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    The effect of human papilloma virus vaccination on embryo yield and clinical fertilisation outcomes: a matched retrospective cohort study. Demir Mustafa,Ince Onur,Yilmaz Bulent,Decleer Wim,Osmanagaoglu Kaan Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology The effects of HPV vaccination on embryo yield and pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles with fresh embryo transfer (ET) were investigated. First, embryo yielding rates (EYR) in 2795 cycles with and without HPV vaccination were compared by retrospective cohort study design. EYR of HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients were not significantly different (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.76-3.63). Second, ET outcomes were compared for 155 HPV vaccine + cycles and 465 HPV vaccine - cycles after matching for ages and cycle attempt number. The differences in the number of retrieved oocytes (10.2 ± 6.1, 11.2 ± 6.7;  = .161), mature (MII) oocytes (8.7 ± 5.7, 9.8 ± 6.3;  = .088), two pronuclear zygotes (2PN) (5.4 ± 4.1, 6.1 ± 4.6;  = .110) and fertilisation rates (0.62 ± 0.23, 0.62 ± 0.23;  = .539) were insignificant between the two groups. Moreover, positive (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.47-1.16), clinical (0.60; 0.36-1.01) and the ongoing pregnancy (0.55; 0.30-1.01) rates were lower in the HPV vaccinated group but the difference was not statistically significant.IMPACT STATEMENT There are recent case studies that report premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) following a post-vaccination autoimmune response against the HPV vaccine. These studies suggest that the possible trigger for the immune reaction might be the immunogen content of the vaccine. However, the number of clinical studies investigating the effects of the HPV vaccine on reproductive function and fertilisation outcomes is limited. In contrast to the case reports suggesting impaired reproductive and ovarian functions in HPV vaccinated patients, this study finds that in IVF patients HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated women have similar EYR, MII, 2PN, oocyte counts, fertilisation rates, positive, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates. The results suggest the HPV vaccine does not have a negative impact on embryo yielding rates oocyte counts and fertilisation rates, positive, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in IVF treatments. Hence, they can be safely used for primary prevention against cervical cancer. 10.1080/01443615.2020.1739008
    Primary Ovarian Insufficiency and Adolescent Vaccination. Naleway Allison L,Mittendorf Kathleen F,Irving Stephanie A,Henninger Michelle L,Crane Bradley,Smith Ning,Daley Matthew F,Gee Julianne Pediatrics BACKGROUND:Published case series have suggested a potential association between human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). We describe POI incidence and estimate POI risk after HPV; tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed (Tdap); inactivated influenza (II); and meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccination. METHODS:We searched Kaiser Permanente Northwest electronic health records for outpatient diagnoses suggestive of POI in female patients aged 11 to 34 years between 2006 and 2014. We reviewed and adjudicated the medical record to confirm diagnoses and estimate symptom onset dates. We excluded cases with known causes and calculated the incidence of idiopathic POI. We estimated risk by calculating hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:From a cohort of 199 078 female patients, we identified 120 with diagnoses suggestive of POI. After adjudication and exclusion of 26 POI cases with known causes, we confirmed 46 idiopathic POI cases. POI incidence was low in 11- to 14-year-olds (0.87 per 1 000 000 person-months) and increased with age. One confirmed case patient received the HPV vaccine 23 months before the first clinical evaluation for delayed menarche. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.07-1.36) after HPV, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.37-2.10) after Tdap, 1.42 (95% CI: 0.59-3.41) after II, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.27-3.23) after MenACWY vaccination. CONCLUSIONS:We did not find a statistically significant elevated risk of POI after HPV, Tdap, II, or MenACWY vaccination in this population-based retrospective cohort study. These findings should lessen concern about POI risk after adolescent vaccination. 10.1542/peds.2018-0943
    Identifying False Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Information and Corresponding Risk Perceptions From Twitter: Advanced Predictive Models. Tomaszewski Tre,Morales Alex,Lourentzou Ismini,Caskey Rachel,Liu Bing,Schwartz Alan,Chin Jessie Journal of medical Internet research BACKGROUND:The vaccination uptake rates of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine remain low despite the fact that the effectiveness of HPV vaccines has been established for more than a decade. Vaccine hesitancy is in part due to false information about HPV vaccines on social media. Combating false HPV vaccine information is a reasonable step to addressing vaccine hesitancy. OBJECTIVE:Given the substantial harm of false HPV vaccine information, there is an urgent need to identify false social media messages before it goes viral. The goal of the study is to develop a systematic and generalizable approach to identifying false HPV vaccine information on social media. METHODS:This study used machine learning and natural language processing to develop a series of classification models and causality mining methods to identify and examine true and false HPV vaccine-related information on Twitter. RESULTS:We found that the convolutional neural network model outperformed all other models in identifying tweets containing false HPV vaccine-related information (F score=91.95). We also developed completely unsupervised causality mining models to identify HPV vaccine candidate effects for capturing risk perceptions of HPV vaccines. Furthermore, we found that false information contained mostly loss-framed messages focusing on the potential risk of vaccines covering a variety of topics using more diverse vocabulary, while true information contained both gain- and loss-framed messages focusing on the effectiveness of vaccines covering fewer topics using relatively limited vocabulary. CONCLUSIONS:Our research demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of using predictive models to identify false HPV vaccine information and its risk perceptions on social media. 10.2196/30451
    HPV Vaccine and College-Age Men: A Scoping Review. Laserson Alyssa K,Oliffe John L,Krist Jennifer,Kelly Mary T American journal of men's health The human papillomavirus (HPV) potentially affects every sexually active man in the United States and Canada. In 2017, the vaccine became publicly funded in Canada for males ages 9-26, and was integrated into school vaccination programs. In 2019, HPV vaccination was recommended as routine for all U.S.-based males and females ages 9 through 26, and a shared decision for adults >26 years; however, since the approval of the vaccine in 2006 for females only, the age and dosing recommendations for males have followed a complicated and changing trajectory. Current adherence rates are low among college and university age males (18-26 years); therefore, understanding and addressing the barriers and facilitators for men's HPV vaccination is critically important. The purpose of the current scoping review is to provide a synthesis of recent literature pertaining to HPV in college and university age men, as a means to guiding health-care providers (HCPs). Drawing from 15 published articles, three thematic findings were inductively derived. Theme one, , was underpinned by men's knowledge deficits about their eligibility for, and the availability of HPV vaccines. Theme two, , included men's engagement in sexual activities while misinformed or denying the risk for contracting HPV. The third theme, , summarizes messaging strategies used to lobby young men to vaccinate. The review findings indicate gender-sensitive interventions targeting college-age men, including early, frequent, and consistent messaging on HPV are key. 10.1177/1557988320973826
    Social Media Communication about HPV Vaccine in China: A Study Using Topic Modeling and Survey. Jiang Shaohai,Wang Pianpian,Liu Piper Liping,Ngien Annabel,Wu Xingtong Health communication The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is relatively novel to people in China. Social media is becoming an important channel for learning new health information. However, limited is known about what HPV vaccine information has been disseminated on social media, and how such online information is associated with health-related behaviors in China. Based on Longo et al.'s model of patient use of healthcare information for healthcare decision, and Longo's model of health information seeking behaviors, this study examined HPV vaccine-related information type and information acquisition pattern. Following the mixed-methods approach, we first crawled 67,773 postings about HPV vaccine on Weibo, the largest microblogging website in China, and performed topic modeling to identify HPV vaccine-related topics that are prevalent on Weibo. The results showed six major topics about HPV vaccine, namely policy, guidance information, advertising, scandals, personal experience sharing, and HPV risks. Second, we conducted an online survey (n = 1,982) to investigate how scanning, seeking, and discussing the six HPV vaccine topics identified from big data analytics can affect HPV vaccine knowledge, safety concern, and vaccination intention. We documented significant impacts of social media health communication on users' health knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention. 10.1080/10410236.2021.1983338
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV): unawareness of the causal role of HPV infection in cervical cancer, HPV vaccine availability, and HPV vaccine uptake among female schoolteachers in a Middle Eastern country. Rezqalla Juman,Alshatti Mariam,Ibraheem Amna,Omar Danah,Houda Al-Failakawi,AlHaqqan Shamayel,AlGhurair Sarah,Akhtar Saeed Journal of infection and public health BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. This cross-sectional study among female schoolteachers assessed the prevalence of i) unawareness of HPV infection's causal role in cervical cancer; ii) unawareness of HPV vaccine availability and iii) examined the sociodemographic variables associated both the outcome variables. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was conducted among female schoolteachers employed in public and private sectors schools in Kuwait using a structured questionnaire for data collection. Prevalence of each of the outcome variables was computed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate independent predictors of two dependent variables. RESULTS:A total 1341 female schoolteachers were enrolled. Of the participants, 60% were unaware of HPV causal role in cervical cancer and 88% were unaware of HPV vaccine availability. Among those who were aware of HPV vaccine availability, 83.8% were unvaccinated. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) model showed that 20-29 years old participants or those with low family income (< 500 KD/month) were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to be unaware of HPV causal role in cervical cancer. Moreover, participants with family/ personal history of cervical cancer were significantly (p < 0.05) less likely to be unaware of HPV role in causation of cervical cancer. A separate MLR model revealed that the participants were significantly more likely to be unaware of HPV vaccine availability if they were Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs (p < 0.05), employed in public schools (p = 0.003) or less likely to be unaware if they had personal or family history of cervical cancer (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:High prevalences of unawareness of causal role of HPV in cervical cancer and unawareness of HPV vaccine availability were recorded. Targeted education among identified sociodemographic groups with high levels of unawareness is warranted. If undertaken, future studies may evaluate the impact of recommended efforts. 10.1016/j.jiph.2021.01.015
    Effect of a school-based educational intervention on HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and willingness to be vaccinated among Chinese adolescents : a multi-center intervention follow-up study. Zhang Xi,Liu Chun-Rong,Wang Zeng-Zhen,Ren Ze-Fang,Feng Xiang-Xian,Ma Wei,Gao Xiao-Hong,Zhang Rong,Brown Matthew D,Qiao You-Lin,Geng Qian,Li Jing Vaccine BACKGROUND:Middle school students are recommended as the primary target population for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. This study aimed to assess HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, and to evaluate the effect of a school-based educational intervention, immediately and one year later, on HPV knowledge and vaccine acceptability among adolescents in mainland China. METHODS:A school-based interventional follow-up study was conducted in seven representative cities in mainland China from May 2015 to May 2017. "Train-the-trainer" strategy was employed to educate school teachers in this study. Students aged 13 to 14 years old were assigned to intervention classes and control classes. All students were required to complete the baseline questionnaire. Students in the intervention classes were given a 45-minute lecture regarding HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and were then asked to complete a post-education questionnaire. One year later, all students were asked to complete the post-education questionnaire again. RESULTS:Baseline HPV knowledge was low among Chinese adolescents, with only 12.6% and 15.7% of students having heard of HPV and HPV vaccines, respectively. After the intervention, the level of HPV-related knowledge increased immediately, and students with higher knowledge levels of HPV and HPV vaccines were more willing to get vaccinated. One year after the intervention, the knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines was dramatically diminished. However, knowledge was significantly higher in intervention classes compared to control classes. CONCLUSIONS:Knowledge and awareness of HPV and vaccination are generally deficient among Chinese adolescents. School-based health education was very effective in improving awareness and positive attitudes about HPV and HPV vaccines within a short time. Integrating health education on HPV into the existing school-based sexual health curriculum could be an effective way to increase HPV vaccination coverage and help to eliminate preventable HPV-associated cancers in China. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.03.032
    Declines in HPV vaccine type prevalence in women screened for cervical cancer in the United States: Evidence of direct and herd effects of vaccination. Markowitz Lauri E,Naleway Allison L,Lewis Rayleen M,Crane Bradley,Querec Troy D,Weinmann Sheila,Steinau Martin,Unger Elizabeth R Vaccine BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been recommended in the United States since 2006 for routine vaccination of girls at age 11-12 years and through age 26 years for women not previously vaccinated. Changes in vaccine-type HPV (VT) prevalence can be used to evaluate vaccine impact, including herd effects. METHODS:We determined type-specific HPV in cytology specimens from women aged 20-29 years screened for cervical cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northwest in 2007 and in two vaccine era periods: 2012-2013 and 2015-2016. Detection and typing used L1 consensus PCR with hybridization for 37 types, including quadrivalent vaccine types (HPV 6/11/16/18). RESULTS:Among 20-24 year-olds in 2012-2013 and 2015-2016, 44% and 64% had a history of ≥1-dose vaccination. VT prevalence decreased from 13.1% in 2007 to 2.9% in 2015-2016 (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.29). HPV 31 prevalence was also lower in the vaccine periods compared with 2007. VT prevalence in 2015-2016 among 20-24 year-olds was lower in both vaccinated, 1.3% (PR = 0.10; 95% CI 0.06-0.16), and unvaccinated women, 5.8% (PR = 0.45; 95% CI 0.33-0.61). Among 25-29 year-olds, 21% and 32% had a history of ≥1-dose vaccination. VT prevalence decreased from 8.1% in 2007 to 5.0% in 2015-2016 (PR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.50-0.78). Non-VT high risk prevalence was higher in the vaccine periods compared with the pre-vaccine era in both age groups, however, not in 2015-2016 compared with 2012-2013. CONCLUSION:Within 9-10 years of vaccine introduction, VT prevalence decreased 78% among 20-24 year-olds and 38% in 25-29 year-olds. There were declines in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women, showing evidence of direct and herd protection. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.099
    Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministered with other vaccines in individuals aged 9-25 years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Li Yaowei,Zhu Pengfei,Wu Meifen,Zhang Yiqing,Li Li Vaccine INTRODUCTION:Adolescents and young adults are at a high risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, which can be prevented with the use of vaccines. Moreover, a combined immunization strategy for administration of HPV vaccines with other routine vaccines may lead to better compliance. We aim to comprehensively evaluate immunogenicity and safety in the case of concomitantly administered HPV vaccine in individuals aged 9-25 years. METHODS:Relevant studies, published up to December 27, 2018, were identified through searches of Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge. The pooled relative risk (RR) of immunogenicity and safety information pertaining to the concomitant administration of HPV vaccines with other routine vaccines in healthy participants aged 9-25 years were evaluated. RESULTS:A total of 13 papers (11,657 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. The analyses showed that, between the concomitant and nonconcomitant administration groups, the seroconversion rate for the specific antibodies against all HPV types (type 16-, 18-, 6-, 11-, 31-, 33-, 45-, 52-, and 58) were the same (the pooled RR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.00-1.00); for the bivalent HPV (2vHPV) vaccine, the risks of local adverse events showed no significant difference (the pooled RR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.97-1.04), and the risks of systemic adverse events were almost similar (the pooled RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18); for the non-bivalent HPV (4vHPV and 9vHPV) vaccines, the risks of local adverse events were slightly higher in the concomitant administration groups (the pooled RR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.17-1.47), and the risks of systemic adverse events were higher in the concomitant administration groups (the pooled RR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.69-2.59). CONCLUSIONS:We believe that the concomitant administration of other vaccines along with HPV vaccine is acceptable and there is no interference with the immune response to HPV vaccine. Concomitant vaccine administration has the potential to minimize the number of vaccination visits, leading to increased compliance, hence more effective disease prevention. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.092
    Parents' knowledge, beliefs, acceptance and uptake of the HPV vaccine in members of The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Wijayanti Kurnia Eka,Schütze Heike,MacPhail Catherine,Braunack-Mayer Annette Vaccine BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting females in Southeast Asia. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been available since 2006. Several Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries have since introduced and/or piloted the HPV vaccine with adolescent females. This systematic review was conducted to understand what factors influence parents' acceptance of the HPV vaccine in the region. METHODS:Seven databases were searched for qualitative and quantitative studies published up to 16 April 2020. Papers were included if they were peer-reviewed, in English, available in full text, and had a focus on parents' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. Findings were integrated to answer the review question using framework analysis based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. RESULTS:Sixteen publications were included and synthesised under the Theory of Planned Behaviour domains: 1) Knowledge, attitudes and acceptance, 2) subjective norms, and 3) perceived behavioural control. Parents' attitudes to HPV vaccination were positive and acceptance to vaccinate their daughters against HPV was high. The uptake was high when the vaccine was offered for free. CONCLUSION:Parents' acceptance and uptake of the HPV vaccine in ASEAN member-countries was high when the vaccine was offered for free even though their knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV was poor. Further research is needed to see how uptake and acceptance can be maintain when the vaccine is not offered for free. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.049
    Gender and Sexual Orientation Differences in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake among Chinese Young Adults. Choi Edmond Pui Hang,Wong Janet Yuen Ha,Lau Angel Yin Yim,Fong Daniel Yee Tak International journal of environmental research and public health To date, empirical studies on HPV vaccine uptake are still limited in Chinese populations and mainly conducted in female cohorts. In order to inform health services planning and health promotion programmes for HPV vaccination, this cross-sectional study aimed to report the prevalence of self-reported HPV vaccination status and to examine gender and sexual orientation differences in the uptake of HPV vaccine in Chinese college students. The overall prevalence of HPV vaccine uptake was 27.6% ( = 242), with a significantly higher prevalence in females (39.7%) than in males (4.7%). 91.4% of subjects heard about HPV vaccination, with a significantly higher prevalence in females (93.8%) than in males (86.8%). The prevalence of HPV vaccine uptake was only 2.6% for bisexual/ homosexual males and 5.0% for heterosexual males. Only 45.8% of the overall subjects knew HPV vaccination is not for females only, with a significantly higher prevalence in females (49.7%) than in males (38.6%). The low prevalence of male HPV vaccine uptake and awareness called for the need to have more male-specific HPV campaigns to promote HPV vaccination awareness and uptake in males to reduce the overall prevalence of HPV infection. 10.3390/ijerph15061099
    Correlates of HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation among male adolescents, 2014 NIS-Teen. Landis Kathryn,Bednarczyk Robert A,Gaydos Laura M Vaccine Vaccination is a safe and effective way to prevent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cancers; however, HPV vaccine uptake remains low in the US. After the 2011 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation for routine HPV vaccination of adolescent males, several studies have examined predictors for initiating the vaccine series in this population of interest, particularly with regard to provider recommendations. This study examined racial and ethnic differences for HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation in male adolescents. Based on prior HPV vaccine uptake estimates and healthcare utilization data, we hypothesized that minority adolescents would be more likely to initiate HPV vaccines, but less likely to receive a provider recommendation compared to white counterparts. We analyzed the 2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen), which included 10,753 male adolescents with provider-verified vaccination data in 50 US states, using multivariate logistic regression models to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation. The odds of HPV vaccine initiation were 76 percent higher for Hispanic adolescents and 43 percent higher for non-Hispanic Other or Multiple race adolescents compared to white adolescents. Approximately half of parents reported receiving a provider recommendation for vaccination, with no significant difference in the odds of receiving a provider recommendation across racial/ethnic groups. Despite similar frequency of recommendations across racial and ethnic groups, male adolescents who are racial/ethnic minorities are more likely to initiate vaccination. Future research should focus on developing tailored interventions to increase HPV vaccine receipt among males of all racial/ethnic groups. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.04.075
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Assay Suitable for Monitoring the Impact of the 9-Valent HPV Vaccine. Kukimoto Iwao,Matsumoto Koji,Takahashi Fumiaki,Iwata Takashi,Tanaka Kohsei,Yamaguchi-Naka Mayuko,Yamamoto Kasumi,Yahata Hideaki,Nakabayashi Makoto,Kato Hisamori,Tsuda Naotake,Onuki Mamiko,Yaegashi Nobuo, The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine In Japan, a bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against carcinogenic HPV16/18 was licensed in 2009, and a quadrivalent vaccines against HPV16/18 and non-carcinogenic HPV6/11 was licensed in 2011. Recently, the next-generation 9-valent vaccine targeting HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 has been approved. Accurate HPV genotyping is essential for HPV vaccine research and surveillance. The Roche Linear Array (LA) has long been a standard assay for HPV genotyping, but its recent product discontinuation notice has urged us to introduce an alternative assay with comparable performance. In the present study, an in-house HPV genotyping assay that employs PCR with PGMY09/11 primers and reverse blotting hybridization (PGMY-CHUV) was compared with LA to assess genotype-specific agreement. A total of 100 cervical precancer specimens were subjected to both PGMY-CHUV and LA. For detection of genotypes included in the 9-valent vaccine, PGMY-CHUV completely agreed with LA for detection of HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV33 and HPV45, and showed near-complete agreement for HPV31 and HPV58 (98% and 99%, respectively). Moreover, PGMY-CHUV detected a significantly higher prevalence of HPV52 than LA (22% vs. 14%, P = 0.008 by McNemar's exact test), with 92.0% overall agreement, 63.6% positive agreement and a kappa value of 0.73. Most (87.5%) of HPV52 discordant cases involved mixed infections with HPV35 or HPV58. In conclusion, while the two assays present equivalent data for assessing the effectiveness of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, PGMY-CHUV is more suitable for evaluating the impact of the current 9-valent vaccine because of its superior detection of HPV52 in co-infection cases. 10.1620/tjem.251.287
    Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among men living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Cross-sectional findings from a clinical cohort. Grewal Ramandip,Grennan Troy,Gillis Jennifer L,Ogilvie Gina,Gaspar Mark,Grace Daniel,Raboud Janet M,MacPherson Paul A,Rosenes Ron,Salit Irving E,Burchell Ann N, Preventive medicine Men living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are internationally recognized as a priority population for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Our objective was to explore HPV vaccine uptake among men living with HIV in Ontario, Canada, and investigate differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated men. We used data from a cross-sectional questionnaire administered between 2016 and 2017 among men living with HIV and participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study. We calculated the proportion vaccinated against HPV, described vaccination experiences, and HPV vaccine knowledge, and calculated differences in characteristics between vaccinated and unvaccinated men. Among 1651 men (mean age = 51 years, 72% identified as gay), 7% were vaccinated (95% confidence interval[CI] 5.5-7.9%); 85% received their first dose at a primary care or HIV clinic. Among unvaccinated men, 40% were unaware of the HPV vaccine, 65% reported low perceived risk for HPV, and 8% discussed HPV vaccination with a physician. Compared to unvaccinated men, vaccinated men were younger, most identified as gay, had a higher education/income, reported a higher number of recent sex partners, and had a history of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HPV, anogenital warts, and/or anal cancer. Our findings reveal that few men living with HIV were vaccinated against HPV. This may be influenced by low HPV awareness, prohibitive cost, and lack of physician recommendation. Several men reporting lower socio-economic status, older men, and heterosexual, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men were missed for vaccination. Primary care and HIV clinics may be ideal locations to increase uptake. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106329
    A nationwide post-marketing survey of knowledge, attitudes and recommendations towards human papillomavirus vaccines among healthcare providers in China. Xu Xiaoqian,Wang Yueyun,Liu Yawen,Yu Yanqin,Yang Chunxia,Zhang Yanyang,Hong Ying,Wang Yan,Zhang Xingxing,Bian Rui,Cao Xian,Xu Lili,Hu Shangying,Zhao Fanghui Preventive medicine Since licensure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in mainland China, little research has been conducted about healthcare providers' (HCPs) understanding and recommendation of HPV vaccine. A multi-stage convenience sample of Chinese HCPs (N = 5270) were surveyed, involving obstetrician-gynecologists, HCPs from Division of Expanded Program on Immunization (DEPI), Community Health Center (CHC) and other non-HPV closely related professions. Binary logistic regression was conducted to explore factors associated with knowledge and recommendation behaviors. Overall, HCPs showed basic HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge with median (interquartile range) score at 9.5 (7.5-11.6) out of 16 and relatively high recommendation behavior (74.8%). Identified knowledge gaps among HCPs included risk factors of HPV infection, best time to vaccinate, prophylactic functions of HPV vaccine and especially classification of low-risk and high-risk types. Profession-specific analysis in individual knowledge item showed HCPs from CHC were suboptimal on HPV while obstetrician-gynecologists were less competent on HPV vaccine knowledge. Obstetrician-gynecologists also recommended vaccination less frequently than HCPs from DEPI and CHC. Besides being key predictors of recommendation practice (2.74, 95% CI: 2.34-3.21), knowledge shared independent determinants with recommendation behavior on age and ethnicity and additionally associated with education and title by itself. Findings highlight overall and profession-specific gaps on HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and recommendation practice. Future education and training efforts should be profession-niche-targeting and focus much on HCPs with lower title or education background and from minorities. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106484
    Understanding the perceptions of Chinese women of the commercially available domestic and imported HPV vaccine: A semantic network analysis. Wang Qi,Zhang Wen,Cai Hongning,Cao Yuan Vaccine BACKGROUND:A domestic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Cecolin, that protects against HPV strains 16 and 18 was introduced to the Chinese market at a relatively low price in May 2020.This study has explored Chinese women's perceptions of both domestic and imported HPV vaccines, which differ in price and valency. METHODS:Sentiment analysis and semantic network analyses were performed based on a sample of 45,729 domestic HPV vaccine-related posts from females on the Sina Weibo between April 17 and May 2, 2020. The geographic distribution was also analyzed based on the users' locations, which were retrieved from the database. RESULTS:Most of the posts were positive and neutral (85%), although 15% were negative (e.g., expressions of anger, sadness, fear and disgust). Semantic analyses of the negative posts revealed that Chinese women generally had positive attitudes towards the HPV vaccine and were willing to be vaccinated. However, obvious geographical variations were identified. Women who lived in economically developed areas expressed a stronger desire to obtain imported quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccines due to concerns regarding effectiveness and quality. The women expressed disgust and anger mainly regarding difficulties in making an appointment, age restrictions for the nonavalent vaccine and gender restrictions. However, the population targeted by the domestic vaccine, namely women who lived in economically undeveloped areas and had relatively low incomes, had a low awareness of the HPV vaccine. CONCLUSION:Government should provide programs, which educate females that bivalent HPV vaccine can offer protection against the majority of high-risk HPV types. Increasing awareness of the domestic vaccine among the population in economically undeveloped areas and provision of free domestic bivalent HPV vaccination/screening for low-income high-risk women would help to prevent cervical carcinoma. This issue also depends on rebuilding trust and repairing damage to the relationship between government/domestic vaccine manufacturers and the public. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.11.016
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage achievements in low and middle-income countries 2007-2016. Gallagher Katherine E,Howard Natasha,Kabakama Severin,Mounier-Jack Sandra,Burchett Helen E D,LaMontagne D Scott,Watson-Jones Deborah Papillomavirus research (Amsterdam, Netherlands) INTRODUCTION:Since 2007, HPV vaccine has been available to low and middle income countries (LAMIC) for small-scale 'demonstration projects', or national programmes. We analysed coverage achieved in HPV vaccine demonstration projects and national programmes that had completed at least 6 months of implementation between January 2007-2016. METHODS:A mapping exercise identified 45 LAMICs with HPV vaccine delivery experience. Estimates of coverage and factors influencing coverage were obtained from 56 key informant interviews, a systematic published literature search of 5 databases that identified 61 relevant full texts and 188 solicited unpublished documents, including coverage surveys. Coverage achievements were analysed descriptively against country or project/programme characteristics. Heterogeneity in data, funder requirements, and project/programme design precluded multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Estimates of uptake, schedule completion rates and/or final dose coverage were available from 41 of 45 LAMICs included in the study. Only 17 estimates from 13 countries were from coverage surveys, most were administrative data. Final dose coverage estimates were all over 50% with most between 70% and 90%, and showed no trend over time. The majority of delivery strategies included schools as a vaccination venue. In countries with school enrolment rates below 90%, inclusion of strategies to reach out-of-school girls contributed to obtaining high coverage compared to school-only strategies. There was no correlation between final dose coverage and estimated recurrent financial costs of delivery from cost analyses. Coverage achieved during joint delivery of HPV vaccine combined with another intervention was variable with little/no evaluation of the correlates of success. CONCLUSIONS:This is the most comprehensive descriptive analysis of HPV vaccine coverage in LAMICs to date. It is possible to deliver HPV vaccine with excellent coverage in LAMICs. Further good quality data are needed from health facility based delivery strategies and national programmes to aid policymakers to effectively and sustainably scale-up HPV vaccination. 10.1016/j.pvr.2017.09.001
    Patterns and Disparities in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake for Young Female Adolescents among U.S. States: NIS-Teen (2008-2016). Yoo Wonsuk,Koskan Alexis,Scotch Matthew,Pottinger Heidi,Huh Warner K,Helitzer Deborah Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology BACKGROUND:Several studies have reported differential vaccine uptake outcomes that are associated with sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as provider type. However, none has examined a trend over a multiple-year span. In this study, we utilize a longitudinal data-based approach to examine state-level human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trends and their influences over time. METHODS:We analyzed National Immunization Survey - Teen data (2008-2016) to estimate HPV vaccine initiation rate in young female adolescent ages 13-17 years old among U.S. States. We identified growth patterns using the latent class growth method and explored state-level characteristics, including socioeconomic and sociodemographic attributes, and health legislation and policy-related programs among patterns. RESULTS:We identified three growth patterns, which showed gradually increasing vaccination trends but different baseline HPV uptake rates (high, moderate, low). States within Pattern 1 (highest HPV vaccination rates) included the lowest percentage of families with incomes below federal poverty level, the highest percentage of bachelor's degree or higher, and the lowest number of uninsured, while states within Pattern 3 (lowest HPV vaccination rates) included families with socioeconomic attributes along the opposite end of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS:Latent class growth models are an effective tool to be able to capture health disparities in heterogeneity among states in relation to HPV vaccine uptake trajectories. IMPACT:These findings might lead to designing and implementing effective interventions and changes in policies and health care coverage to promote HPV vaccination uptake for states represented under the lowest trajectory pattern. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1103
    Significant Declines in Juvenile-onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis Following Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Introduction in the United States. Meites Elissa,Stone Laura,Amiling Raiza,Singh Vidisha,Unger Elizabeth R,Derkay Craig S,Markowitz Lauri E Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America BACKGROUND:Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) is a rare and serious disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) presumably acquired during vaginal delivery. HPV vaccination of females through age 26 years, recommended in the United States since 2006, can prevent HPV transmission. We assessed trends in JORRP cases before and after HPV vaccine introduction in the United States. METHODS:Case-patients were identified from 26 pediatric otolaryngology centers in 23 U.S. states. Demographics and clinical history were abstracted from medical records. Case-patients were grouped by year of birth, and birth-cohort incidences were calculated using number of births from either national or state-level natality data from the 23 states. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in 2-year intervals. RESULTS:We identified 576 U.S. JORRP case-patients born in 2004-2013. Median age at diagnosis was 3.4 years (interquartile range: 1.9, 5.5). Number of identified JORRP case-patients declined from a baseline of 165 born in 2004-2005 to 36 born in 2012-2013. Incidence of JORRP per 100 000 births using national data declined from 2.0 cases in 2004-2005 to 0.5 cases in 2012-2013 (IRR = 0.2, 95% CI = .1-.4); incidence using state-level data declined from 2.9 cases in 2004-2005 to 0.7 cases in 2012-2013 (IRR = 0.2, 95% CI = .1-.4). CONCLUSIONS:Over a decade, numbers of JORRP case-patients and incidences declined significantly. Incidences calculated using national denominator data are likely underestimates; those calculated using state-level denominator data could be overestimates. These declines are most likely due to HPV vaccination. Increasing vaccination uptake could lead to elimination of this HPV-related disease. 10.1093/cid/ciab171
    Efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine against HPV 16/18-associated precancer: long-term follow-up results from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Porras Carolina,Tsang Sabrina H,Herrero Rolando,Guillén Diego,Darragh Teresa M,Stoler Mark H,Hildesheim Allan,Wagner Sarah,Boland Joseph,Lowy Douglas R,Schiller John T,Schiffman Mark,Schussler John,Gail Mitchell H,Quint Wim,Ocampo Rebeca,Morales Jorge,Rodríguez Ana C,Hu Shangying,Sampson Joshua N,Kreimer Aimée R, The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause most cases of cervical cancer. Here, we report long-term follow-up results for the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (publicly funded and initiated before licensure of the HPV vaccines), with the aim of assessing the efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine for preventing HPV 16/18-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). METHODS:Women aged 18-25 years were enrolled in a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial in Costa Rica, between June 28, 2004, and Dec 21, 2005, designed to assess the efficacy of a bivalent vaccine for the prevention of infection with HPV 16/18 and associated precancerous lesions at the cervix. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive an HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or control hepatitis A vaccine. Vaccines were administered intramuscularly in three 0·5 mL doses at 0, 1, and 6 months and participants were followed up annually for 4 years. After the blinded phase, women in the HPV vaccine group were invited to enrol in the long-term follow-up study, which extended follow-up for 7 additional years. The control group received HPV vaccine and was replaced with a new unvaccinated control group. Women were followed up every 2 years until year 11. Investigators and patients were aware of treatment allocation for the follow-up phase. At each visit, clinicians collected cervical cells from sexually active women for cytology and HPV testing. Women with abnormal cytology were referred to colposcopy, biopsy, and treatment as needed. Women with negative results at the last screening visit (year 11) exited the long-term follow-up study. The analytical cohort for vaccine efficacy included women who were HPV 16/18 DNA-negative at vaccination. The primary outcome of this analysis was defined as histopathologically confirmed CIN2+ or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse associated with HPV 16/18 cervical infection detected at colposcopy referral. We calculated vaccine efficacy by year and cumulatively. This long-term follow-up study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00867464. FINDINGS:7466 women were enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial; 3727 received the HPV vaccine and 3739 received the control vaccine. Between March 30, 2009, and July 5, 2012, 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2836 women in the new unvaccinated control group were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study. 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2677 women in the control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 0-4, and 2073 women from the HPV vaccine group and 2530 women from the new unvaccinated control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 7-11. Median follow-up time for the HPV group was 11·1 years (IQR 9·1-11·7), 4·6 years (4·3-5·3) for the original control group, and 6·2 years (5·5-6·9) for the new unvaccinated control group. At year 11, vaccine efficacy against incident HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ was 100% (95% CI 89·2-100·0); 34 (1·5%) of 2233 unvaccinated women had a CIN2+ outcome compared with none of 1913 women in the HPV group. Cumulative vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ over the 11-year period was 97·4% (95% CI 88·0-99·6). Similar protection was observed against HPV 16/18-associated CIN3-specifically at year 11, vaccine efficacy was 100% (95% CI 78·8-100·0) and cumulative vaccine efficacy was 94·9% (73·7-99·4). During the long-term follow-up, no serious adverse events occurred that were deemed related to the HPV vaccine. The most common grade 3 or worse serious adverse events were pregnancy, puerperium, and perinatal conditions (in 255 [10%] of 2530 women in the unvaccinated control group and 201 [10%] of 2073 women in the HPV vaccine group). Four women in the unvaccinated control group and three in the HPV vaccine group died; no deaths were deemed to be related to the HPV vaccine. INTERPRETATION:The bivalent HPV vaccine has high efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated precancer for more than a decade after initial vaccination, supporting the notion that invasive cervical cancer is preventable. FUNDING:US National Cancer Institute. 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30524-6
    Comparison of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine types and dose schedules for prevention of HPV-related disease in females and males. Bergman Hanna,Buckley Brian S,Villanueva Gemma,Petkovic Jennifer,Garritty Chantelle,Lutje Vittoria,Riveros-Balta Alina Ximena,Low Nicola,Henschke Nicholas The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine remains low in many countries, although the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines given as a three-dose schedule are effective in the prevention of precancerous lesions of the cervix in women. Simpler immunisation schedules, such as those with fewer doses, might reduce barriers to vaccination, as may programmes that include males. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and harms of different dose schedules and different types of HPV vaccines in females and males. SEARCH METHODS:We conducted electronic searches on 27 September 2018 in Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (in the Cochrane Library), and Ovid Embase. We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov (both 27 September 2018), vaccine manufacturer websites, and checked reference lists from an index of HPV studies and other relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with no language restriction. We considered studies if they enrolled HIV-negative males or females aged 9 to 26 years, or HIV-positive males or females of any age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We used methods recommended by Cochrane. We use the term 'control' to refer to comparator products containing an adjuvant or active vaccine and 'placebo' to refer to products that contain no adjuvant or active vaccine. Most primary outcomes in this review were clinical outcomes. However, for comparisons comparing dose schedules, the included RCTs were designed to measure antibody responses (i.e. immunogenicity) as the primary outcome, rather than clinical outcomes, since it is unethical to collect cervical samples from girls under 16 years of age. We analysed immunogenicity outcomes (i.e. geometric mean titres) with ratios of means, clinical outcomes (e.g. cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia) with risk ratios or rate ratios and, for serious adverse events and deaths, we calculated odds ratios. We rated the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS:We included 20 RCTs with 31,940 participants. The length of follow-up in the included studies ranged from seven months to five years. Two doses versus three doses of HPV vaccine in 9- to 15-year-old females Antibody responses after two-dose and three-dose HPV vaccine schedules were similar after up to five years of follow-up (4 RCTs, moderate- to high-certainty evidence). No RCTs collected clinical outcome data. Evidence about serious adverse events in studies comparing dose schedules was of very low-certainty owing to imprecision and indirectness (three doses 35/1159; two doses 36/1158; 4 RCTs). One death was reported in the three-dose group (1/898) and none in the two-dose group (0/899) (low-certainty evidence). Interval between doses of HPV vaccine in 9- to 14-year-old females and males Antibody responses were stronger with a longer interval (6 or 12 months) between the first two doses of HPV vaccine than a shorter interval (2 or 6 months) at up to three years of follow-up (4 RCTs, moderate- to high-certainty evidence). No RCTs collected data about clinical outcomes. Evidence about serious adverse events in studies comparing intervals was of very low-certainty, owing to imprecision and indirectness. No deaths were reported in any of the studies (0/1898, 3 RCTs, low-certainty evidence). HPV vaccination of 10- to 26-year-old males In one RCT there was moderate-certainty evidence that quadrivalent HPV vaccine, compared with control, reduced the incidence of external genital lesions (control 36 per 3081 person-years; quadrivalent 6 per 3173 person-years; rate ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.38; 6254 person-years) and anogenital warts (control 28 per 2814 person-years; quadrivalent 3 per 2831 person-years; rate ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.38; 5645 person-years). The quadrivalent vaccine resulted in more injection-site adverse events, such as pain or redness, than control (537 versus 601 per 1000; risk ratio (RR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18, 3895 participants, high-certainty evidence). There was very low-certainty evidence from two RCTs about serious adverse events with quadrivalent vaccine (control 12/2588; quadrivalent 8/2574), and about deaths (control 11/2591; quadrivalent 3/2582), owing to imprecision and indirectness. Nonavalent versus quadrivalent vaccine in 9- to 26-year-old females and males Three RCTs were included; one in females aged 9- to 15-years (n = 600), one in females aged 16- to 26-years (n = 14,215), and one in males aged 16- to 26-years (n = 500). The RCT in 16- to 26-year-old females reported clinical outcomes. There was little to no difference in the incidence of the combined outcome of high-grade cervical epithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer between the HPV vaccines (quadrivalent 325/6882, nonavalent 326/6871; OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.16; 13,753 participants; high-certainty evidence). The other two RCTs did not collect data about clinical outcomes. There were slightly more local adverse events with the nonavalent vaccine (905 per 1000) than the quadrivalent vaccine (846 per 1000) (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08; 3 RCTs, 15,863 participants; high-certainty evidence). Comparative evidence about serious adverse events in the three RCTs (nonavalent 243/8234, quadrivalent 192/7629; OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.61) was of low certainty, owing to imprecision and indirectness. HPV vaccination for people living with HIV Seven RCTs reported on HPV vaccines in people with HIV, with two small trials that collected data about clinical outcomes. Antibody responses were higher following vaccination with either bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine than with control, and these responses could be demonstrated to have been maintained for up to 24 months in children living with HIV (low-certainty evidence). The evidence about clinical outcomes and harms for HPV vaccines in people with HIV is very uncertain (low- to very low-certainty evidence), owing to imprecision and indirectness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:The immunogenicity of two-dose and three-dose HPV vaccine schedules, measured using antibody responses in young females, is comparable. The quadrivalent vaccine probably reduces external genital lesions and anogenital warts in males compared with control. The nonavalent and quadrivalent vaccines offer similar protection against a combined outcome of cervical, vaginal, and vulval precancer lesions or cancer. In people living with HIV, both the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines result in high antibody responses. For all comparisons of alternative HPV vaccine schedules, the certainty of the body of evidence about serious adverse events reported during the study periods was low or very low, either because the number of events was low, or the evidence was indirect, or both. Post-marketing surveillance is needed to continue monitoring harms that might be associated with HPV vaccines in the population, and this evidence will be incorporated in future updates of this review. Long-term observational studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of reduced-dose schedules against HPV-related cancer endpoints, and whether adopting these schedules improves vaccine coverage rates. 10.1002/14651858.CD013479
    Patient and clinician factors associated with uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent patients of a primary care network. Dang Julie H T,Stewart Susan L,Blumberg Dean A,Rodriguez Hector P,Chen Moon S Vaccine BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates for adolescents remain relatively low. The purpose of this study is to examine patient and clinician factors associated with HPV vaccination among patients, ages 11-17, of a large community-based primary care network. METHODS:Electronic health records and administrative data from a large primary care network from January 2017 - June 2018 for patients ages 11-17 (n = 10,682) and the 198 primary care clinicians that saw them were analyzed. Mixed effects logistic regression models examined the association of patient and clinician factors with HPV vaccine uptake. RESULTS:Most patients (63.0%) had at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, and 37.7% were up to date. In adjusted analyses, patients who received the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 2.1-3.9) compared to those who did not receive the vaccine and patients with five or more medical visits (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.6-2.2) had the greatest odds of being up to date with the HPV vaccine series. Compared to White patients, African American/Black (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6 - 1.0) and Alaskan Native/American Indian (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) patients were less likely to be up to date. Boys were also less likely to be up to date with the HPV vaccine series compared to girls (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.7-0.8). Additionally, patients with family/general practice primary care clinicians were less likely to have their patients up to date than those with pediatricians (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6 - 1.0). CONCLUSION:HPV vaccine uptake varied by patient characteristics, heath care utilization and primary care clinician specialty. These findings may inform future evidence-based interventions aimed at increasing HPV vaccine uptake among adolescents by targeting patient sub-groups and reducing missed opportunities for vaccination. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.04.055