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    Cadmium Induces Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Nrf2 and the Role of NF-κB, NLRP3, and MAPKs Signaling Pathway. Liu Chang,Zhu Yaohui,Lu Zhenxiang,Guo Weina,Tumen Bayaer,He Yalan,Chen Chao,Hu Shanshan,Xu Kangzhi,Wang Yan,Li Lei,Li Shenghe International journal of environmental research and public health Acute Cadmium (Cd) exposure usually induces hepatotoxicity. It is well known that oxidative stress and inflammation causes Cd-induced liver injury. However, the effect of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in Cd-induced liver injury is not completely understood. In this study, we observed Cd-induced liver damage and the potential contribution of Nrf2, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways. Changes in serum transaminases and proinflammatory cytokines expression showed that Cd could induce acute hepatotoxicity. Moreover, Nrf2 and its downstream heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) were inhibited by Cd exposure, and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), the inhibitory protein of Nrf2, was increased. Furthermore, NF-κB, NLRP3, and MAPKs signaling pathways were all activated by Cd intoxication. In conclusion, the inhibition of Nrf2, HO-1, and the activation of NF-κB, NLRP3, and MAPKs all contribute to Cd-induced liver injury. 10.3390/ijerph17010138