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    Dapagliflozin and Recurrent Heart Failure Hospitalizations in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Analysis of DAPA-HF. Jhund Pardeep S,Ponikowski Piotr,Docherty Kieran F,Gasparyan Samvel B,Böhm Michael,Chiang Chern-En,Desai Akshay S,Howlett Jonathon,Kitakaze Masafumi,Petrie Mark C,Verma Subodh,Bengtsson Olof,Langkilde Anna-Maria,Sjöstrand Mikaela,Inzucchi Silvio E,Køber Lars,Kosiborod Mikhail N,Martinez Felipe A,Sabatine Marc S,Solomon Scott D,McMurray John J V Circulation BACKGROUND:Patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction will experience multiple hospitalizations for heart failure during the course of their disease. We assessed the efficacy of dapagliflozin on reducing the rate of total (ie, first and repeat) hospitalizations for heart failure in the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure). METHODS:The total number of HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular deaths was examined by using the proportional-rates approach of Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying and a joint frailty model for each of recurrent HF hospitalizations and time to cardiovascular death. Variables associated with the risk of recurrent hospitalizations were explored in a multivariable Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying model. RESULTS:Of 2371 participants randomly assigned to placebo, 318 experienced 469 hospitalizations for HF; of 2373 assigned to dapagliflozin, 230 patients experienced 340 admissions. In a multivariable model, factors associated with a higher risk of recurrent HF hospitalizations included higher heart rate, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and New York Heart Association class. In the Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying model, the rate ratio for the effect of dapagliflozin on recurrent HF hospitalizations or cardiovascular death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88), =0.0002. In the joint frailty model, the rate ratio for total HF hospitalizations was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.61-0.82), <0.0001, whereas, for cardiovascular death, the hazard ratio was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.98), =0.0282. CONCLUSIONS:Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of total (first and repeat) HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death. Time-to-first event analysis underestimated the benefit of dapagliflozin in HF and reduced ejection fraction. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03036124. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053659
    A trial to evaluate the effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (DAPA-HF). McMurray John J V,DeMets David L,Inzucchi Silvio E,Køber Lars,Kosiborod Mikhail N,Langkilde Anna M,Martinez Felipe A,Bengtsson Olof,Ponikowski Piotr,Sabatine Marc S,Sjöstrand Mikaela,Solomon Scott D, European journal of heart failure BACKGROUND:Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of incident heart failure hospitalization in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have, or are at high risk of, cardiovascular disease. Most patients in these trials did not have heart failure at baseline and the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on outcomes in individuals with established heart failure (with or without diabetes) is unknown. DESIGN AND METHODS:The Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, study in patients with chronic heart failure, evaluating the effect of dapagliflozin 10 mg, compared with placebo, given once daily, in addition to standard care, on the primary composite outcome of a worsening heart failure event (hospitalization or equivalent event, i.e. an urgent heart failure visit) or cardiovascular death. Patients with and without diabetes are eligible and must have a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, a moderately elevated N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m . The trial is event-driven, with a target of 844 primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include the composite of total heart failure hospitalizations (including repeat episodes), and cardiovascular death and patient-reported outcomes. A total of 4744 patients have been randomized. CONCLUSIONS:DAPA-HF will determine the efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, added to conventional therapy, in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. 10.1002/ejhf.1432
    Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. Wiviott Stephen D,Raz Itamar,Bonaca Marc P,Mosenzon Ofri,Kato Eri T,Cahn Avivit,Silverman Michael G,Zelniker Thomas A,Kuder Julia F,Murphy Sabina A,Bhatt Deepak L,Leiter Lawrence A,McGuire Darren K,Wilding John P H,Ruff Christian T,Gause-Nilsson Ingrid A M,Fredriksson Martin,Johansson Peter A,Langkilde Anna-Maria,Sabatine Marc S, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:The cardiovascular safety profile of dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 that promotes glucosuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, is undefined. METHODS:We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes who had or were at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to receive either dapagliflozin or placebo. The primary safety outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary efficacy outcomes were MACE and a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. Secondary efficacy outcomes were a renal composite (≥40% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate to <60 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area, new end-stage renal disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes) and death from any cause. RESULTS:We evaluated 17,160 patients, including 10,186 without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, who were followed for a median of 4.2 years. In the primary safety outcome analysis, dapagliflozin met the prespecified criterion for noninferiority to placebo with respect to MACE (upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval [CI], <1.3; P<0.001 for noninferiority). In the two primary efficacy analyses, dapagliflozin did not result in a lower rate of MACE (8.8% in the dapagliflozin group and 9.4% in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03; P=0.17) but did result in a lower rate of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (4.9% vs. 5.8%; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.95; P=0.005), which reflected a lower rate of hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.88); there was no between-group difference in cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.17). A renal event occurred in 4.3% in the dapagliflozin group and in 5.6% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.87), and death from any cause occurred in 6.2% and 6.6%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.04). Diabetic ketoacidosis was more common with dapagliflozin than with placebo (0.3% vs. 0.1%, P=0.02), as was the rate of genital infections that led to discontinuation of the regimen or that were considered to be serious adverse events (0.9% vs. 0.1%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with type 2 diabetes who had or were at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, treatment with dapagliflozin did not result in a higher or lower rate of MACE than placebo but did result in a lower rate of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, a finding that reflects a lower rate of hospitalization for heart failure. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DECLARE-TIMI 58 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01730534 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1812389
    SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a meta-analysis of the EMPEROR-Reduced and DAPA-HF trials. Zannad Faiez,Ferreira João Pedro,Pocock Stuart J,Anker Stefan D,Butler Javed,Filippatos Gerasimos,Brueckmann Martina,Ofstad Anne Pernille,Pfarr Egon,Jamal Waheed,Packer Milton Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Both DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin) trials showed that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with or without diabetes. However, neither trial was powered to assess effects on cardiovascular death or all-cause death or to characterise effects in clinically important subgroups. Using study-level published data from DAPA-HF and patient-level data from EMPEROR-Reduced, we aimed to estimate the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on fatal and non-fatal heart failure events and renal outcomes in all randomly assigned patients with HFrEF and in relevant subgroups from DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials. METHODS:We did a prespecified meta-analysis of the two single large-scale trials assessing the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with HFrEF with or without diabetes: DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin). The primary endpoint was time to all-cause death. Additionally, we assessed the effects of treatment in prespecified subgroups on the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure. These subgroups were based on type 2 diabetes status, age, sex, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, race, history of hospitalisation for heart failure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body-mass index, and region (post-hoc). We used hazard ratios (HRs) derived from Cox proportional hazard models for time-to-first event endpoints and Cochran's Q test for treatment interactions; the analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model. FINDINGS:Among 8474 patients combined from both trials, the estimated treatment effect was a 13% reduction in all-cause death (pooled HR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77-0·98; p=0·018) and 14% reduction in cardiovascular death (0·86, 0·76-0·98; p=0·027). SGLT2 inhibition was accompanied by a 26% relative reduction in the combined risk of cardiovascular death or first hospitalisation for heart failure (0·74, 0·68-0·82; p<0·0001), and by a 25% decrease in the composite of recurrent hospitalisations for heart failure or cardiovascular death (0·75, 0·68-0·84; p<0·0001). The risk of the composite renal endpoint was also reduced (0·62, 0·43-0·90; p=0·013). All tests for heterogeneity of effect size between trials were not significant. The pooled treatment effects showed consistent benefits for subgroups based on age, sex, diabetes, treatment with an ARNI and baseline eGFR, but suggested treatment-by-subgroup interactions for subgroups based on NYHA functional class and race. INTERPRETATION:The effects of empagliflozin and dapagliflozin on hospitalisations for heart failure were consistent in the two independent trials and suggest that these agents also improve renal outcomes and reduce all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with HFrEF. FUNDING:Boehringer Ingelheim. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31824-9
    Dapagliflozin in heart failure with preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction: rationale and design of the DELIVER trial. Solomon Scott D,de Boer Rudolf A,DeMets David,Hernandez Adrian F,Inzucchi Silvio E,Kosiborod Mikhail N,Lam Carolyn S P,Martinez Felipe,Shah Sanjiv J,Lindholm Daniel,Wilderäng Ulrica,Öhrn Fredrik,Claggett Brian,Langkilde Anna Maria,Petersson Magnus,McMurray John J V European journal of heart failure AIMS:Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally developed as glucose-lowering agents, have been shown to reduce heart failure hospitalizations in patients with type 2 diabetes without established heart failure, and in patients with heart failure with and without diabetes. Their role in patients with heart failure with preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction remains unknown. METHODS:Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, event-driven, randomized, double-blind trial in patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >40%, comparing the effect of dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily, vs. placebo, in addition to standard of care. Patients with or without diabetes, with signs and symptoms of heart failure, a LVEF >40%, elevation in natriuretic peptides and evidence of structural heart disease are eligible. The primary endpoint is time-to-first cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure event (heart failure hospitalization or urgent heart failure visit), and will be assessed in dual primary analyses - the full population and in those with LVEF <60%. The study is event-driven and will target 1117 primary events. A total of 6263 patients have been randomized. CONCLUSIONS:DELIVER will determine the efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, added to conventional therapy, in patients with heart failure and preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction. 10.1002/ejhf.2249