Effect of Systematic Intensive Care Unit Triage on Long-term Mortality Among Critically Ill Elderly Patients in France: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Guidet Bertrand,Leblanc Guillaume,Simon Tabassome,Woimant Maguy,Quenot Jean-Pierre,Ganansia Olivier,Maignan Maxime,Yordanov Youri,Delerme Samuel,Doumenc Benoit,Fartoukh Muriel,Charestan Pierre,Trognon Pauline,Galichon Bertrand,Javaud Nicolas,Patzak Anabela,Garrouste-Orgeas Maïté,Thomas Caroline,Azerad Sylvie,Pateron Dominique,Boumendil Ariane,
Importance:The high mortality rate in critically ill elderly patients has led to questioning of the beneficial effect of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to a variable ICU use among this population. Objective:To determine whether a recommendation for systematic ICU admission in critically ill elderly patients reduces 6-month mortality compared with usual practice. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, cluster-randomized clinical trial of 3037 critically ill patients aged 75 years or older, free of cancer, with preserved functional status (Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living ≥4) and nutritional status (absence of cachexia) who arrived at the emergency department of one of 24 hospitals in France between January 2012 and April 2015 and were followed up until November 2015. Interventions:Centers were randomly assigned either to use a program to promote systematic ICU admission of patients (n=1519 participants) or to follow standard practice (n=1518 participants). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was death at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included ICU admission rate, in-hospital death, functional status, and quality of life (12-Item Short Form Health Survey, ranging from 0 to 100, with higher score representing better self-reported health) at 6 months. Results:One patient withdrew consent, leaving 3036 patients included in the trial (median age, 85 [interquartile range, 81-89] years; 1361 [45%] men). Patients in the systematic strategy group had an increased risk of death at 6 months (45% vs 39%; relative risk [RR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26) despite an increased ICU admission rate (61% vs 34%; RR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.66-1.95). After adjustments for baseline characteristics, patients in the systematic strategy group were more likely to be admitted to an ICU (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.54-1.82) and had a higher risk of in-hospital death (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03-1.33) but had no significant increase in risk of death at 6 months (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.96-1.14). Functional status and physical quality of life at 6 months were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Relevance:Among critically ill elderly patients in France, a program to promote systematic ICU admission increased ICU use but did not reduce 6-month mortality. Additional research is needed to understand the decision to admit elderly patients to the ICU. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01508819.
Healthcare-related costs in very elderly intensive care patients.
Haas L E M,van Beusekom Ilse,van Dijk Diederik,Hamaker Marije E,Bakhshi-Raiez Ferishta,de Lange Dylan W,de Keizer Nicolette F
Intensive care medicine
INTRODUCTION:The long-term outcome of "very old intensive care unit patients" (VOPs; ≥ 80 years) is often disappointing. Little is known about the healthcare costs of these VOPs in comparison to younger ICU patients and the very elderly in the general population not admitted to the ICU. METHODS:Data from a national health insurance claims database and a national quality registry for ICUs were combined. Costs of VOPs admitted to the ICU in 2013 were compared with costs of younger ICU patients (two groups, respectively 18-65 and 65-80 years old) and a matched control group of very elderly subjects who were not admitted to the ICU. We compared median costs and median costs per day alive in the year before ICU admission (2012), the year of ICU admission (2013) and the year after ICU admission (2014). RESULTS:A total of 9272 VOPs were included and compared to three equally sized study groups. Median costs for VOPs in 2012, 2013 and 2014 (€5944, €35,653 and €12,565) are higher compared to the ICU 18-65 population (€3022, €30,223 and €5052, all p < 0.001) and the very elderly control population (€3590, €4238 and €4723, all p < 0.001). Compared to the ICU 65-80 population, costs of VOPs are higher in the year before and after ICU admission (€4323 and €6750, both p < 0.001), but not in the year of ICU admission (€34,448, p = 0.950). The median healthcare costs per day alive in the year before, the year of and the year after ICU admission are all higher for VOPs than for the other groups (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:VOPs required more healthcare resources in the year before, the year of and the year after ICU admission compared to younger ICU patients and the very elderly control population, except compared to the ICU 65-80 population in the year of ICU admission. Healthcare costs per day alive, however, are substantially higher for VOPs than for all other study groups in all three studied years.
Trends in short-term and 1-year mortality in very elderly intensive care patients in the Netherlands: a retrospective study from 2008 to 2014.
Karakus Attila,Haas Lenneke E M,Brinkman Sylvia,de Lange Dylan W,de Keizer Nicolette F
Intensive care medicine
PURPOSE:To describe the trends in short-term and long-term mortality in very elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients between 2008 and 2014. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Intensive Care Evaluation Foundation from 31 Dutch ICUs. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to determine the change in adjusted short-term mortality (ICU/hospital deaths) and long-term mortality (3, 6, and 12 months after ICU admission) over the period 2008-2014 in very elderly patients and in patients less than 80 years old admitted to the ICU. RESULTS:A total of 216,196 patients admitted to 31 ICUs in the period from 2008 to 2014 were included in the study, including 28,284 (13.1%) very elderly patients (80 years or older). Follow-up data for determination of 3-, 6-, and 12-month mortality were available for, respectively, 210,005 (97.1%), 202,551 (93.7%), and 176,847 (81.8%) ICU admissions. The crude ICU and in-hospital mortality decreased, respectively, from 17.6% to 13.0% and from 30.7% to 21.0%. The annual risk-adjusted ICU and in-hospital mortality of very elderly patients (adjusted for APACHE III score, comorbidities, and admission type) decreased significantly during the study period [adjusted odds ratio 0.97 (0.95-0.99) and 0.92 (0.91-0.93), respectively]. Additionally, the annual risk-adjusted 3-, 6-, and 12-month mortality decreased significantly from 2008 to 2014 [adjusted odds ratio 0.96 (0.95-0.97), 0.96 (0.94-0.97), and 0.97 (0.95-0.98), respectively]. A similar significant annual decrease in risk-adjusted short-term and long-term mortality was observed in patients aged less than 80 years. CONCLUSIONS:Both short-term and long-term risk-adjusted mortality decreased significantly during the study period in both very elderly ICU patients and patients aged less than 80 years in the Netherlands. This study clearly shows that in our setting very elderly patients benefit almost as much as their younger counterparts from improvement in quality of care over time.