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    A systematic review of clinical trials affecting anxiety, stress and fear of childbirth in expectant fathers. Ghaffari Seyedeh Fatemeh,Elyasi Forouzan,Mousavinasab Seyed Nouraddin,Shahhosseini Zohreh Nursing open AIM:To investigate clinical trials affecting anxiety, stress and fear of childbirth in fathers. DESIGN:A systematic literature search was conducted based on Cochrane Collaboration statement recommendation and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. METHODS:With assistance of Medical Subject Headings, keywords were employed to search for relevant trials. Articles published between November 2000-November 2019 were searched in five electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus and Cochrane as well as Iranian databases. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane Risk of Bias Scale. RESULTS:A total of eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were classified into four categories including pre-natal education, music therapy, massage therapy and relaxation training. The results showed that there is no evidence of a best intervention, but it showed that non-pharmacological interventions can decrease anxiety, stress and fear of childbirth and increase the positive experience of childbirth in the expectant fathers. 10.1002/nop2.681
    Design and psychometric evaluation of the fathers' fear of childbirth scale: a mixed method study. Ghaffari Seyedeh Fatemeh,Sharif Nia Hamid,Elyasi Forouzan,Shahhosseini Zohreh,Mohammadpoorsaravimozafar Zohre BMC pregnancy and childbirth BACKGROUND:Fear of childbirth is reported in 13% of fathers, and it may have adverse consequences for the fathers' health as well as their families. To reduce the fear of childbirth in the expectant fathers, an appropriate screening tool is needed. Due to the lack of a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure fathers' fear of childbirth, this study was conducted to develop the Fathers' Fear of Childbirth Scale and evaluate its psychometric properties. METHODS:This mixed method study was conducted in two phases. In the qualitative phase (or item generation), semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 expectant fathers, and a literature review was performed to generate the Fathers' Fear of Childbirth Scale items pool. In the quantitative phase (or psychometric evaluation), reliability as well as face, content, and construct validity of this scale were evaluated. To establish construct validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Reliability was evaluated through internal consistency and composite reliability measures. RESULTS:The primary version of Fathers' Fear of Childbirth Scale contained 32 items, which were reduced to 17 items while establishing construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis extracted two factors, namely fear of childbirth process (12 items) and fear of hospital (5 items). These factors explained 50.82% of the total variance. Goodness of fit indices within the confirmatory factor analysis was acceptable. Internal consistency and composite reliability indices of all the factors were greater than 0.70. CONCLUSION:The Fathers' Fear of Childbirth Scale has a suitable validity and reliability for assessing fear of childbirth in fathers. It is a simple report instrument that can be easily implemented by health care professionals. 10.1186/s12884-021-03696-7