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    Kaempferol reduces obesity, prevents intestinal inflammation, and modulates gut microbiota in high-fat diet mice. Bian Yifei,Lei Jiaqi,Zhong Jia,Wang Bo,Wan Yan,Li Jinxin,Liao Chaoyong,He Yang,Liu Zhongjie,Ito Koichi,Zhang Bingkun The Journal of nutritional biochemistry Kaempferol, a flavonoid identified in a wide variety of dietary sources, has been reported to possess anti-obesity properties; however, its underlying mechanism was poorly understood. Chronic, low-grade gut inflammation and dysbacteria are proposed as underlying factors as well as novel treatment approaches for obesity-associated pathologies. This present study aims to investigate the benefits of experimental treatment with kaempferol on intestinal inflammation and gut microbial balance in animal model of obesity. High fat diet (HFD) was applied to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks, during which the supplement of kaempferol served as a variable. Clearly, HFD induced obesity, fat accumulation, glucose intolerance and adipose inflammation, the metabolic syndrome of which was the main finding. All these metabolic disorders can be alleviated through kaempferol supplementation. In addition, increased intestinal permeability, infiltration of immunocytes (macrophage, dendritic cells and neutrophils) and overexpression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) were also found in the HFD-induced mice. Kaempferol supplementation improved intestinal barrier integrity and inhibited gut inflammation, by reducing the activation of TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the characterization of the cecal microbiota by sequencing showed that kaempferol supplementation was able to counteract the dysbiosis associated to obesity. Our study delineated the multiple mechanism of action underlying the anti-obesity effect of kaempferol, and provide scientific evidence to support the development of kaempferol as a dietary supplement for obesity treatment. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108840
    The role of in obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Hasani Alka,Ebrahimzadeh Saba,Hemmati Fatemeh,Khabbaz Aytak,Hasani Akbar,Gholizadeh Pourya Journal of medical microbiology Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota can lead to a number of chronic clinical diseases. is an anaerobic bacteria constituting 3-5% of the gut microbial community in healthy adults. This bacterium is responsible for degenerating mucin in the gut; its scarcity leads to diverse clinical disorders. In this review, we focus on the role of in diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, as well as the use of this bacterium as a next-generation probiotic. In regard to obesity and diabetes, human and animal trials have shown that controls the essential regulatory system of glucose and energy metabolism. However, the underlying mechanisms by which alleviates the complications of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis are unclear. At the same time, its abundance suggests improved metabolic disorders, such as metabolic endotoxemia, adiposity insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. The role of is implicated in declining aortic lesions and atherosclerosis. Well-characterized virulence factors, antigens and cell wall extracts of may act as effector molecules in these diseases. These molecules may provide novel mechanisms and strategies by which this bacterium could be used as a probiotic for the treatment of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. 10.1099/jmm.0.001435
    The Potential Roles of Very Low Calorie, Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diets and Very Low Carbohydrate Diets on the Gut Microbiota Composition. Rondanelli Mariangela,Gasparri Clara,Peroni Gabriella,Faliva Milena Anna,Naso Maurizio,Perna Simone,Bazire Philip,Sajuox Ignacio,Maugeri Roberto,Rigon Chiara Frontiers in endocrinology Several studies have described a strong correlation between diet, weight loss, and gut microbiota composition. The aim of this review was to evaluate the potential effects of energy-restricted diets, namely very low calorie diets (VLCDs), very low calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs), and very low carbohydrate diets (VLCarbDs), on the composition of the gut microbiota in humans. We performed a literature search using the following terms (with their abbreviations or acronyms): "very low calorie diet", "very low calorie ketogenic diet", "very low carbohydrate diet", and "gut microbiota". Our search strategy retrieved nine eligible studies. Overall, VLCDs and VLCarbDs affected the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio in obese patients, leading to a reduction in short-chain fatty acid production by fecal microbiota associated with Clostridial cluster XIVa. This reduction particularly affected and , the two most abundant butyrate-producing bacteria in human feces. VLCKDs preserved the core fecal microbiome, but altered the composition of fecal microbial populations in relation to the plasma metabolome and fecal bile acid composition. In particular, VLCKD-induced weight loss resulted in a reduction in and , an increase in and while not all studies show a decrease in . Although very few studies have analyzed the effects of VLCarbDs and VLCDs on gut microbiota, significant diet-induced changes in fecal microbiota composition have been observed. Further studies are needed. 10.3389/fendo.2021.662591
    Long-term dietary intervention reveals resilience of the gut microbiota despite changes in diet and weight. Fragiadakis Gabriela K,Wastyk Hannah C,Robinson Jennifer L,Sonnenburg Erica D,Sonnenburg Justin L,Gardner Christopher D The American journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND:With the rising rates of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, there is a growing need for effective long-term weight-loss strategies, coupled with an understanding of how they interface with human physiology. Interest is growing in the potential role of gut microbes as they pertain to responses to different weight-loss diets; however, the ways that diet, the gut microbiota, and long-term weight loss influence one another is not well understood. OBJECTIVES:Our primary objective was to determine if baseline microbiota composition or diversity was associated with weight-loss success. A secondary objective was to track the longitudinal associations of changes to lower-carbohydrate or lower-fat diets and concomitant weight loss with the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota. METHODS:We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to profile microbiota composition over a 12-mo period in 49 participants as part of a larger randomized dietary intervention study of participants consuming either a healthy low-carbohydrate or a healthy low-fat diet. RESULTS:While baseline microbiota composition was not predictive of weight loss, each diet resulted in substantial changes in the microbiota 3-mo after the start of the intervention; some of these changes were diet specific (14 taxonomic changes specific to the healthy low-carbohydrate diet, 12 taxonomic changes specific to the healthy low-fat diet) and others tracked with weight loss (7 taxonomic changes in both diets). After these initial shifts, the microbiota returned near its original baseline state for the remainder of the intervention, despite participants maintaining their diet and weight loss for the entire study. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest a resilience to perturbation of the microbiota's starting profile. When considering the established contribution of obesity-associated microbiotas to weight gain in animal models, microbiota resilience may need to be overcome for long-term alterations to human physiology. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591. 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa046
    Plant Extracts in Obesity: A Role of Gut Microbiota. Weng Guangying,Duan Yehui,Zhong Yinzhao,Song Bo,Zheng Jie,Zhang Shiyu,Yin Yulong,Deng Jinping Frontiers in nutrition Obesity has become one of the most serious chronic diseases threatening human health. Its occurrence and development are closely associated with gut microbiota since the disorders of gut microbiota can promote endotoxin production and induce inflammatory response. Recently, numerous plant extracts have been proven to mitigate lipid dysmetabolism and obesity syndrome by regulating the abundance and composition of gut microbiota. In this review, we summarize the potential roles of different plant extracts including mulberry leaf extract, policosanol, cortex moutan, green tea, honokiol, and capsaicin in regulating obesity via gut microbiota. Based on the current findings, plant extracts may be promising agents for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic diseases, and the mechanisms might be associated with gut microbiota. 10.3389/fnut.2021.727951
    Gut Microbiota Serves a Predictable Outcome of Short-Term Low-Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) Intervention for Patients with Obesity. Zhang Susu,Wu Peili,Tian Ye,Liu Bingdong,Huang Liujing,Liu Zhihong,Lin Nie,Xu Ningning,Ruan Yuting,Zhang Zhen,Wang Ming,Cui Zongbing,Zhou HongWei,Xie Liwei,Chen Hong,Sun Jia Microbiology spectrum To date, much progress has been made in dietary therapy for obese patients. A low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has reached a revival in its clinical use during the past decade with undefined mechanisms and debatable efficacy. The gut microbiota has been suggested to promote energy harvesting. Here, we propose that the gut microbiota contributes to the inconsistent outcome under an LCD. To test this hypothesis, patients with obesity or patients who were overweight were randomly assigned to a normal diet (ND) or an LCD group with energy intake for 12 weeks. Using matched sampling, the microbiome profile at baseline and end stage was examined. The relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, including and , was markedly increased after LCD intervention for 12 weeks. Moreover, within the LCD group, participants with a higher relative abundance of at baseline exhibited a better response to LCD intervention and achieved greater weight loss outcomes. Nevertheless, the adoption of an artificial neural network (ANN)-based prediction model greatly surpasses a general linear model in predicting weight loss outcomes after LCD intervention. Therefore, the gut microbiota served as a positive outcome predictor and has the potential to predict weight loss outcomes after short-term LCD intervention. Gut microbiota may help to guide the clinical application of short-term LCD intervention to develop effective weight loss strategies. (This study has been registered at the China Clinical Trial Registry under approval no. ChiCTR1800015156). Obesity and its related complications pose a serious threat to human health. Short-term low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) intervention without calorie restriction has a significant weight loss effect for overweight/obese people. Furthermore, the relative abundance of is a positive outcome predictor of individual weight loss after short-term LCD intervention. Moreover, leveraging on these distinct gut microbial structures at baseline, we have established a prediction model based on the artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm that could be used to estimate weight loss potential before each clinical trial (with Chinese patent number 2021104655623). This will help to guide the clinical application of short-term LCD intervention to improve weight loss strategies. 10.1128/Spectrum.00223-21
    Profound Perturbation of the Metabolome in Obesity Is Associated with Health Risk. Cirulli Elizabeth T,Guo Lining,Leon Swisher Christine,Shah Naisha,Huang Lei,Napier Lori A,Kirkness Ewen F,Spector Tim D,Caskey C Thomas,Thorens Bernard,Venter J Craig,Telenti Amalio Cell metabolism Obesity is a heterogeneous phenotype that is crudely measured by body mass index (BMI). There is a need for a more precise yet portable method of phenotyping and categorizing risk in large numbers of people with obesity to advance clinical care and drug development. Here, we used non-targeted metabolomics and whole-genome sequencing to identify metabolic and genetic signatures of obesity. We find that obesity results in profound perturbation of the metabolome; nearly a third of the assayed metabolites associated with changes in BMI. A metabolome signature identifies the healthy obese and lean individuals with abnormal metabolomes-these groups differ in health outcomes and underlying genetic risk. Specifically, an abnormal metabolome associated with a 2- to 5-fold increase in cardiovascular events when comparing individuals who were matched for BMI but had opposing metabolome signatures. Because metabolome profiling identifies clinically meaningful heterogeneity in obesity, this approach could help select patients for clinical trials. 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.09.022
    Gut microbiome and serum metabolome alterations in obesity and after weight-loss intervention. Liu Ruixin,Hong Jie,Xu Xiaoqiang,Feng Qiang,Zhang Dongya,Gu Yanyun,Shi Juan,Zhao Shaoqian,Liu Wen,Wang Xiaokai,Xia Huihua,Liu Zhipeng,Cui Bin,Liang Peiwen,Xi Liuqing,Jin Jiabin,Ying Xiayang,Wang Xiaolin,Zhao Xinjie,Li Wanyu,Jia Huijue,Lan Zhou,Li Fengyu,Wang Rui,Sun Yingkai,Yang Minglan,Shen Yuxin,Jie Zhuye,Li Junhua,Chen Xiaomin,Zhong Huanzi,Xie Hailiang,Zhang Yifei,Gu Weiqiong,Deng Xiaxing,Shen Baiyong,Xu Xun,Yang Huanming,Xu Guowang,Bi Yufang,Lai Shenghan,Wang Jian,Qi Lu,Madsen Lise,Wang Jiqiu,Ning Guang,Kristiansen Karsten,Wang Weiqing Nature medicine Emerging evidence has linked the gut microbiome to human obesity. We performed a metagenome-wide association study and serum metabolomics profiling in a cohort of lean and obese, young, Chinese individuals. We identified obesity-associated gut microbial species linked to changes in circulating metabolites. The abundance of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a glutamate-fermenting commensal, was markedly decreased in obese individuals and was inversely correlated with serum glutamate concentration. Consistently, gavage with B. thetaiotaomicron reduced plasma glutamate concentration and alleviated diet-induced body-weight gain and adiposity in mice. Furthermore, weight-loss intervention by bariatric surgery partially reversed obesity-associated microbial and metabolic alterations in obese individuals, including the decreased abundance of B. thetaiotaomicron and the elevated serum glutamate concentration. Our findings identify previously unknown links between intestinal microbiota alterations, circulating amino acids and obesity, suggesting that it may be possible to intervene in obesity by targeting the gut microbiota. 10.1038/nm.4358
    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids attenuate hyperglycemia through the microbiome-gut-organs axis in db/db mice. Zhuang Pan,Li Haoyu,Jia Wei,Shou Qiyang,Zhu Ya'er,Mao Lei,Wang Wenqiao,Wu Fei,Chen Xiaoqian,Wan Xuzhi,Wu Yuqi,Liu Xiaohui,Li Yin,Zhu Fanghuan,He Lilin,Chen Jingnan,Zhang Yu,Jiao Jingjing Microbiome BACKGROUND:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been suggested to prevent the development of metabolic disorders. However, their individual role in treating hyperglycemia and the mechanism of action regarding gut microbiome and metabolome in the context of diabetes remain unclear. RESULTS:Supplementation of DHA and EPA attenuated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance without changing body weight in db/db mice while the ameliorative effect appeared to be more pronounced for EPA. DHA/EPA supplementation reduced the abundance of the lipopolysaccharide-containing Enterobacteriaceae whereas elevated the family Coriobacteriaceae negatively correlated with glutamate level, genera Barnesiella and Clostridium XlVa associated with bile acids production, beneficial Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and SCFA-producing species. The gut microbiome alterations co-occurred with the shifts in the metabolome, including glutamate, bile acids, propionic/butyric acid, and lipopolysaccharide, which subsequently relieved β cell apoptosis, suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis, and promoted GLP-1 secretion, white adipose beiging, and insulin signaling. All these changes appeared to be more evident for EPA. Furthermore, transplantation with DHA/EPA-mediated gut microbiota mimicked the ameliorative effect of DHA/EPA on glucose homeostasis in db/db mice, together with similar changes in gut metabolites. In vitro, DHA/EPA treatment directly inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (Family Enterobacteriaceae) while promoted Coriobacterium glomerans (Family Coriobacteriaceae), demonstrating a causal effect of DHA/EPA on featured gut microbiota. CONCLUSIONS:DHA and EPA dramatically attenuated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice, which was mediated by alterations in gut microbiome and metabolites linking gut to adipose, liver and pancreas. These findings shed light into the gut-organs axis as a promising target for restoring glucose homeostasis and also suggest a better therapeutic effect of EPA for treating diabetes. Video abstract. 10.1186/s40168-021-01126-6
    Bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates ameliorate obesity-associated endotoxemia and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice through modulation of gut microbiota. Li Tiange,Gao Jing,Du Min,Mao Xueying Food & function Gut microbiota has been identified as an important factor in the link between nutrient excess and obesity. The aim of this study was to confirm whether bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (LAH) can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced endotoxemia and systematic inflammation by modulating the structure of gut microbiota in mice. The results showed that LAH changed the overall structure of gut microbiota in HFD-induced obese mice. LAH increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratios and the relative abundance of S24-7, Lachnospiraceae and Blautia. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between the alteration of gut microbiota and obesity-related indexes. LAH decreased the HFD-induced protein expression of G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) and 41 (GPR41) in the colon tissue. Besides, LAH inhibited the destruction of the gut barrier through the up-regulation of tight junction protein (zonulin/zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin) expression and the decrease of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein expression in the colon tissue. LAH also significantly reduced the concentration of tumour cell necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both serum and colon and decreased the level of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in serum and feces, leading to reduced systematic inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. In summary, LAH partly modulated the gut microbial composition and structure, and alleviated the obesity-associated inflammation. These findings shed light on bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysate as a potential functional food ingredient to prevent obesity-related inflammation. 10.1039/c8fo01967c
    Influence of Leptin and Adiponectin Supplementation on Intraepithelial Lymphocyte and Microbiota Composition in Suckling Rats. Grases-Pintó Blanca,Abril-Gil Mar,Castell Margarida,Rodríguez-Lagunas Maria J,Burleigh Stephen,Fåk Hållenius Frida,Prykhodko Olena,Pérez-Cano Francisco J,Franch Àngels Frontiers in immunology Dietary components in early life play a role in both microbiota and intestinal immune system maturation in mammalian species. Adipokines, as endogenously produced hormones from breast milk, may have an impact on this process. The aim of the present study was to establish the influence of leptin and adiponectin supplementation during suckling on the intraepithelial lymphocyte composition, intestinal barrier function, intestinal gene expression, and gut microbiota in rat. For this purpose, newborn Wistar rats were supplemented daily with leptin, adiponectin, or whey protein concentrate during the first 21 days of life. Lymphocyte composition was established by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis; intestinal gene expression by real-time PCR and cecal microbiota were analyzed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although leptin and adiponectin were able to increase the Tc TCRαβ and NKT cell proportion, they decreased the NK cell percentage in IEL. Moreover, adipokine supplementation differentially modified CD8 IEL. While the supplementation of leptin increased the proportion of CD8αα IEL (associated to a more intestinal phenotype), adiponectin enhanced that of CD8αβ (related to a peripheral phenotype). Furthermore, both adipokines enhanced the gene expression of TNF-α, MUC-2, and MUC-3, and decreased that of FcRn. In addition, the adipokine supplementations decreased the abundance of the Proteobacteria phylum and the presence of . Moreover, leptin-supplemented animals had lower relative abundance of and a higher proportion of genus, among others. However, supplementation with adiponectin resulted in lower abundance of the genus and a higher proportion of the genus. In conclusion, the supplementation with leptin and adiponectin throughout the suckling period had an impact on both the IEL composition and the gut microbiota pattern, suggesting a modulatory role of these adipokines on the development of intestinal functionality. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02369
    Randomized Control Trial of Human Recombinant Lactoferrin: A Substudy Reveals Effects on the Fecal Microbiome of Very Low Birth Weight Infants. Sherman Michael P,Sherman Jan,Arcinue Roxanne,Niklas Victoria The Journal of pediatrics UNLABELLED:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of enteral lactoferrin on the fecal microbiome and contrast those influences with the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment. We theorized that lactoferrin and the NICU habitat shape the fecal microbial composition of very preterm infants. Although functions attributed to lactoferrin include intestinal immune system development and emergence of a healthy gut microbiota, evidence is limited. Twenty-one very low birth weight (VLBW <1500 g) infants received twice-daily talactoferrin (TLf, a drug designation for recombinant human lactoferrin) or its excipient by gastric gavage from day 1-28 of life. Twenty-four-hour fecal samples were collected on day 21 of life and compared with fecal operational taxonomy units (OTUs) in treated and control infants in 2 NICUs. Workflow included fecal DNA isolation, generation of amplicons for the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA, and sequencing of a gel-purified multiplex amplicon library using a Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium (Roche, Branford, Connecticut) platform and protocols. Fecal OTUs per infant were higher in NICU 1 vs NICU 2 (P < .001), consistent with fewer antibiotic days (P < .02) and a shorter duration of parenteral nutrition (P < .007) in NICU 1. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the major phyla in infants treated with TLf and placebo. Among Enterobacteriaceae, TLf prophylaxis reduced Enterobacter and Klebsiella, but increased Citrobacter in feces of VLBW infants. Citrobacter caused no neonatal infections in the study population. OTUs for Clostridiaceae increased in NICU 1 among infants treated with TLf. Importantly, OTUs of staphylococci were barely detectable in both NICUs among infants fed TLf. Fewer hospital-acquired infections occurred in infants treated with TLf vs controls, although the reduction was seen mostly in coagulase-negative staphylococci-related bloodstream and central line infections (P = .06). TLf modified the fecal microbiome in VLBW infants, but care practices in the NICU habitat also contributed. Future research must establish whether elimination vs enrichment of gut-related microbiota reduces clinically significant hospital-acquired infections and promotes a healthy commensal microflora in the intestines of VLBW infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00854633. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.02.074
    The Effects of Recombinant Human Lactoferrin on Immune Activation and the Intestinal Microbiome Among Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy. Sortino Ornella,Hullsiek Kathy Huppler,Richards Elizabeth,Rupert Adam,Schminke Andrea,Tetekpor Namo,Quinones Mariam,Prosser Rachel,Schacker Tim,Sereti Irini,Baker Jason V The Journal of infectious diseases Lactoferrin modulates mucosal immunity and targets mechanisms contributing to inflammation during human immunodeficiency virus disease. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial of recombinant human (rh) lactoferrin was conducted among 54 human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants with viral suppression. Outcomes were tolerability, inflammatory, and immunologic measures, and the intestinal microbiome. The median age was 51 years, and the median CD4+ cell count was 651/µL. Adherence and adverse events did not differ between rh-lactoferrin and placebo. There was no significant effect on plasma interleukin-6 or D-dimer levels, nor on monocyte/T-cell activation, mucosal integrity, or intestinal microbiota diversity. Oral administration of rh-lactoferrin was safe but did not reduce inflammation and immune activation. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01830595. 10.1093/infdis/jiz042
    A role for whey-derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins in the attenuation of obesity-related inflammation and disease. Brimelow Rachel E,West Nicholas P,Williams Lauren T,Cripps Allan W,Cox Amanda J Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Obesity is a strong predictive factor in the development of chronic disease and has now superseded undernutrition as a major public health issue. Chronic inflammation is one mechanism thought to link excess body weight with disease. Increasingly, the gut and its extensive population of commensal microflora are recognized as playing an important role in the development of obesity-related chronic inflammation. Obesity and a high fat diet are associated with altered commensal microbial communities and increased intestinal permeability which contributes to systemic inflammation as a result of the translocation of lipopolysaccharide into the circulation and metabolic endotoxemia. Various milk proteins are showing promise in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation via reductions in visceral fat, neutralization of bacteria at the mucosa and reduced intestinal permeability. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting the potential antiobesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of bovine whey-derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins. 10.1080/10408398.2014.995264
    Food restriction followed by refeeding with a casein- or whey-based diet differentially affects the gut microbiota of pre-pubertal male rats. Masarwi Majdi,Solnik Hadas Isaac,Phillip Moshe,Yaron Sima,Shamir Raanan,Pasmanic-Chor Metsada,Gat-Yablonski Galia The Journal of nutritional biochemistry Researchers are gaining an increasing understanding of host-gut microbiota interactions, but studies of the role of gut microbiota in linear growth are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food restriction and refeeding with different diets on gut microbiota composition in fast-growing rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow ad libitum (control group) or subjected to 40% food restriction for 36 days followed by continued restriction or ad libitum refeeding for 24 days. Three different diets were used for refeeding: regular vegetarian protein chow or chow in which the sole source of protein was casein or whey. In the control group, the composition of the microbiota remained stable. Food restriction for 60 days led to a significant change in the gut microbiota at the phylum level, with a reduction in the abundance of Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Rats refed with the vegetarian protein diet had a different microbiota composition than rats refed the casein- or whey-based diet. Similarities in the bacterial population were found between rats refed vegetarian protein or a whey-based diet and control rats, and between rats refed a casein-based diet and rats on continued restriction. There was a significant strong correlation between the gut microbiota and growth parameters: humerus length, epiphyseal growth plate height, and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin. In conclusion, the type of protein in the diet significantly affects the gut microbiota and, thereby, may affect animal's health. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.08.014
    In vitro modulation of gut microbiota by whey protein to preserve intestinal health. Sánchez-Moya T,López-Nicolás R,Planes D,González-Bermúdez C A,Ros-Berruezo G,Frontela-Saseta C Food & function The effect of several types of whey milk - cow, sheep, goat and a mixture of them (60 : 20 : 20, respectively) - was assessed in the human gut microbiota. The prebiotic potential of these substrates was evaluated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following faecal batch culture fermentations (mimicking colonic fermentation) for 48 hours, using faeces from normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) donors. Throughout the fermentation process, pH, gas production, short chain and branched fatty acids (SCFA-BCFA) were measured, as well as the changes of microbiota using qPCR. The pH decreased in all whey samples during the fermentation process. Gas production was higher in all whey samples than in controls, especially at 12 hours (p < 0.05). The diversity of SCFA and BCFA production was significantly different between the donors, in particular cow and mixed whey. Whey milk had a strong prebiotic effect on the gut microbiota of NW and OB donors, showing a significant increase of Bifidobacterium (p < 0.05) with cow, sheep and mixed whey and increase in the Lactobacillus group, particularly in OB donors. Bacteria associated with obesity did not show an increase in any of the groups of donors. Therefore, supplementing a diet with these types of whey can selectively stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria, enhancing SCFA production, which could improve intestinal disorders. In addition, it may be an interesting approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity and related diseases. Whey milk has a potent prebiotic effect. It can selectively stimulate desirable bacteria and SCFA profile, in both OB and NW donors, contributing to improved intestinal health and reducing obesity. 10.1039/c7fo00197e
    Impact of whey proteins on the systemic and local intestinal level of mice with diet induced obesity. Swiątecka D,Złotkowska D,Markiewicz L H,Szyc A M,Wróblewska B Food & function Obesity is a serious public health problem and being multifactorial is difficult to tackle. Since the intestinal ecosystem's homeostasis is, at least partially, diet-dependent, its modulation may be triggered by food components that are designed to exert a modulatory action leading to a health-promoting effect. Milk whey proteins, are considered as such promising factors since they influence satiation as well as body weight and constitute the source of biologically active peptides which may modulate health status locally and systemically. This way, whey proteins are associated with obesity. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the estimation of the impact of whey proteins using a commercially available whey protein isolate on the physiological response of mice with diet-induced obesity. The physiological response was evaluated on the local-intestinal level, scrutinizing intestinal microbiota as one of the important factors in obesity and on the systemic level, analyzing the response of the organism. Whey proteins brought about the decrease of the fat mass with a simultaneous increase of the lean mass of animals with diet induced obesity, which is a promising, health-promoting effect. Whey proteins also proved to act beneficially helping restore the number of beneficial bifidobacteria in obese animals and decreasing the calorie intake and fat mass as well as the LDL level. Overall, supplementation of the high fat diet with whey proteins acted locally by restoration of the intestinal ecosystem, thus preventing dysbiosis and its effects and also acted systemically by strengthening the organism increasing the lean mass and thus hindering obesity-related detrimental effects. 10.1039/c6fo01311b
    Inulin-type fructans and whey protein both modulate appetite but only fructans alter gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity: A randomized controlled trial. Reimer Raylene A,Willis Holly J,Tunnicliffe Jasmine M,Park Heekuk,Madsen Karen L,Soto-Vaca Adriana Molecular nutrition & food research SCOPE:Independently, prebiotics and dietary protein have been shown to improve weight loss and/or alter appetite. Our objective was to determine the effect of combined prebiotic and whey protein on appetite, body composition and gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS:In a 12 week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 125 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of: (1) Control; (2) Inulin-type fructans (ITF); (3) Whey protein; (4) ITF + Whey protein. Appetite, body composition and gut microbiota composition/genetic potential were assessed. Compared to Control, body fat was significantly reduced in the Whey protein group at 12 wks. Hunger, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were all lower with ITF, Whey protein and ITF + Whey protein compared to Control at 12 wks. Microbial community structure differed from 0 to 12 wks in the ITF and ITF +Whey Protein groups (i.e. increased Bifidobacterium) but not Whey Protein or Control. Changes in microbial genetic potential were seen between Control and ITF-containing treatments. CONCLUSION:Adding ITF, whey protein or both to snack bars improved several aspects of appetite control. Changes in gut microbiota may explain in part the effects of ITF but likely not whey protein. 10.1002/mnfr.201700484