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    Upconversion NIR-II fluorophores for mitochondria-targeted cancer imaging and photothermal therapy. Zhou Hui,Zeng Xiaodong,Li Anguo,Zhou Wenyi,Tang Lin,Hu Wenbo,Fan Quli,Meng Xianli,Deng Hai,Duan Lian,Li Yanqin,Deng Zixin,Hong Xuechuan,Xiao Yuling Nature communications NIR-II fluorophores have shown great promise for biomedical applications with superior in vivo optical properties. To date, few small-molecule NIR-II fluorophores have been discovered with donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) or symmetrical structures, and upconversion-mitochondria-targeted NIR-II dyes have not been reported. Herein, we report development of D-A type thiopyrylium-based NIR-II fluorophores with frequency upconversion luminescence (FUCL) at ~580 nm upon excitation at ~850 nm. H4-PEG-PT can not only quickly and effectively image mitochondria in live or fixed osteosarcoma cells with subcellular resolution at 1 nM, but also efficiently convert optical energy into heat, achieving mitochondria-targeted photothermal cancer therapy without ROS effects. H4-PEG-PT has been further evaluated in vivo and exhibited strong tumor uptake, specific NIR-II signals with high spatial and temporal resolution, and remarkable NIR-II image-guided photothermal therapy. This report presents the first D-A type thiopyrylium NIR-II theranostics for synchronous upconversion-mitochondria-targeted cell imaging, in vivo NIR-II osteosarcoma imaging and excellent photothermal efficiency. 10.1038/s41467-020-19945-w
    Sphingosine kinase-2 inhibition improves mitochondrial function and survival after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Shi Yanjun,Rehman Hasibur,Ramshesh Venkat K,Schwartz Justin,Liu Qinlong,Krishnasamy Yasodha,Zhang Xun,Lemasters John J,Smith Charles D,Zhong Zhi Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and inflammation play important roles in liver injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). This study investigated the roles of sphingosine kinase-2 (SK2) in mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation after hepatic IR. METHODS:Mice were gavaged with vehicle or ABC294640 (50 mg/kg), a selective inhibitor of SK2, 1 h before surgery and subjected to 1 h-warm ischemia to ~70% of the liver followed by reperfusion. RESULTS:Following IR, hepatic SK2 mRNA and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels increased ~25- and 3-fold, respectively. SK2 inhibition blunted S1P production and liver injury by 54-91%, and increased mouse survival from 28% to 100%. At 2 h after reperfusion, mitochondrial depolarization was observed in 74% of viable hepatocytes, and mitochondrial voids excluding calcein disappeared, indicating MPT onset in vivo. SK2 inhibition decreased mitochondrial depolarization and prevented MPT onset. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylated NFκB-p65, TNFα mRNA, and neutrophil infiltration, all increased markedly after hepatic IR, and these increases were blunted by SK2 inhibition. In cultured hepatocytes, anoxia/re-oxygenation resulted in increases of SK2 mRNA, S1P levels, and cell death. SK2 siRNA and ABC294640 each substantially decreased S1P production and cell death in cultured hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS:SK2 plays an important role in mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation responses, hepatocyte death, and survival after hepatic IR and represents a new target for the treatment of IR injury. 10.1016/j.jhep.2011.05.025
    Melatonin pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effects of exogenous mitochondria against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition. Chen Hong-Hwa,Chen Yen-Ta,Yang Chih-Chao,Chen Kuan-Hung,Sung Pei-Hsun,Chiang Hsin-Ju,Chen Chih-Hung,Chua Sarah,Chung Sheng-Ying,Chen Yi-Ling,Huang Tien-Hung,Kao Gour-Shenq,Chen Sheng-Yi,Lee Mel S,Yip Hon-Kan Journal of pineal research We tested the hypothesis that melatonin (Mel) enhances exogenous mitochondria (Mito) treatment against rodent hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In vitro study utilized three groups of hepatocytes (i.e. nontreatment, menadione, and menadione-melatonin treatment, 4.0 × 10(5) each), while in vivo study used adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40) equally divided into sham-control (SC), IR (60-min left-lobe ischemia + 72-hr reperfusion), IR-Mel (melatonin at 30 min/6/8 hr after reperfusion), IR-Mito (mitochondria 15,000 μg/rat 30 min after reperfusion), and IR-Mel-Mito. Following menadione treatment in vitro, oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3/PARP), DNA damage (γ-H2AX/CD90/XRCC1), mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers, and mitochondrial permeability transition were found to be lower, whereas mitochondrial cytochrome c were found to be higher in hepatocytes with melatonin treatment compared to those without (all P < 0.001). In vivo study demonstrated highest liver injury score and serum AST in IR group, but lowest in SC group and higher in IR-Mito group than that in groups IR-Mel and IR-Mel-Mito, and higher in IR-Mel group than that in IR-Mel-Mito group after 72-hr reperfusion (all P < 0.003). Protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/IL-1β/MMP-9), oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (caspase-3/PARP/Bax), and mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers displayed an identical pattern, whereas mitochondria integrity marker (mitochondrial cytochrome c) showed an opposite pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Microscopically, expressions of apoptotic nuclei, inflammatory (MPO(+) /CD68(+) /CD14(+) cells), and DNA damage (γ-H2AX(+) cells) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Melatonin-supported mitochondria treatment offered an additional benefit of alleviating hepatic IR injury. 10.1111/jpi.12326
    Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Cyclophilins Block Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Protect Mice From Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Panel Mathieu,Ruiz Isaac,Brillet Rozenn,Lafdil Fouad,Teixeira-Clerc Fatima,Nguyen Cong Trung,Calderaro Julien,Gelin Muriel,Allemand Fred,Guichou Jean-François,Ghaleh Bijan,Ahmed-Belkacem Abdelhakim,Morin Didier,Pawlotsky Jean-Michel Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury is a complication of liver surgery that involves mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Cyclophilin D (PPIF or CypD) is a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that regulates mPTP opening in the inner mitochondrial membrane. We investigated whether and how recently created small-molecule inhibitors of CypD prevent opening of the mPTP in hepatocytes and the resulting effects in cell models and livers of mice undergoing ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS:We measured the activity of 9 small-molecule inhibitors of cyclophilins in an assay of CypD activity. The effects of the small-molecule CypD inhibitors or vehicle on mPTP opening were assessed by measuring mitochondrial swelling and calcium retention in isolated liver mitochondria from C57BL/6J (wild-type) and Ppif (CypD knockout) mice and in primary mouse and human hepatocytes by fluorescence microscopy. We induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in livers of mice given a small-molecule CypD inhibitor or vehicle before and during reperfusion and collected samples of blood and liver for histologic analysis. RESULTS:The compounds inhibited peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity (half maximal inhibitory concentration values, 0.2-16.2 μmol/L) and, as a result, calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, by preventing mPTP opening (half maximal inhibitory concentration values, 1.4-132 μmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner. The most potent inhibitor (C31) bound CypD with high affinity and inhibited swelling in mitochondria from livers of wild-type and Ppif mice (indicating an additional, CypD-independent effect on mPTP opening) and in primary human and mouse hepatocytes. Administration of C31 in mice with ischemia/reperfusion injury before and during reperfusion restored hepatic calcium retention capacity and oxidative phosphorylation parameters and reduced liver damage compared with vehicle. CONCLUSIONS:Recently created small-molecule inhibitors of CypD reduced calcium-induced swelling in mitochondria from mouse and human liver tissues. Administration of these compounds to mice during ischemia/reperfusion restored hepatic calcium retention capacity and oxidative phosphorylation parameters and reduced liver damage. These compounds might be developed to protect patients from ischemia/reperfusion injury after liver surgery or for other hepatic or nonhepatic disorders related to abnormal mPTP opening. 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.07.026