Nanoparticle-Based Immunochemical Biosensors and Assays: Recent Advances and Challenges.
Farka Zdeněk,Juřík Tomáš,Kovář David,Trnková Libuše,Skládal Petr
We review the progress achieved during the recent five years in immunochemical biosensors (immunosensors) combined with nanoparticles for enhanced sensitivity. The initial part introduces antibodies as classic recognition elements. The optical sensing part describes fluorescent, luminescent, and surface plasmon resonance systems. Amperometry, voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy represent electrochemical transducer methods; electrochemiluminescence with photoelectric conversion constitutes a widely utilized combined method. The transducing options function together with suitable nanoparticles: metallic and metal oxides, including magnetic ones, carbon-based nanotubes, graphene variants, luminescent carbon dots, nanocrystals as quantum dots, and photon up-converting particles. These sources merged together provide extreme variability of existing nanoimmunosensing options. Finally, applications in clinical analysis (markers, tumor cells, and pharmaceuticals) and in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms, toxic agents, and pesticides in the environmental field and food products are summarized.
Better together: Strategies based on magnetic particles and quantum dots for improved biosensing.
Moro Laura,Turemis Mehmet,Marini Bruna,Ippodrino Rudy,Giardi Maria Teresa
Novel technologies and strategies for sensitive detection of biological responses in healthcare, food and environmental monitoring continue to be a priority. The present review focuses on bioassay development based on the simultaneous use of quantum dots and magnetic beads. Due to the outstanding characteristics of both particles for biosensing applications and the large number of publications using a combined approach, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on different bioassays, the most recent advances and innovative strategies on the topic, together with an analysis of the main drawbacks encountered and potential solutions offered, with a special emphasis on the requirements that the transfer of technologies from the laboratory to the market will demand for future commercialization of biodevices. Several procedures used in immunoassays and nucleic acid-based bioassays for the detection of pathogens and biomarkers are discussed. The improvement of current approaches together with novel multiplex detection systems and nanomaterials-based research, including the use of multimodal nanoparticles, will contribute to simpler and more sensitive bioanalyses.
Challenges of the Nano-Bio Interface in Lateral Flow and Dipstick Immunoassays.
de Puig Helena,Bosch Irene,Gehrke Lee,Hamad-Schifferli Kimberly
Trends in biotechnology
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are highly attractive for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious disease, food safety, and many other medical uses. The unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties that arise from the nanostructured and material characteristics of nanoparticles provide an opportunity to increase LFA sensitivity and impart novel capabilities. However, interfacing to nanomaterials in complex biological environments is challenging and can result in undesirable side effects such as non-specific adsorption, protein denaturation, and steric hindrance. These issues are even more acute in LFAs where there are many different types of inorganic-biological interfaces, often of a complex nature. Therefore, the unique properties of nanomaterials for LFAs must be exploited in a way that addresses these interface challenges.
In Pursuit of Zero 2.0: Recent Developments in Nonfouling Polymer Brushes for Immunoassays.
Heggestad Jacob T,Fontes Cassio M,Joh Daniel Y,Hucknall Angus M,Chilkoti Ashutosh
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
"Nonfouling" polymer brush surfaces can greatly improve the performance of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) assays due to the reduction of nonspecific protein adsorption and consequent improvement of signal-to-noise ratios. The development of synthetic polymer brush architectures that suppress adventitious protein adsorption is reviewed, and their integration into surface plasmon resonance and fluorescent sandwich immunoassay formats is discussed. Also, highlighted is a novel, self-contained immunoassay platform (the D4 assay) that transforms time-consuming laboratory-based assays into a user-friendly and point-of-care format with a sensitivity and specificity comparable or better than standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) directly from unprocessed samples. These advancements clearly demonstrate the utility of nonfouling polymer brushes as a substrate for ultrasensitive and robust diagnostic assays that may be suitable for clinical testing, in field and laboratory settings.
Paper-based point-of-care immunoassays: Recent advances and emerging trends.
Li Fei,You Minli,Li Shaoxiong,Hu Jie,Liu Chang,Gong Yan,Yang Huayuan,Xu Feng
Immunoassay has been routinely used in hospitals and central labs. Nowadays, to further meet the requirement of widespread applications of immunoassays, it is urgently needed to produce a simplified, rapid and low-cost immunoassay to perform tests on site. To this end, paper-based point-of-care (POC) immunoassays have attracted intensive interests in recent years. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the recent advances and emerging trends of paper-based POC immunoassays, including the fundamental components and work principles, various detection mechanisms and applications, and existing commercialized devices/products. At last, we envision three promising development directions for paper-based POC immunoassays.