Public Health and Health Sector Crisis Leadership During Pandemics: A Review of the Medical and Business Literature.
Sriharan Abi,Hertelendy Attila J,Banaszak-Holl Jane,Fleig-Palmer Michelle M,Mitchell Cheryl,Nigam Amit,Gutberg Jennifer,Rapp Devin J,Singer Sara J
Medical care research and review : MCRR
The global scale and unpredictable nature of the current COVID-19 pandemic have put a significant burden on health care and public health leaders, for whom preparedness plans and evidence-based guidelines have proven insufficient to guide actions. This article presents a review of empirical articles on the topics of "crisis leadership" and "pandemic" across medical and business databases between 2003 (since SARS) and-December 2020 and has identified 35 articles for detailed analyses. We use the articles' evidence on leadership behaviors and skills that have been key to pandemic responses to characterize the types of leadership competencies commonly exhibited in a pandemic context. Task-oriented competencies, including preparing and planning, establishing collaborations, and conducting crisis communication, received the most attention. However, people-oriented and adaptive-oriented competencies were as fundamental in overcoming the structural, political, and cultural contexts unique to pandemics.
Crisis leadership in an acute clinical setting: christchurch hospital, new zealand ICU experience following the february 2011 earthquake.
Prehospital and disaster medicine
INTRODUCTION:On Tuesday, February 22, 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch, New Zealand. This qualitative study explored the intensive care units (ICUs) staff experiences and adopted leadership approaches to manage a large-scale crisis resulting from the city-wide disaster. PROBLEM:To date, there have been a very small number of research publications to provide a comprehensive overview of crisis leadership from the perspective of multi-level interactions among staff members in the acute clinical environment during the process of the crisis management. METHODS:The research was qualitative in nature. Participants were recruited into the study through purposive sampling. A semi-structured, audio-taped, personal interview method was chosen as a single data collection method for this study. This study employed thematic analysis. RESULTS:Formal team leadership refers to the actions undertaken by a team leader to ensure the needs and goals of the team are met. Three core, formal, crisis-leadership themes were identified: decision making, ability to remain calm, and effective communication. Informal leaders are those individuals who exert significant influence over other members in the group to which they belong, although no formal authority has been assigned to them. Four core, informal, crisis-leadership themes were identified: motivation to lead, autonomy, emotional leadership, and crisis as opportunity. Shared leadership is a dynamic process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals. Two core, shared-leadership themes were identified: shared leadership within formal medical and nursing leadership groups, and shared leadership between formal and informal leaders in the ICU. CONCLUSION:The capabilities of formal leaders all contributed to the overall management of a crisis. Informal leaders are a very cohesive group of motivated people who can make a substantial contribution and improve overall team performance in a crisis. While in many ways the research on shared leadership in a crisis is still in its early stages of development, there are some clear benefits from adopting this leadership approach in the management of complex crises. This study may be useful to the development of competency-based training programs for formal leaders, process improvements in fostering and supporting informal leaders, and it makes important contributions to a growing body of research of shared and collective leadership in crisis.