Factors affecting sleep quality in Intensive Care Units.
Bernat Adell M D,Galarza Barrachina L,Bisbal Andrés E,Cebrián Graullera G,Pagés Aznar G,Morán Marmaneu M Á,Ferrandiz Selles M D,Melgarejo Urendez A
OBJECTIVE:To report sleep quality and identify related factors. DESIGN:A descriptive cross-sectional study was made with a convenience sample of 129 patients. The differences between 3 periods were evaluated using the Wilcoxon test and Spearman correlation r. Multiple regression analyses were performed to relate independent variables to sleep quality. SETTING:The Department of Intensive Care Medicine of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS:Patients admitted between February 2016 and December 2017. INTERVENTIONS:Questionnaire administration. VARIABLES:Items of the modified Freedman questionnaire, and demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS:External factors interfering with sleep quality were noise and constant light exposure in the 3 periods, with significant differences between these periods in nursing care (P = 0.005) and nursing activities (P = 0.019). The other factors affecting sleep quality and identified by the multivariate regression model were age (P = 0.012), daily alcohol intake (P = 0.023), benzodiazepine use during admission to the ICU (P = 0.01) and comorbidities (P = 0.005). There were significant differences in sleepiness between discharge and the first day (P ≤ 0.029) and between discharge and half stay (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Noise and light were the most annoying factors, but statistical significance was only reached for nursing activities and care. Age, alcohol intake, benzodiazepine use in the ICU and a higher comorbidity index had a negative impact upon sleep. Sleepiness was reduced at the end of stay.