchorage-independent growth. The CHIP-silencing significantly enhanced the AGS cell proliferation capability likely due to the induced phosphorylation of ERK. The CHIP-silencing significantly inhibited apoptosis due to increased expression of Bcl-2. The CHIP-silencing promoted the AGS cell migration and invasion abilities, likely by regulating the expression of Integrin β-1. TRAF2 expression was markedly decreased in the CHIP-overexpressing cells at protein level, but not at mRNA level. The TRAF2-silencing markedly inhibited the proliferation ability of the AGS cells, the defected cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis were involved in. The TRAF2-silencing also attenuated the cell migration and invasion capacities of the AGS cells. Furthermore, the expression of CHIP was downregulated while the expression of TRAF2 was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues. TRAF2 expression is independent prognostic factors of gastric cancer. The expression of CHIP and TRAF2 was negatively correlated in the gastric cancer tissue. Lower CHIP or higher TRAF2 was significantly linked to shorter overall survival in gastric cancer patients. Conclusions:TRAF2 influenced diverse aspects of cellular behavior of gastric cancer cells, including cell growth, migration, and invasion, which was in contrast to the functions of CHIP. TRAF2 could be considered as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients. It is possible that TRAF2 was a substrate of CHIP and CHIP regulated the TRAF2/NF-κB axis, which modulated diverse cellular behaviors in the AGS gastric cancer cells. 10.1186/s12935-019-0832-z
    Direct ChIP-Seq significance analysis improves target prediction. Bansal Mukesh,Mendiratta Geetu,Anand Santosh,Kushwaha Ritu,Kim Ryan,Kustagi Manju,Iyer Archana,Chaganti Raju S K,Califano Andrea,Sumazin Pavel BMC genomics BACKGROUND:Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing of protein-bound DNA fragments (ChIP-Seq) is an effective high-throughput methodology for the identification of context specific DNA fragments that are bound by specific proteins in vivo. Despite significant progress in the bioinformatics analysis of this genome-scale data, a number of challenges remain as technology-dependent biases, including variable target accessibility and mappability, sequence-dependent variability, and non-specific binding affinity must be accounted for. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:We introduce a nonparametric method for scoring consensus regions of aligned immunoprecipitated DNA fragments when appropriate control experiments are available. Our method uses local models for null binding; these are necessary because binding prediction scores based on global models alone fail to properly account for specialized features of genomic regions and chance pull downs of specific DNA fragments, thus disproportionally rewarding some genomic regions and decreasing prediction accuracy. We make no assumptions about the structure or amplitude of bound peaks, yet we show that our method outperforms leading methods developed using either global or local null hypothesis models for random binding. We test prediction performance by comparing analyses of ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip, motif-based binding-site prediction, and shRNA assays, showing high reproducibility, binding-site enrichment in predicted target regions, and functional regulation of predicted targets. CONCLUSIONS:Given appropriate controls, a direct nonparametric method for identifying transcription-factor targets from ChIP-Seq assays may lead to both higher sensitivity and higher specificity, and should be preferred or used in conjunction with methods that use parametric models for null binding. 10.1186/1471-2164-16-S5-S4
    High-throughput screening suggests glutathione synthetase as an anti-tumor target of polydatin using human proteome chip. Chen Peng,Wang Lei,Sun Shutao,Zhou Qingbing,Zeng Zehua,Hu Mingliang,Hussain Muhammad,Lu Cheng,Du Hongwu International journal of biological macromolecules Polydatin (PD) is a bio-active ingredient with known anti-tumor effects. However, its specific protein targets yet have not been systematically screened, and the molecular anti-tumor mechanism is still unclear. Here, proteomic-chip was efficiently used to screen potential targets of PD. First, we investigated through animal experiment and proteomics studies, and found that polydatin play an important role in tumor cells. Then, the red-green fluorescent of polydatin was compared comprehensively to screen its targets on chip, followed by bioinformatics analysis. Glutathione synthetase (GSS) was selected as candidate research target. After a series of molecular biological experiments GSS was confirmed a target protein for PD in vitro. Moreover, we also found that PD can significantly inhibit the activity of GSS in vitro and live cells. Our findings reveal that PD could be a selective small-molecule GSS enzyme activity inhibitor and GSS could be a potential therapeutic target in cancer. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.061
    CHIP as a therapeutic target for neurological diseases. Zhang Shuo,Hu Zheng-Wei,Mao Cheng-Yuan,Shi Chang-He,Xu Yu-Ming Cell death & disease Carboxy-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) functions both as a molecular co-chaperone and ubiquitin E3 ligase playing a critical role in modulating the degradation of numerous chaperone-bound proteins. To date, it has been implicated in the regulation of numerous biological functions, including misfolded-protein refolding, autophagy, immunity, and necroptosis. Moreover, the ubiquitous expression of CHIP in the central nervous system suggests that it may be implicated in a wide range of functions in neurological diseases. Several recent studies of our laboratory and other groups have highlighted the beneficial role of CHIP in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. The objective of this review is to discuss the possible molecular mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological diseases in which CHIP has a pivotal role, such as stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and polyglutamine diseases; furthermore, CHIP mutations could also cause neurodegenerative diseases. Based on the available literature, CHIP overexpression could serve as a promising therapeutic target for several neurological diseases. 10.1038/s41419-020-02953-5
    The chaperone-assisted E3 ligase C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) targets PTEN for proteasomal degradation. Ahmed Syed Feroj,Deb Satamita,Paul Indranil,Chatterjee Anirban,Mandal Tapashi,Chatterjee Uttara,Ghosh Mrinal K The Journal of biological chemistry The tumor suppressor, PTEN is key to the regulation of diverse cellular processes, making it a prime candidate to be tightly regulated. The PTEN level is controlled in a major way by E3 ligase-mediated degradation through the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Nedd 4-1, XIAP, and WWP2 have been shown to maintain PTEN turnover. Here, we report that CHIP, the chaperone-associated E3 ligase, induces ubiquitination and regulates the proteasomal turnover of PTEN. It was apparent from our findings that PTEN transiently associates with the molecular chaperones and thereby gets diverted to the degradation pathway through its interaction with CHIP. The TPR domain of CHIP and parts of the N-terminal domain of PTEN are required for their interaction. Overexpression of CHIP leads to elevated ubiquitination and a shortened half-life of endogenous PTEN. On the other hand, depletion of endogenous CHIP stabilizes PTEN. CHIP is also shown to regulate PTEN-dependent transcription presumably through its down-regulation. PTEN shared an inverse correlation with CHIP in human prostate cancer patient samples, thereby triggering the prospects of a more complex mode of PTEN regulation in cancer. 10.1074/jbc.M111.321083
    Ups and downs of CHIP. Takahashi Koichi Blood 10.1182/blood-2018-01-828160