HCAR1/MCT1 Regulates Tumor Ferroptosis through the Lactate-Mediated AMPK-SCD1 Activity and Its Therapeutic Implications.
Zhao Youbo,Li Menghuan,Yao Xuemei,Fei Yang,Lin Zhenghong,Li Zhengguo,Cai Kaiyong,Zhao Yanli,Luo Zhong
Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of programed cell death caused by the metabolically regulated lipid peroxidation and holds promise for cancer treatment, but its regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we observe that lactate-rich liver cancer cells exhibit enhanced resistance to the ferroptotic damage induced by common ferroptosis inducers such as Ras-selective lethal small molecule 3 (RSL3) and Erastin and that the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)-mediated lactate uptake could promote ATP production in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and deactivate the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to the upregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and the downstream stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase-1 (SCD1) to enhance the production of anti-ferroptosis monounsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, blocking the lactate uptake via hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCAR1)/MCT1 inhibition promotes ferroptosis by activating the AMPK to downregulate SCD1, which may synergize with its acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 4 (ACSL4)-promoting effect to amplify the ferroptotic susceptibility. In vitro and in vivo evidence confirms that lactate regulates the ferroptosis of HCC cells and highlights its translational potential as a therapeutic target for ferroptosis-based tumor treatment.
Erastin triggers autophagic death of breast cancer cells by increasing intracellular iron levels.
Li Mengxin,Wang Xuanzhong,Lu Shan,He Chuan,Wang Chongcheng,Wang Lei,Wang Xinyu,Ge Pengfei,Song Dong
Erastin is a small molecular compound that induces ferroptosis by binding to voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC)2, VDAC3 and solute carrier family 7 member 5 inhibiting the cystine/glutamate antiporter. However, to the best of our knowledge, the mechanism of erastin-induced breast cancer cell death remains unclear. In present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of the antitumor effects of erastin on breast cancer cells. Cellular viability was assessed using an MTT assay, a lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay kit was used to determine the cell death rate, the intracellular Fe levels were determined using an iron colorimetric assay kit and western blotting was used to estimate the changes of autophagy-associated proteins levels. The present study demonstrated that erastin inhibited the viability of breast cancer cells and induced breast cancer cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, autophagy was activated by erastin, as demonstrated by upregulated expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins in breast cancer cells. Bafilomycin A1, 3-methyladenine and knockdown of autophagy related (ATG)5 with small interfering RNA prevented erastin-induced breast cancer cell death and inhibited the erastin-induced changes in the expression levels of the autophagy-associated proteins beclin1, ATG5, ATG12, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) and P62. Furthermore, erastin-induced breast cancer cell death was inhibited by an iron chelator, deferoxamine, which inhibited the increases of erastin-induced iron levels and inhibited the erastin-induced changes in the expression levels of the autophagy-related proteins beclin1, ATG5, ATG12, LC3B and P62. In summary, erastin triggered autophagic death in breast cancer cells by increasing intracellular iron levels.
Mechanism of glycyrrhizin on ferroptosis during acute liver failure by inhibiting oxidative stress.
Wang Yao,Chen Qian,Shi Chunxia,Jiao Fangzhou,Gong Zuojiong
Molecular medicine reports
The present study aimed to investigate the anti‑ferroptosis effects of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin (GLY). The present study used a cell and animal model of acute liver failure (ALF), induced using tumor necrosis factor‑α, lipopolysaccharide and D‑galactosamine, to investigate the effects of GLY. The expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) were detected were detected by western blotting in L02 hepatocytes and mouse liver. The expression of GPX4 and HMGB1 in L02 hepatocytes and mouse liver was detected by immunofluorescence. The pathological changes to liver tissues were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Fe2+, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) were tested using kits. Compared with the normal group, the degree of liver damage and liver function in the model animal group was severe. The protein levels of HMGB1 in L02 cells and liver tissues were significantly increased. The expression of NRF2, HO‑1 and GPX4 was significantly decreased. The levels of LDH, Fe2+, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS were increased, whereas the level of GSH was decreased. Treatment with GLY reduced the degree of liver damage, the expression of HMGB1 was decreased, and the levels of Nrf2, HO‑1 and GPX4 were increased. The levels of LDH, Fe2+, MDA, ROS were decreased, while the level of GSH was increased by GLY treatment. The results of the present study indicated that HMGB1 is involved in the process of ferroptosis. The HMGB1 inhibitor GLY significantly reduced the degree of ferroptosis during ALF by inhibiting oxidative stress.
Activatable Biomineralized Nanoplatform Remodels the Intracellular Environment of Multidrug-Resistant Tumors for Enhanced Ferroptosis/Apoptosis Therapy.
Wang Xuan,Zhao Yuanyuan,Hu Yan,Fei Yang,Zhao Youbo,Xue Chencheng,Cai Kaiyong,Li Menghuan,Luo Zhong
Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death with significant therapeutic prospect, but its application against drug-resistant tumor cells is challenging due to their ability to effuse antitumor agents via p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and anti-lipid peroxidation alkaline intracellular environment. Herein, an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based nanoplatform is reported for the targeted combinational ferroptosis/apoptosis therapy of drug resistant tumor cells by blocking the MCT4-mediated efflux of lactic acid (LA). The nanoplatform is fabricated through the biomineralization of doxorubicin-Fe (DOX-Fe ) complex and MCT4-inhibiting siRNAs (siMCT4) and can release them to the tumor cytoplasm after the hydrolysis of ACP and dissociation of DOX-Fe in the acidic lysosomes. siMCT4 can inhibit MCT4 expression and force the glycolysis-generated lactic acid (LA) to remain in cytoplasm for rapid acidification. The nanoplatform-induced remodeling of the tumor intracellular environment can not only interrupt the ATP supply required for P-gp-dependent DOX effusion to enhance H O production, but also increase the overall catalytic efficiency of Fe for the initiation and propagation of lipid peroxidation. These features could act in concert to enhance the efficacy of the combinational ferroptosis/chemotherapy and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. This study may provide new avenues for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tumors.