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    MiR-375 inhibits the hepatocyte growth factor-elicited migration of mesenchymal stem cells by downregulating Akt signaling. He Lihong,Wang Xianyao,Kang Naixin,Xu Jianwei,Dai Nan,Xu Xiaojing,Zhang Huanxiang Cell and tissue research The migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is critical for their use in cell-based therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs are important regulators of MSC migration. Here, we report that the expression of miR-375 was downregulated in MSCs treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which strongly stimulates the migration of these cells. Overexpression of miR-375 decreased the transfilter migration and the migration velocity of MSCs triggered by HGF. In our efforts to determine the mechanism by which miR-375 affects MSC migration, we found that miR-375 significantly inhibited the activation of Akt by downregulating its phosphorylation at T308 and S473, but had no effect on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Further, we showed that 3'phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), an upstream kinase necessary for full activation of Akt, was negatively regulated by miR-375 at the protein level. Moreover, miR-375 suppressed the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin, two important regulators of focal adhesion (FA) assembly and turnover, and decreased the number of FAs at cell periphery. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-375 inhibits HGF-elicited migration of MSCs through downregulating the expression of PDK1 and suppressing the activation of Akt, as well as influencing the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin and FA periphery distribution. 10.1007/s00441-017-2765-y
    3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) promotes invasion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Xie Zhihui,Yuan Hongyan,Yin Yuzhi,Zeng Xiao,Bai Renkui,Glazer Robert I BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer with tumor cell invasion playing a crucial role in the metastatic process. PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor activation, and is oncogenic when expressed in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We now present evidence showing that PDK1-expressing cells exhibit enhanced anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and are highly invasive when grown on Matrigel. These properties correlate with induction of MMP-2 activity, increased MT1-MMP expression and a unique gene expression profile. METHODS:Invasion assays in Matrigel, MMP-2 zymogram analysis, gene microarray analysis and mammary isografts were used to characterize the invasive and proliferative function of cells expressing PDK1. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers was used to measure PDK1 expression in invasive tumors by IHC. RESULTS:Enhanced invasion on Matrigel in PDK1-expressing cells was accompanied by increased MMP-2 activity resulting from stabilization against proteasomal degradation. Increased MMP-2 activity was accompanied by elevated levels of MT1-MMP, which is involved in generating active MMP-2. Gene microarray analysis identified increased expression of the ECM-associated genes decorin and type I procollagen, whose gene products are substrates of MT1-MMP. Mammary fat pad isografts of PDK1-expressing cells produced invasive adenocarcinomas. Tissue microarray analysis of human invasive breast cancer indicated that PDK1pSer241 was strongly expressed in 90% of samples. CONCLUSION:These results indicate that PDK1 serves as an important effector of mammary epithelial cell growth and invasion in the transformed phenotype. PDK1 mediates its effect in part by MT1-MMP induction, which in turn activates MMP-2 and modulates the ECM proteins decorin and collagen. The presence of increased PDK1 expression in the majority of invasive breast cancers suggests its importance in the metastatic process. 10.1186/1471-2407-6-77
    Down-regulation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Liu Ying,Wang Jingna,Wu Min,Wan Wuzhou,Sun Ronghua,Yang De,Sun Xiangjun,Ma Dalong,Ying Guoguang,Zhang Ning Molecular cancer research : MCR High expression of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) has been detected in various invasive cancers. In the current study, we investigated its role in cancer cell migration and experimental metastasis. Down-regulation of PDK1 expression by small interference RNA markedly inhibited spontaneous migration and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced chemotaxis of human breast cancer cells. The defects were rescued by expressing wild-type PDK1. PDK1-depleted cells showed impaired EGF-induced actin polymerization and adhesion, probably due to a decrease in phosphorylation of LIM kinase/cofilin and integrin beta1. Confocal microscopy revealed that EGF induced cotranslocation of PDK1 with Akt and protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta), regulators of LIM kinase, and integrin beta1. Furthermore, PDK1 depletion dampened EGF-induced phosphorylation and translocation of Akt and PKCzeta, suggesting that Akt and PKCzeta functioned downstream of PDK1 in the chemotactic signaling pathway. In severe combined immunodeficiency mice, PDK1-depleted human breast cancer cells formed more slowly growing tumors and were defective in extravasation to mouse lungs after i.v. injection. Our results indicate that PDK1 plays an important role in regulating the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells, including their motility, through activation of Akt and PKCzeta. Thus, PDK1, which increases its expression in cancer cells, can be used as a target for the development of novel therapies. 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-08-0368
    Immunohistochemical analysis of PDK1 expression in breast cancer. Arsenic Ruza Diagnostic pathology BACKGROUND:3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3) and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases that are known to play crucial roles in physiological processes associated with cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human disease, including cancer. METHODS:We used immunohistochemical analysis to determine PDK1 expression in 241 tumors from patients with breast cancer in which we had previously analyzed PIK3CA mutation status. RESULTS:Moderate or high expression of PDK1 was observed in 213 of the 241 cases (88%). There was no correlation between PIK3CA mutation status and PDK1 overexpression. CONCLUSION:Our findings indicate that PDK1 is independently activated in breast cancer and not only as part of the PIK3CA pathway, suggesting that PDK1 plays a specific and distinct role from the canonical PIK3/Akt pathway and promotes oncogenesis independently of AKT. Our data implicate PDK-1 and downstream components of the PDK-1 signaling pathway as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer. 10.1186/1746-1596-9-82
    Targeting PDK1 in cancer. Raimondi C,Falasca M Current medicinal chemistry Abnormal activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling is very common in cancer, leading to deregulation of several intracellular processes normally controlled by this enzyme, including cell survival, growth, proliferation and migration. Mutations in the gene encoding the tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), which leads to uncontrolled activation of the PI3K pathway, are reported in different cancers. Among the downstream effectors of PI3Ks, 3- phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) and protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt have a key role in several cancer types. More recent data indicate that alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic PI3K signalling in breast cancer, suggesting that inhibition of PDK1 can inhibit breast cancer progression. PDK1 has an essential role in regulating cell migration especially in the context of PTEN deficiency. Downregulation of PDK1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. PDK1 activates a large number of proteins, including Akt, some PKC isoforms, S6K and SGK. Data also reveal that PDK1 is oncogenic and this is dependent on PI3K pathway. Therefore, accumulating evidence demonstrates that PDK1 is a valid therapeutic target and suggests that PDK1 inhibitors may be useful to prevent cancer progression and abnormal tissue dissemination. This review will focus on published data on the role of PDK1 in cancer and approaches used to inhibit PDK1.
    PDK1-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming Dictates Metastatic Potential in Breast Cancer. Dupuy Fanny,Tabariès Sébastien,Andrzejewski Sylvia,Dong Zhifeng,Blagih Julianna,Annis Matthew G,Omeroglu Atilla,Gao Dongxia,Leung Samuel,Amir Eitan,Clemons Mark,Aguilar-Mahecha Adriana,Basik Mark,Vincent Emma E,St-Pierre Julie,Jones Russell G,Siegel Peter M Cell metabolism Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cellular transformation, yet little is known about metabolic changes that accompany tumor metastasis. Here we show that primary breast cancer cells display extensive metabolic heterogeneity and engage distinct metabolic programs depending on their site of metastasis. Liver-metastatic breast cancer cells exhibit a unique metabolic program compared to bone- or lung-metastatic cells, characterized by increased conversion of glucose-derived pyruvate into lactate and a concomitant reduction in mitochondrial metabolism. Liver-metastatic cells displayed increased HIF-1α activity and expression of the HIF-1α target Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK1). Silencing HIF-1α reversed the glycolytic phenotype of liver-metastatic cells, while PDK1 was specifically required for metabolic adaptation to nutrient limitation and hypoxia. Finally, we demonstrate that PDK1 is required for efficient liver metastasis, and its expression is elevated in liver metastases from breast cancer patients. Our data implicate PDK1 as a key regulator of metabolism and metastatic potential in breast cancer. 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.08.007
    Nucleus-located PDK1 regulates growth, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Gan Delu,Yue Shujun,Jiang Yulin,Zhang Dian,Shi He,Qian Husun,Zhou Ting,Fang Wenli,Yao Mengli,Zuo Guowei,Chen Tingmei Life sciences AIMS:It is well known that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) is highly expressed in breast cancer (BC) tissues and promotes tumor growth, but the underlying mechanisms of this process are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of nuclear PDK1 on growth, migration and invasion in human BC cells. MAIN METHODS:The sub-cellular localization of PDK1 in BC cells was performed with subcellular fractionation followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The localization of PDK1 in breast normal tissue and breast duct carcinoma was detected by Immunohistochemistry. Then the protein-protein interaction between PDK1 and Importin β was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, the effects of nuclear PDK1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of BC cells were assessed. KEY FINDINGS:In addition to its well-known sub-cellular localization, PDK1 was present in the nucleus of BC cells, and EGF treatment increased nucleus distribution of PDK1. Moreover, the level of nuclear PDK1 accumulation facilitated the growth of BC cells. We also found that the entry of PDK1 into nucleus mainly relied on the nuclear localization signal (NLS), and NLS mutation inhibited the entry of PDK1 into nucleus; as a result, the migration and invasion abilities of BC cells were impaired, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased. SIGNIFICANCE:Our findings provided a new supplement to the sub-cellular localization of PDK1 in BC cells and uncovered the function of nuclear PDK1 in facilitating BC cells growth, migration and invasion. 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117722
    Glycolysis gatekeeper PDK1 reprograms breast cancer stem cells under hypoxia. Peng F,Wang J-H,Fan W-J,Meng Y-T,Li M-M,Li T-T,Cui B,Wang H-F,Zhao Y,An F,Guo T,Liu X-F,Zhang L,Lv L,Lv D-K,Xu L-Z,Xie J-J,Lin W-X,Lam E W-F,Xu J,Liu Q Oncogene Glycolysis is critical for cancer stem cell reprogramming; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) is enriched in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), whereas depletion of PDK1 remarkably diminishes ALDH subpopulations, decreases stemness-related transcriptional factor expression, and inhibits sphere-formation ability and tumor growth. Conversely, high levels of PDK1 enhance BCSC properties and are correlated with poor overall survival. In mouse xenograft tumor, PDK1 is accumulated in hypoxic regions and activates glycolysis to promote stem-like traits. Moreover, through screening hypoxia-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in PDK1-positive tissue, we find that lncRNA H19 is responsible for glycolysis and BCSC maintenance. Furthermore, H19 knockdown decreases PDK1 expression in hypoxia, and ablation of PDK1 counteracts H19-mediated glycolysis and self-renewal ability in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, H19 and PDK1 expression exhibits strong correlations in primary breast carcinomas. H19 acting as a competitive endogenous RNA sequesters miRNA let-7 to release Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, leading to an increase in PDK1 expression. Lastly, aspirin markedly attenuates glycolysis and cancer stem-like characteristics by suppressing both H19 and PDK1. Thus, these novel findings demonstrate that the glycolysis gatekeeper PDK1 has a critical role in BCSC reprogramming and provides a potential therapeutic strategy for breast malignancy. 10.1038/onc.2017.368