Iron homeostasis and disorders revisited in the sepsis.
Liu Qinjie,Wu Jie,Zhang Xufei,Wu Xiuwen,Zhao Yun,Ren Jianan
Free radical biology & medicine
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by a dysregulated host-response to inflammation, although it currently lacks a fully elucidated pathobiology. Iron is a crucial trace element that is essential for fundamental processes in both humans and bacteria. During sepsis, iron metabolism is altered, including increased iron transport and uptake into cells and decreased iron export. The intracellular sequestration of iron limits its availability to circulating pathogens, which serves as a conservative strategy against the pathogens. Although iron retention has been showed to have protective protect effects, an increase in labile iron may cause oxidative injury and cell death (e.g., pyroptosis, ferroptosis) as the condition progresses. Moreover, iron disorders are substantial and correlate with the severity of sepsis. This also suggests that iron may be useful as a diagnostic marker for evaluating the severity and predicting the outcome of the disease. Further knowledge about these disorders could help in evaluating how drugs targeting iron homeostasis can be optimally applied to improve the treatment of patients with sepsis. Here, we present a comprehensive review of recent advances in the understanding of iron metabolism, focusing on the regulatory mechanisms and iron-mediated injury in sepsis.
Increased intestinal permeability exacerbates sepsis through reduced hepatic SCD-1 activity and dysregulated iron recycling.
Kumar Manish,Leon Coria Aralia,Cornick Steve,Petri Björn,Mayengbam Shyamchand,Jijon Humberto B,Moreau France,Shearer Jane,Chadee Kris
Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with changes in the mucosal barrier, increased intestinal permeability, and increased risk of infections and sepsis, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we show how continuous translocation of gut microbial components affects iron homeostasis and facilitates susceptibility to inflammation-associated sepsis. A sub-lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide results in higher mortality in Mucin 2 deficient (Muc2) mice, and is associated with elevated circulatory iron load and increased bacterial translocation. Translocation of gut microbial components attenuates hepatic stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 activity, a key enzyme in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The resulting reduction of hepatic saturated and unsaturated fatty acid levels compromises plasma membrane fluidity of red blood cells, thereby significantly reducing their life span. Inflammation in Muc2 mice alters erythrophagocytosis efficiency of splenic macrophages, resulting in an iron-rich milieu that promotes bacterial growth. Our study thus shows that increased intestinal permeability triggers a cascade of events resulting in increased bacterial growth and risk of sepsis.