Utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion.
Nattusamy Loganathan,Madan Karan,Mohan Anant,Hadda Vijay,Jain Deepali,Madan Neha Kawatra,Arava Sudheer,Khilnani Gopi C,Guleria Randeep
Lung India : official organ of Indian Chest Society
BACKGROUND:Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Literature on its utility from developing countries is limited. We herein describe our initial experience on the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from a tertiary care teaching and referral center in north India. We also perform a systematic review of studies reporting the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy suite. RESULTS:A total of 48 patients underwent semi-rigid thoracoscopy between August 2012 and December 2013 for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Mean age was 50.9 ± 14.1 years (range: 17-78 years). Pre-procedure clinico-radiological diagnoses were malignant pleural effusion [36 patients (75%)], tuberculosis (TB) [10 (20.83%) patients], and empyema [2 patients (4.17%)]. Patients with empyema underwent the procedure for pleural biopsy, optimal placement of intercostal tube and adhesiolysis. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy diagnosed pleural malignancy in 30 (62.5%) patients and TB in 2 (4.17%) patients. Fourteen (29.17%) patients were diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis and normal pleura was diagnosed on a pleural biopsy in 2 (4.17%) patients. Overall, a definitive diagnosis of either pleural malignancy or TB was obtained in 32 (66.7%) patients. Combined overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy for malignant pleural effusion were 96.77%, 100%, 100% and 66.67%, respectively. There was no procedure-related mortality. On performing a systematic review of literature, four studies on semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India were identified. CONCLUSION:Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions.
Pleuroscopy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for exudative pleural effusion: a comparative overview.
Ali Muhammad Sajawal,Light Richard W,Maldonado Fabien
Journal of thoracic disease
Exudative pleural effusions, such as malignant and tuberculous pleural effusions, are associated with notable morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, a significant number of these effusions will remain undiagnosed despite thoracentesis. Traditionally, closed pleural biopsies have been the next best diagnostic step, but the diagnostic yield of blind closed pleural biopsies for malignant pleural effusions is insufficient. When image-guided targeted biopsies are not possible, both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery are reasonable options for obtaining pleural biopsies, but the decision to select one procedure over the other continues to raise much debate. Pleuroscopy (aka. medical thoracoscopy, local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) is a relatively common procedure performed by interventional pulmonologists in the bronchoscopy suite with local anesthesia, often as an outpatient procedure, on spontaneously breathing patients. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, on the other hand, is performed by thoracic surgeons in the operating room, on mechanically ventilated patients under general anesthesia, though admittedly considerable overlap exists in practice. Both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have reported diagnostic yields of over 90%, although pleuroscopy more often leads to the unsatisfactory diagnosis of 'non-specific' pleuritis. These cases of 'non-specific' pleuritis need to be followed up for at least one year, as 10-15% of them will eventually lead to the diagnosis of cancer, typically malignant pleural mesothelioma. Both procedures have their pros and cons, and it is therefore of paramount importance that all cases be discussed as part of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis within a "pleural team" that should ideally include interventional pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.
Imprint Cytology of Thoracoscopic Pleural Biopsy Tissue for Early Etiological Diagnosis of Pleural Effusion: A Pilot Study From India.
Gupta Richa,Arul Ashwin Oliver,Sasikumar Jebin Roger,Prabhu Anne Jennifer,James Prince
Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology
Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy provides the highest diagnostic yield in both malignant and tubercular pleural effusions. However histopathologic report takes 3 to 5 days to provide the diagnosis, resulting in a delay of further management plans like pleurodesis or chest tube removal. Imprint cytology of biopsy tissue can provide early information about the etiological diagnosis. Thus, we conducted this pilot study in 66 patients of exudative pleural effusions undergoing medical thoracoscopy. One or 2 biopsy pieces obtained during medical thoracoscopy from pleural nodules were used to prepare imprint cytology slides in the thoracoscopy suite. In comparison to thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, the diagnostic yield of imprint cytology of pleural tissue was 92% (49 of 53 cases) in cases of malignant pleural effusion and 75% (9 of 12 cases) in cases of tuberculosis pleural effusions. Imprint cytology provided a definite idea about the type of diagnosis, about 2.5 days before the histopathology results. By providing early etiological diagnosis, it may also decrease the duration of hospital stay and health care expenditure. A large prospective trial has been planned in our center to confirm this hypothesis.
Efficacy and Cost of Awake Thoracoscopy and Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery in the Undiagnosed Pleural Effusion.
McDonald Christine M,Pierre Camille,de Perrot Marc,Darling Gail,Cypel Marcelo,Pierre Andrew,Waddell Thomas,Keshavjee Shaf,Yasufuku Kazuhiro,Czarnecka-Kujawa Kasia
The Annals of thoracic surgery
BACKGROUND:The study aim is to compare the diagnostic yield, safety, and cost of outpatient awake thoracoscopy (AT) with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) pleural biopsy in undiagnosed pleural effusions. METHODS:The diagnostic yield of pleural biopsy performed by AT or VATS in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions at a tertiary thoracic surgery center in Canada between 2011 and 2015 was retrospectively evaluated. Test sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were compared. Procedure safety, hospital length of stay, additional pleural-based interventions, and procedure-related costs were compared. RESULTS:Patients underwent either AT (n = 78) or VATS (n = 99) during the study period. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 100%, 100%, and 79% for AT and 93%, 94%, 99%, and 76% for VATS, with no significant difference in diagnostic test performance. There was no difference in the rate of major complications (2 AT [2.6%] versus 4 VATS [4.0%], p = 0.696), minor complications (14 AT [17.9%] versus 16 VATS [16.2%], p = 0.841) or need for additional pleural-based procedures (20 AT [25.6%] versus 18 VATS [18.2%], p = 0.270). The VATS was associated with longer median hospital stay (VATS 3 days [interquartile range: 1 to 4] versus AT 0 days [interquartile range: 0 to 1], z = 6.98, p < 0.001) and a higher procedure-related average cost (VATS Canadian dollars $7,962 [95% confidence interval: $7,134 to $8,790] versus AT Canadian dollars $2,815 [95% confidence interval: $2,010 to $3,620], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Awake thoracoscopy and VATS have similar diagnostic yield and safety profiles in the assessment of undiagnosed pleural effusions; however, AT is associated with shorter length of stay and lower average per-procedure cost. In the appropriate clinical setting, AT may be the diagnostic test of choice.