Myocardial Fibrosis and Inflammation in Liver Cirrhosis: MRI Study of the Liver-Heart Axis.
Isaak Alexander,Praktiknjo Michael,Jansen Christian,Faron Anton,Sprinkart Alois M,Pieper Claus C,Chang Johannes,Fimmers Rolf,Meyer Carsten,Dabir Darius,Thomas Daniel,Trebicka Jonel,Attenberger Ulrike,Kuetting Daniel,Luetkens Julian A
Background Cardiac involvement in liver cirrhosis in the absence of underlying cardiac disease is termed . The pathophysiology of this condition is still poorly understood. Purpose To investigate the extent of subclinical imaging changes in terms of fibrosis and inflammation and to explore the relationship between the severity of liver disease and the degree of myocardial involvement. Materials and Methods In this prospective study from November 2018 to December 2019, participants with liver cirrhosis and healthy control participants underwent hepatic and cardiac MRI. The multiparametric scan protocol assessed hepatic (T1 and T2 relaxation times, extracellular volume [ECV], and MR elastography-based liver stiffness) and cardiac (T1 and T2 relaxation times, ECV, myocardial edema, late gadolinium enhancement [LGE], and myocardial strain) parameters. Student tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and multivariable binary regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results A total of 42 participants with liver cirrhosis (mean age ± standard deviation, 57 years ± 11; 23 men) and 18 control participants (mean age, 54 years ± 19; 11 men) were evaluated. Compared with control participants, the participants with liver cirrhosis displayed reduced longitudinal strain and elevated markers of myocardial disease (T1 and T2 relaxation times, ECV, and qualitative and quantitative LGE). Myocardial T1 (978 msec ± 23 vs 1006 msec ± 29 vs 1044 msec ± 14; < .001) and T2 relaxation times (56 msec ± 4 vs 59 msec ± 3 vs 62 msec ± 8; = .04) and ECV (30% ± 5 vs 33% ± 5 vs 38% ± 7; = .009) were higher depending on Child-Pugh class (A vs B vs C). Positive LGE lesions (three of 11 [27%] vs 10 of 19 [53%] vs nine of 11 [82%]; = .04) were more prevalent in advanced Child-Pugh classes. MR elastography-based liver stiffness was an independent predictor for LGE (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.2%, 2.1%; = .004) and correlated with quantitative LGE ( = 0.67; < .001), myocardial T1 relaxation times ( = 0.55; < .001), and ECV ( = 0.39; = .01). Conclusion In participants with liver cirrhosis, systolic dysfunction and elevated parameters of myocardial edema and fibrosis were observed at MRI, which were more abnormal with greater severity of liver disease. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by de Roos and Lamb in this issue.
Ginès Pere,Krag Aleksander,Abraldes Juan G,Solà Elsa,Fabrellas Núria,Kamath Patrick S
Lancet (London, England)
Cirrhosis is widely prevalent worldwide and can be a consequence of different causes, such as obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, high alcohol consumption, hepatitis B or C infection, autoimmune diseases, cholestatic diseases, and iron or copper overload. Cirrhosis develops after a long period of inflammation that results in replacement of the healthy liver parenchyma with fibrotic tissue and regenerative nodules, leading to portal hypertension. The disease evolves from an asymptomatic phase (compensated cirrhosis) to a symptomatic phase (decompensated cirrhosis), the complications of which often result in hospitalisation, impaired quality of life, and high mortality. Progressive portal hypertension, systemic inflammation, and liver failure drive disease outcomes. The management of liver cirrhosis is centred on the treatment of the causes and complications, and liver transplantation can be required in some cases. In this Seminar, we discuss the disease burden, pathophysiology, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of cirrhosis and its complications. Future challenges include better screening for early fibrosis or cirrhosis, early identification and reversal of causative factors, and prevention of complications.