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    Impact of inhibition of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway on biomolecules carbonylation and proteome regulation in rat cardiac cells. Coliva Giulia,Duarte Sofia,Pérez-Sala Dolores,Fedorova Maria Redox biology Cells employ multiple defence mechanisms to sustain a wide range of stress conditions associated with accumulation of modified self-biomolecules leading to lipo- and proteotoxicity. One of such mechanisms involves activation of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway for removal and degradation of modified lipids, proteins and even organelles. Biomolecules carbonylation, an irreversible oxidative modification, occurs in a variety of pathological conditions and is generally viewed as a marker of oxidative stress. Here, we used a model of rat primary cardiac cells to elucidate the role of autophagy-lysosomal pathway in the turnover of carbonylated biomolecules. Cells treated with inhibitors of autophagy-lysosomal degradation and primed with a short pulse of mild nitroxidative stress were studied using fluorescent microscopy and accumulation of carbonylated biomolecules in droplets- or vesicle-like structures was observed. Furthermore, systems-wide analysis of proteome regulation using relative label free quantification approach revealed the most significant alterations in cells treated with protease inhibitors. Interestingly, down-regulation of insulin signalling was among the most enriched pathway, as revealed by functional annotation of regulated proteins. 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101123
    Autophagy and oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases. Mei Yu,Thompson Melissa D,Cohen Richard A,Tong XiaoYong Biochimica et biophysica acta Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process by which intracellular components, including soluble macromolecules (e.g. nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and dysfunctional organelles (e.g. mitochondria, ribosomes, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum) are degraded by the lysosome. Autophagy is orchestrated by the autophagy related protein (Atg) composed protein complexes to form autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes to generate autolysosomes where the contents are degraded to provide energy for cell survival in response to environmental and cellular stress. Autophagy is an important player in cardiovascular disease development such as atherosclerosis, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, cardiomyopathy, heart failure and hypertension. Autophagy in particular contributes to cardiac ischemia, hypertension and diabetes by interaction with reactive oxygen species generated in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. This review highlights the dual role of autophagy in cardiovascular disease development. Full recognition of autophagy as an adaptive or maladaptive response would provide potential new strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention and management. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.05.005
    TBC1D15/RAB7-regulated mitochondria-lysosome interaction confers cardioprotection against acute myocardial infarction-induced cardiac injury. Yu Wenjun,Sun Shiqun,Xu Haixia,Li Congye,Ren Jun,Zhang Yingmei Theranostics Ischemic heart disease remains a primary threat to human health, while its precise etiopathogenesis is still unclear. TBC domain family member 15 (TBC1D15) is a RAB7 GTPase-activating protein participating in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. This study was designed to explore the role of TBC1D15 in acute myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac injury and the possible mechanism(s) involved. Mitochondria-lysosome interaction was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy and live cell time-lapse imaging. Mitophagy flux was measured by fluorescence and western blotting. Adult mice were transfected with adenoviral TBC1D15 through intra-myocardium injection prior to a 3-day MI procedure. Cardiac morphology and function were evaluated at the levels of whole-heart, cardiomyocytes, intracellular organelles and cell signaling transduction. Our results revealed downregulated level of TBC1D15, reduced systolic function, overt infarct area and myocardial interstitial fibrosis, elevated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial damage 3 days after MI. Overexpression of TBC1D15 restored cardiac systolic function, alleviated infarct area and myocardial interstitial fibrosis, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial damage although TBC1D15 itself did not exert any myocardial effect in the absence of MI. Further examination revealed that 3-day MI-induced accumulation of damaged mitochondria was associated with blockade of mitochondrial clearance because of enlarged defective lysosomes and subsequent interrupted mitophagy flux, which were attenuated by TBC1D15 overexpression. Mechanistic studies showed that 3-day MI provoked abnormal mitochondria-lysosome contacts, leading to lysosomal enlargement and subsequently disabled lysosomal clearance of damaged mitochondria. TBC1D15 loosened the abnormal mitochondria-lysosome contacts through both the Fis1 binding and the RAB7 GAPase-activating domain of TBC1D15, as TBC1D15-dependent beneficial responses were reversed by interference with either of these two domains both and . Our findings indicated a pivotal role of TBC1D15 in acute MI-induced cardiac anomalies through Fis1/RAB7 regulated mitochondria-lysosome contacts and subsequent lysosome-dependent mitophagy flux activation, which may provide a new target in the clinical treatment of acute MI. 10.7150/thno.46883
    Control of autophagy maturation by acid sphingomyelinase in mouse coronary arterial smooth muscle cells: protective role in atherosclerosis. Li Xiang,Xu Ming,Pitzer Ashley L,Xia Min,Boini Krishna M,Li Pin-Lan,Zhang Yang Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) UNLABELLED:Recent studies have indicated a protective role of autophagy in regulating vascular smooth muscle cells homeostasis in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms controlling autophagy, particularly autophagy maturation, are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-regulated lysosome function is involved in autophagy maturation in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In coronary arterial wall of ASM-deficient (Smpd1⁻/⁻) mice on Western diet, there were high expression levels of both LC3B, a robust marker of autophagosomes (APs), and p62, a selective autophagy substrate, compared with those in wild-type (Smpd1⁺/⁺) mice. By Western blotting and flow cytometry, atherogenic stimulation of Smpd1⁺/⁺ CASMCs with 7-ketocholesterol was found to significantly enhance LC3B expression and increase the content of both APs and autophagolysosomes (APLs). In Smpd1⁻/⁻ CASMCs, such 7-ketocholesterol-induced increases in LC3B and p62 expression and APs were further augmented, but APLs formation was abolished. Analysis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorescence-labeled LC3B and Lamp1 (lysosome marker) showed that 7-ketocholesterol markedly induced fusion of APs with lysosomes in Smpd1⁺/⁺ CASMCs, which was abolished in Smpd1⁻/⁻ CASMCs. Moreover, 7-ketocholesterol-induced expression of cell dedifferentiation marker vimentin and proliferation was enhanced in Smpd1⁻/⁻ CASMCs compared with those in Smpd1⁺/⁺ CASMCs. Lastly, overexpression of ASM further increased APLs formation in Smpd1⁺/⁺ CASMCs and restored APLs formation in Smpd1⁻/⁻ CASMCs indicating that increased ASM expression is highly correlated with enhanced APLs formation. Taken together, our data suggest that the control of lysosome trafficking and fusion by ASM is essential to a normal autophagic flux in CASMCs, which implicates that the deficiency of ASM-mediated regulation of autophagy maturation may result in imbalance of arterial smooth muscle cell homeostasis and thus serve as an important atherogenic mechanism in coronary arteries. KEY MESSAGES:Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) controls autophagy maturation in smooth muscle cells. ASM maintains smooth muscle cell homeostasis and its contractile phenotype. ASM plays a protective role in smooth muscle dysfunction and atherosclerosis. 10.1007/s00109-014-1120-y
    Augmenting ATG14 alleviates atherosclerosis and inhibits inflammation via promotion of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in macrophages. Zhang Hui,Ge Song,Ni Buqing,He Keshuai,Zhu Pengcheng,Wu Xiaohong,Shao Yongfeng Autophagy Dysfunction of macroautophagy/autophagy in macrophages contributes to atherosclerosis. Impaired autophagy-lysosomal degradation system leads to lipid accumulation, facilitating atherosclerotic plaque. ATG14 is an essential regulator for the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Whether ATG14 plays a role in macrophage autophagy dysfunction in atherosclerosis is unknown. To investigate the effects of ATG14 on macrophage autophagy, human atherosclerotic plaque, mice and cultured mouse macrophages were evaluated. Overexpression of ATG14 by adenovirus was used to reveal its function in autophagy, inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results showed that impaired autophagy function with reduction of ATG14 expression existed in macrophages of human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques. Ox-LDL impaired autophagosome-lysosome fusion with reduction of ATG14 expression in macrophages. Overexpression of ATG14 in macrophages enhanced fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes and promoted lipid degradation, decreasing Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response. Augmenting ATG14 expression reversed the autophagy dysfunction in macrophages of mice plaque, blunted SQSTM1/p62 accumulation, inhibited inflammation, and upregulated the population of Treg cells, resulting in alleviating atherosclerotic lesions.ABCC1: ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 1; ABCA1: ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 1; Ad-: adenovirus vector carrying the mouse gene; Ad-: adenovirus vector carrying the gene for bacterial β-galactosidase; : apolipoprotein E knockout; ATG14: autophagy-related 14; CD68: CD68 antigen; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; Dil-ox-LDL: Dil-oxidized low density lipoprotein; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HFD: high-fat diet (an atherogenic diet); IL: interleukin; LAMP2: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; LDL-C: low density lipoprotrein cholesterol; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; ND: normal diet; Ox-LDL: oxidized low density lipoprotein; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SREBF1/SREBP1c: sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1; SREBF2/SREBP2: sterol regulatory element binding factor 2; STX17: syntaxin 17; TC: serum total cholesterol; TG: triglyceride; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IFN: interferon; Treg cell: regulatory T cell. 10.1080/15548627.2021.1909833
    Nicotine Modulates CTSS (Cathepsin S) Synthesis and Secretion Through Regulating the Autophagy-Lysosomal Machinery in Atherosclerosis. Ni Huaner,Xu Shuang,Chen Hangwei,Dai Qiuyan Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology OBJECTIVE:Increased CTSS (cathepsin S) has been reported to play a critical role in atherosclerosis progression. Both CTSS synthesis and secretion are essential for exerting its functions. However, the underlying mechanisms contributing to CTSS synthesis and secretion in atherosclerosis remain unclear. Approach and Results: In this study, we showed that nicotine activated autophagy and upregulated CTSS expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and in atherosclerotic plaques. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining showed that nicotine inhibited the mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) activity, promoted the nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), and upregulated the expression of CTSS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qualificative polymerase chain reaction, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and luciferase reporter assay further demonstrated that TFEB directly bound to the promoter. mTORC1 inhibition by nicotine or rapamycin promoted lysosomal exocytosis and CTSS secretion. Live cell assays and IP-MS (immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry) identified that the interactions involving Rab10 (Rab10, member RAS oncogene family) and mTORC1 control CTSS secretion. Nicotine promoted vascular smooth muscle cell migration by upregulating CTSS, and CTSS inhibition suppressed nicotine-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:We concluded that nicotine mediates CTSS synthesis and secretion through regulating the autophagy-lysosomal machinery, which offers a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis treatment. 10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314053
    Autophagy and endocytosis - interconnections and interdependencies. Birgisdottir Åsa B,Johansen Terje Journal of cell science Autophagy and endocytosis are membrane-vesicle-based cellular pathways for degradation and recycling of intracellular and extracellular components, respectively. These pathways have a common endpoint at the lysosome, where their cargo is degraded. In addition, the two pathways intersect at different stages during vesicle formation, fusion and trafficking, and share parts of the molecular machinery. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is dependent upon endocytosis and vice versa. The emerging joint network of autophagy and endocytosis is of vital importance for cellular metabolism and signaling, and thus also highly relevant in disease settings. In this Review, we will discuss examples of how the autophagy machinery impacts on endocytosis and cell signaling, and highlight how endocytosis regulates the different steps in autophagy in mammalian cells. Finally, we will focus on the interplay of these pathways in the quality control of their common endpoint, the lysosome. 10.1242/jcs.228114
    Autophagy in inflammation, infection, and immunometabolism. Deretic Vojo Immunity Autophagy is a quality-control, metabolic, and innate immunity process. Normative autophagy affects many cell types, including hematopoietic as well as non-hematopoietic, and promotes health in model organisms and humans. When autophagy is perturbed, this has repercussions on diseases with inflammatory components, including infections, autoimmunity and cancer, metabolic disorders, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular and liver diseases. As a cytoplasmic degradative pathway, autophagy protects from exogenous hazards, including infection, and from endogenous sources of inflammation, including molecular aggregates and damaged organelles. The focus of this review is on the role of autophagy in inflammation, including type I interferon responses and inflammasome outputs, from molecules to immune cells. A special emphasis is given to the intersections of autophagy with innate immunity, immunometabolism, and functions of organelles such as mitochondria and lysosomes that act as innate immunity and immunometabolic signaling platforms. 10.1016/j.immuni.2021.01.018
    Mitophagy in cardiovascular homeostasis. Zhang Ruohan,Krigman Judith,Luo Hongke,Ozgen Serra,Yang Mingchong,Sun Nuo Mechanisms of ageing and development Mitochondria are essential organelles that generate energy to fuel myocardial contraction. Accumulating evidence also suggests that, in the heart, mitochondria may contribute to specific aspects of disease progression through the regulations of specific metabolic intermediates, as well as the transcriptional and epigenetic states of cells. If damaged, the mitochondria and their related pathways are hindered, which may result in or contribute to the development of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the maintenance of cardiac mitochondrial function and integrity through specific mitochondrial quality control mechanisms is critical for cardiovascular health. Mitophagy is part of the overall mitochondrial quality control process, and acts as a specialized autophagic pathway that mediates the lysosomal clearance of damaged mitochondria. In response to cardiac stress and injury, the pathways associated with mitophagy are triggered resulting in the removal of damaged mitochondrial, thereby maintaining cardiac homeostasis. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated an essential role for mitophagy in both developmental and disease-related metabolic transitioning of cardiac mitochondria. Here, we discuss the physiological and the pathological roles of mitophagy in the heart, the underlying molecular mechanisms, as well as potential therapeutic strategies based on mitophagic modulation. 10.1016/j.mad.2020.111245
    Advanced glycation end products receptor RAGE controls myocardial dysfunction and oxidative stress in high-fat fed mice by sustaining mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy-lysosome pathway. Yu Yichi,Wang Lei,Delguste Florian,Durand Arthur,Guilbaud Axel,Rousselin Clementine,Schmidt Ann Marie,Tessier Frédéric,Boulanger Eric,Neviere Remi Free radical biology & medicine Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are recognized as major contributors of cardiovascular damage in diabetes and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Blockade of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) attenuates vascular oxidative stress and development of atherosclerosis. We tested whether HFD-induced myocardial dysfunction would be reversed in RAGE deficiency mice, in association with changes in oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial fission and autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Cardiac antioxidant capacity was upregulated in RAGE/ mice under normal diet as evidenced by increased superoxide dismutase and sirtuin mRNA expressions. Mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and Fis1 expressions were increased in RAGE/ mice. Autophagy-related protein expressions and cathepsin-L activity were increased in RAGE/ mice suggesting sustained autophagy-lysosomal flux. HFD induced mitochondrial respiration defects, cardiac contractile dysfunction, disrupted mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy inhibition, which were partially prevented in RAGE/ mice. Our results suggest that cardioprotection against HFD in RAGE/ mice include reactivation of autophagy, as inhibition of autophagic flux by chloroquine fully abrogated beneficial myocardial effects and its stimulation by rapamycin improved myocardial function in HFD wild type mice. As mitochondrial fission is necessary to mitophagy, increased fragmentation of mitochondrial network in HFD RAGE/ mice may have facilitated removal of damaged mitochondria leading to better mitochondrial quality control. In conclusion, modulation of RAGE pathway may improve mitochondrial damage and myocardial dysfunction in HFD mice. Attenuation of cardiac oxidative stress and maintenance of healthy mitochondria population ensuring adequate energy supply may be involved in myocardial protection against HFD. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.08.012
    Mitophagy Receptors and Mediators: Therapeutic Targets in the Management of Cardiovascular Ageing. Ajoolabady Amir,Aslkhodapasandhokmabad Hamid,Aghanejad Ayuob,Zhang Yingmei,Ren Jun Ageing research reviews Mitophagy serves as a cardinal regulator in the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, function, and cardiovascular homeostasis, through the fine control and governance of cellular metabolism, ATP production, redox balance, and mitochondrial quality and quantity control. As a unique form of selective autophagy, mitophagy specifically recognizes and engulfs long-lived or damaged (depolarized) mitochondria through formation of the double-membraned intracellular organelles - mitophagosomes, ultimately resulting in lysosomal degradation. Levels of mitophagy are reported to be altered in pathological settings including cardiovascular diseases and biological ageing although the precise nature of mitophagy change in ageing and ageing-associated cardiovascular deterioration remains poorly defined. Ample clinical and experimental evidence has depicted a convincing tie between cardiovascular ageing and altered mitophagy. In particular, ageing perturbs multiple enigmatic various signal machineries governing mitophagy, mitochondrial quality, and mitochondrial function, contributing to ageing-elicited anomalies in the cardiovascular system. This review will update novel regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy especially in the perspective of advanced ageing, and discuss how mitophagy dysregulation may be linked to cardiovascular abnormalities in ageing. We hope to pave the way for development of new therapeutic strategies against the growing health and socieconomical issue of cardiovascular ageing through targeting mitophagy. 10.1016/j.arr.2020.101129
    Lysosomal Abnormalities in Cardiovascular Disease. Chi Congwu,Riching Andrew S,Song Kunhua International journal of molecular sciences The lysosome, a key organelle for cellular clearance, is associated with a wide variety of pathological conditions in humans. Lysosome function and its related pathways are particularly important for maintaining the health of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we highlighted studies that have improved our understanding of the connection between lysosome function and cardiovascular diseases with an emphasis on a recent breakthrough that characterized a unique autophagosome-lysosome fusion mechanism employed by cardiomyocytes through a lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-2B. This finding may impact the development of future therapeutic applications. 10.3390/ijms21030811
    Molecular mechanisms of autophagy in the cardiovascular system. Gatica Damián,Chiong Mario,Lavandero Sergio,Klionsky Daniel J Circulation research Autophagy is a catabolic recycling pathway triggered by various intra- or extracellular stimuli that is conserved from yeast to mammals. During autophagy, diverse cytosolic constituents are enveloped by double-membrane vesicles, autophagosomes, which later fuse with lysosomes or the vacuole to degrade their cargo. Dysregulation in autophagy is associated with a diverse range of pathologies including cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the world. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been characterized widely in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity seems to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that govern autophagosome formation and analyze the link between autophagy and cardiovascular disease. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.303788
    Autophagy as a regulator of cardiovascular redox homeostasis. Yan Ye,Finkel Toren Free radical biology & medicine Autophagy is a highly regulated process involving the removal of damaged proteins and organelles from cells and tissues through a lysosomal-mediated pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy is necessary to maintain redox homeostasis. Here, we explore the connection between autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In particular, we discuss how oxidant-dependent signaling can modulate autophagic flux and how autophagy can, in turn, modulate ROS levels. Finally, we discuss how a decline or disruption of autophagy might contribute to redox-dependent cardiovascular pathology and help fuel the age-dependent decline in cardiovascular function. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.12.003
    TFEB and trehalose drive the macrophage autophagy-lysosome system to protect against atherosclerosis. Evans Trent D,Jeong Se-Jin,Zhang Xiangyu,Sergin Ismail,Razani Babak Autophagy In the atherosclerotic plaque, macrophages are the key catabolic workhorse responsible for clearing lipid and dead cell debris. To survive the highly proinflammatory and lipotoxic plaque environment, macrophages must adopt strategies for maintaining tight homeostasis and self-renewal. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a pro-survival cellular pathway wherein damaged or excess cellular cargoes are encapsulated by a double-membrane compartment and delivered to the lysosome for hydrolysis. Previously, macrophage-specific autophagy deficiency has been shown to be atherogenic through several complementary mechanisms including hyperactivation of the inflammasome, defective efferocytosis, accumulation of cytotoxic protein aggregates, and impaired lipid degradation. Conversely, in a recent study we hypothesized that enhancing the macrophage autophagy-lysosomal system through genetic or pharmacological means could protect against atherosclerosis. We demonstrated that TFEB, a transcription factor master regulator of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis, coordinately enhances the function of this system to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden. Further, we characterized the disaccharide trehalose as a novel inducer of TFEB with similar atheroprotective effects. Overall, these findings mechanistically interrogate the importance and therapeutic promise of a functional autophagy-lysosome degradation system in plaque macrophage biology. 10.1080/15548627.2018.1434373
    Autophagy in health and disease: focus on the cardiovascular system. Mialet-Perez Jeanne,Vindis Cécile Essays in biochemistry Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosome-mediated protein and organelle degradation that plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In the last few years, specific functions for autophagy have been identified in many tissues and organs. In the cardiovascular system, autophagy appears to be essential to heart and vessel homeostasis and function; however defective or excessive autophagy activity seems to contribute to major cardiovascular disorders including heart failure (HF) or atherosclerosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of cardiovascular autophagy in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. 10.1042/EBC20170022
    Resolving inflammation by TAM receptor activation. Vago Juliana P,Amaral Flávio A,van de Loo Fons A J Pharmacology & therapeutics The control of inflammation is strictly regulated to ensure the adequate intensity and duration of an inflammatory response, enabling the removal of the trigger factors and the restoration of the integrity of the tissues and their functions. This process is coordinated by anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators that regulate the cellular and molecular events necessary to restore homeostasis, and defects in this control are associated with the development of chronic and autoimmune diseases. The TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases-Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK-plays an essential role in efferocytosis, a key process for the resolution of inflammation. However, new studies have demonstrated that TAM receptor activation not only reduces the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators by different cell types in response to some stimuli but also stimulates the production of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving molecules that control the inflammation. This review provides a comprehensive view of TAM receptor family members as important players in controlling inflammatory responses through anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2021.107893
    Krüppel-Like Factor 14 Deletion In Myeloid Cells Accelerates Atherosclerotic Lesion Development. Wang Huilun,Guo Yanhong,Lu Haocheng,Luo Yonghong,Hu Wenting,Liang Wenying,Garcia-Barrio Minerva T,Chang Lin,Schwendeman Anna,Zhang Jifeng,Chen Y Eugene Cardiovascular research AIMS:Atherosclerosis is the dominant pathologic basis of many cardiovascular diseases. Large genome-wide association studies have identified that single nucleotide polymorphisms proximal to Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14), a member of the zinc finger family of transcription factors, are associated with higher cardiovascular risks. Macrophage dysfunction contributes to atherosclerosis development and has been recognized as a potential therapeutic target for treating many cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we address the biologic function of KLF14 in macrophages and its role during the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS:KLF14 expression was markedly decreased in cholesterol-loaded foam cells, and overexpression of KLF14 significantly increased cholesterol efflux and inhibited the inflammatory response in macrophages. We generated myeloid cell-selective Klf14 knockout (Klf14LysM) mice in the ApoE-/- background for the atherosclerosis study. Klf14LysMApoE-/- and litter-mate control mice (Klf14fl/flApoE-/-) were placed on the Western Diet for 12 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. Macrophage Klf14 deficiency resulted in increased atherosclerosis development without affecting the plasma lipid profiles. Klf14-deficient peritoneal macrophages showed significantly reduced cholesterol efflux resulting in increased lipid accumulation and exacerbated inflammatory response. Mechanistically, KLF14 upregulates the expression of a key cholesterol efflux transporter, ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1), while suppresses the expression of several critical components of the inflammatory cascade. In macrophages, activation of KLF14 by its activator, perhexiline, a drug clinically used to treat angina, significantly inhibited the inflammatory response and increased cholesterol efflux in a KLF14- dependent manner in macrophages without triggering hepatic lipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides insights into the anti-atherosclerotic effects of macrophage KLF14 through promoting cholesterol efflux and suppressing the inflammatory response. Activation of KLF14 may represent a potential new therapeutic approach to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:Here, using both gain- and loss-of-function strategies, we show that KLF14 regulates cholesterol efflux by regulating the expression of ABCA1 and inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. These findings, along with our previous data, put activation of KLF14 forward as a prospective therapeutic target for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. 10.1093/cvr/cvab027