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    Serum concentrations of afamin are elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Köninger Angela,Edimiris Philippos,Koch Laura,Enekwe Antje,Lamina Claudia,Kasimir-Bauer Sabine,Kimmig Rainer,Dieplinger Hans Endocrine connections Oxidative stress seems to be present in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between characteristics of PCOS and serum concentrations of afamin, a novel binding protein for the antioxidant vitamin E. A total of 85 patients with PCOS and 76 control subjects were investigated in a pilot cross-sectional study design between 2009 and 2013 in the University Hospital of Essen, Germany. Patients with PCOS were diagnosed according to the Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Afamin and diagnostic parameters of PCOS were determined at early follicular phase. Afamin concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PCOS than in controls (odds ratio (OR) for a 10 mg/ml increase in afamin=1.3, 95% CI=1.08-1.58). This difference vanished in a model adjusting for age, BMI, free testosterone index (FTI), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.80-1.38). In patients with PCOS, afamin correlated significantly with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting glucose, BMI, FTI, and SHBG (P<0.001), but in a multivariate linear model, only HOMA-IR remained significantly associated with afamin (P=0.001). No correlation was observed between afamin and androgens, LH, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, antral follicle count, ovarian volume, or anti-Müllerian hormone. In conclusion, elevated afamin values may indicate a state of oxidative stress and inflammation, strongly associated with IR and offering an indicator of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with PCOS irrespective of obesity. 10.1530/EC-14-0053
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A exerts beneficial effects by restoring hormone secretion and alleviating oxidative stress in polycystic ovary syndrome mice. Luo Man,Huang Ji-Cheng,Yang Zhan-Qing,Wang Yu-Si,Guo Bin,Yue Zhan-Peng Experimental physiology NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? What are the potential therapeutic roles of ginsenoside Rb1 and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). What is the main finding and its importance? HSYA restored the oestrous cycles of PCOS mice, reduced follicular cysts in ovaries and rescued abnormal hormone secretion; ginsenoside Rb1 did not ameliorate the main symptoms of PCOS mice. HSYA alleviated oxidative stress along with an enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activity. This highlights a potential role of HSYA in PCOS therapy. ABSTRACT:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease resulting in female infertility. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) and ginsenoside Rb1 have been shown to have antioxidant properties, but little is known about their impact in PCOS. Here dehydroepiandrosterone was used to induce PCOS in a mouse model that was characterized by an irregular oestrous cycle, cystic follicles and an elevated serum testosterone level. Supplementation of HSYA restored the oestrous cycle of PCOS mice, reduced follicular cysts in PCOS mouse ovaries and brought about a decline in serum testosterone level, while ginsenoside Rb1 did not ameliorate the above symptoms of PCOS mice. After HSYA treatment, there was elevation of serum oestradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone levels and a reduction of follicle-stimulating hormone level, but ginsenoside Rb1 only rescued the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone. Further analysis evidenced that HSYA reversed the expression of steroid hormone secretion-related genes Star, Hsd3b1, Cyp11a1 and Cyp19a1. In PCOS mice HSYA weakened the elevation of ovarian malondialdehyde, which is regarded as a biomarker for oxidative stress. Moreover, HSYA improved reduced glutathione content accompanied by a simultaneous increase in reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, and enhanced the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Collectively, HSYA exerted beneficial effects on PCOS mice by restoring hormone secretion and alleviating oxidative stress. 10.1113/EP088147
    Oxidative stress markers in the follicular fluid of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome correlate with a decrease in embryo quality. Liu Yue,Yu Zhiheng,Zhao Shigang,Cheng Lei,Man Yuanyuan,Gao Xueying,Zhao Han Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics PURPOSE:Elevated oxidative stress has been proposed as an important factor in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-related infertility. Our study was aimed at simultaneously exploring local and systemic oxidative stress in PCOS individuals and its relationship with embryo quality. METHODS:We recruited 86 PCOS cases and 60 controls. Five representative oxidative stress markers, namely, total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were measured in both follicular fluid (FF) and serum. RESULTS:Women with PCOS compared to normal controls had higher levels of TOC in both FF (10.13 ± 2.68 vs.7.03 ± 2.45, P < 0.001) and serum (11.76 ± 2.92 vs. 8.82 ± 2.57, P < 0.001). The oxidative stress index (OSI, the ratio of TOC to TAC) was also higher in PCOS cases. They were still significant after BMI adjustment (Padj<0.01). In addition, the serum OSI level was much higher than the FF OSI level in both groups. Correlation analysis showed that the FF and serum TOC were negatively correlated with the high-quality embryo rate on day 3 and the later blastocyst formation rate in the PCOS group (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficient was higher in FF. Moreover, as the regression analysis data showed, the FF MDA level was significantly associated with embryo quality indicators (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:PCOS was accompanied by elevated oxidative stress in both serum and FF. Even though serum oxidative stress was severe, the study suggested that FF oxidative stress contributed more to embryo quality, to which we should give more attention in the future. 10.1007/s10815-020-02014-y