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    Free-breathing fat and R * quantification in the liver using a stack-of-stars multi-echo acquisition with respiratory-resolved model-based reconstruction. Schneider Manuel,Benkert Thomas,Solomon Eddy,Nickel Dominik,Fenchel Matthias,Kiefer Berthold,Maier Andreas,Chandarana Hersh,Block Kai Tobias Magnetic resonance in medicine PURPOSE:To develop a free-breathing hepatic fat and quantification method by extending a previously described stack-of-stars model-based fat-water separation technique with additional modeling of the transverse relaxation rate . METHODS:The proposed technique combines motion-robust radial sampling using a stack-of-stars bipolar multi-echo 3D GRE acquisition with iterative model-based fat-water separation. Parallel-Imaging and Compressed-Sensing principles are incorporated through modeling of the coil-sensitivity profiles and enforcement of total-variation (TV) sparsity on estimated water, fat, and parameter maps. Water and fat signals are used to estimate the confounder-corrected proton-density fat fraction (PDFF). Two strategies for handling respiratory motion are described: motion-averaged and motion-resolved reconstruction. Both techniques were evaluated in patients (n = 14) undergoing a hepatobiliary research protocol at 3T. PDFF and parameter maps were compared to a breath-holding Cartesian reference approach. RESULTS:Linear regression analyses demonstrated strong (r > 0.96) and significant (P ≪ .01) correlations between radial and Cartesian PDFF measurements for both the motion-averaged reconstruction (slope: 0.90; intercept: 0.07%) and the motion-resolved reconstruction (slope: 0.90; intercept: 0.11%). The motion-averaged technique overestimated hepatic values (slope: 0.35; intercept: 30.2 1/s) compared to the Cartesian reference. However, performing a respiratory-resolved reconstruction led to better value consistency (slope: 0.77; intercept: 7.5 1/s). CONCLUSIONS:The proposed techniques are promising alternatives to conventional Cartesian imaging for fat and quantification in patients with limited breath-holding capabilities. For accurate estimation, respiratory-resolved reconstruction should be used. 10.1002/mrm.28280
    Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mental disorder inpatients in China: an observational study. Ma Qiuyue,Yang Fude,Ma Botao,Jing Wenzhan,Liu Jue,Guo Moning,Li Juan,Wang Zhiren,Liu Min Hepatology international BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common liver disease in China. However, the understanding of NAFLD prevalence among Chinese mental disorder inpatients remains insufficient. We aim to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD among mental disorder inpatients in Beijing, China. METHODS:In this observational study, we included 66,273 mental disorder inpatients between 2014 and 2018, including inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder and other mental disorders. Data were obtained from electronic health records of 19 specialized psychiatric hospitals in Beijing. NAFLD was defined by ICD-10 code, excluding other causes of liver disease. We calculated the overall and annual prevalence rates of NAFLD from 2014 to 2018, and compared NAFLD prevalence between sexes, age groups, mental disorders types, antipsychotics use, and comorbidities. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine risk factors associated with NAFLD. Subgroup analysis was performed in different mental disorder types. RESULTS:The prevalence of NAFLD was 17.63% (95% CI 17.34-17.92%) in mental disorder inpatients, increasing from 16.88% in 2014 to 19.07% in 2018. The NAFLD prevalence in participants with schizophrenia (22.44%) was higher than that in participants with bipolar disorder (17.89%), depressive disorder (12.62%), and other mental disorders (12.99%). Women had similar or even higher NAFLD prevalence than men after 50 years. Men, 50-59 years (aOR = 1.71), schizophrenia (aOR = 1.56), bipolar disorder (aOR = 1.47), antipsychotics use (aOR = 1.46), hypertension (aOR = 1.50), diabetes (aOR = 1.83), dyslipidemia (aOR = 2.50) were risk factors for NAFLD in mental disorder inpatients. CONCLUSION:NAFLD was common among Chinese mental disorder inpatients, and increased over years. The prevalence of NAFLD was higher among men, old women, inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, antipsychotics, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Fatty liver disease among mental disorder population warrants the attention of psychiatric specialists and health policy-makers. 10.1007/s12072-020-10132-z
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a sample of individuals with bipolar disorders: results from the FACE-BD cohort. Godin Ophelia,Leboyer Marion,Belzeaux Raoul,Bellivier Frank,Loftus Joséphine,Courtet Philippe,Dubertret Caroline,Gard Sebastien,Henry Chantal,Llorca Pierre-Michel,Schwan Raymund,Passerieux Christine,Polosan Mircea,Samalin Ludovic,Olié Emilie,Etain Bruno, Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica OBJECTIVE:Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common liver disease in Western populations. While obesity and metabolic abnormalities are highly frequent in bipolar disorders (BD), no studies have been performed to estimate the prevalence of NALFD in individuals with BD. The aim of our study is to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD and to identify the potential associated risk factors in a large sample of BD individuals. METHODS:Between 2009 and 2019, 1969 BD individuals from the FACE-BD cohort were included. Individuals with liver diseases, Hepatitis B or C, and current alcohol use disorders were excluded from the analyses. A blood sample was drawn from participants. Screening of NAFLD was determined using fatty liver index (FLI). Individuals with FLI> 60 were considered as having NAFLD. RESULTS:The prevalence of NAFDL in this sample was estimated at 28.4%. NAFLD was observed in 40% of men and 21% of women. NAFLD was independently associated with older age, male gender, sleep disturbances, and current use of atypical antipsychotics or anxiolytics. As expected, the prevalence of NALFD was also higher in individuals with overweight and in those with metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS:This study reinforces the view that individuals with BD are highly vulnerable to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of NAFLD in individuals with BD was two times higher than the prevalence reported in the general population. The regular screening of the MetS in individuals with BD should be therefore complemented by the additional screening of NAFLD among these vulnerable individuals. 10.1111/acps.13239
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a neglected metabolic companion of psychiatric disorders: common pathways and future approaches. Soto-Angona Óscar,Anmella Gerard,Valdés-Florido María José,De Uribe-Viloria Nieves,Carvalho Andre F,Penninx Brenda W J H,Berk Michael BMC medicine BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis in over 5% of the parenchyma in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. It is more prevalent in patients with diverse mental disorders, being part of the comorbidity driving loss of life expectancy and quality of life, yet remains a neglected entity. NAFLD can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and increases the risk for cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma. Both NAFLD and mental disorders share pathophysiological pathways, and also present a complex, bidirectional relationship with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related cardiometabolic diseases. MAIN TEXT:This review compares the demographic data on NAFLD and NASH among the global population and the psychiatric population, finding differences that suggest a higher incidence of this disease among the latter. It also analyzes the link between NAFLD and psychiatric disorders, looking into common pathophysiological pathways, such as metabolic, genetic, and lifestyle factors. Finally, possible treatments, tailored approaches, and future research directions are suggested. CONCLUSION:NAFLD is part of a complex system of mental and non-communicable somatic disorders with a common pathogenesis, based on shared lifestyle and environmental risks, mediated by dysregulation of inflammation, oxidative stress pathways, and mitochondrial function. The recognition of the prevalent comorbidity between NAFLD and mental disorders is required to inform clinical practice and develop novel interventions to prevent and treat these complex and interacting disorders. 10.1186/s12916-020-01713-8