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    Leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms are associated with poor outcome (death) in patients with non-appendicular secondary peritonitis. Bracho-Riquelme Rodolfo L,Loera-Castañeda Verónica,Torres-Valenzuela Alejandro,Loera-Castañeda Guadalupe A,Sánchez-Ramírez J Pablo Critical care (London, England) INTRODUCTION:Leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR) participate in the immunological response during infection. LEP serum levels rise during sepsis. In patients with peritonitis, an insufficient elevation in serum LEP is associated with an increased risk of death. As gene variants of LEP and LEPR have been associated with diverse pathologic conditions, we explored the association of genetic polymorphisms of LEP or LEPR with death in patients with secondary peritonitis. METHODS:A case control study was undertaken. LEP Gene -2548G > A and the LEPR Gene 223A > G polymorphism were determined in 74 patients. The odds ratio of genotype and allele distribution in survival (control) versus death (case) among patients was calculated. Serum LEP, interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein (C-RP), IL-10 and IL-13 levels were analyzed in 34 patients. RESULTS:There were significant differences in genotype and allele distribution between survivors and non-survivors for -2548G > A and 223A > G polymorphisms. The presence of the mutant allele A, in -2548, had an odds ratio of 4.64 (95% CI 1.22, 17.67) with significance (P = 0.017) in the risk of death. The presence of mutant allele G, in 223, had an odds ratio of 3.57 (95% CI 1.06, 12.01) with significance in the risk of death (P = 0.033). The presence of allele A in the -2548 polymorphism was associated with differences in serum LEP (P = 0.013), and IL-10 (P = 0.0001). The presence of allele G in 223 polymorphism was likewise correlated with differences in serum LEP (P < 0001), C-RP (P = 0.033), and IL-10 (P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS:The polymorphisms studied are associated with death in patients with peritonitis of non-appendicular origin. This association is stronger than many known risk-factors related to peritonitis severity, and is independent of body mass. The physiopathologic mechanism is possibly related to an insufficient increase in the elevation of serum LEP levels, and is unrelated to body mass. 10.1186/cc10467
    Sympathetic neuro-adipose connections mediate leptin-driven lipolysis. Zeng Wenwen,Pirzgalska Roksana M,Pereira Mafalda M A,Kubasova Nadiya,Barateiro Andreia,Seixas Elsa,Lu Yi-Hsueh,Kozlova Albina,Voss Henning,Martins Gabriel G,Friedman Jeffrey M,Domingos Ana I Cell Leptin is a hormone produced by the adipose tissue that acts in the brain, stimulating white fat breakdown. We find that the lipolytic effect of leptin is mediated through the action of sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the adipose tissue. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, we observe that sympathetic nerve fibers establish neuro-adipose junctions, directly "enveloping" adipocytes. Local optogenetic stimulation of sympathetic inputs induces a local lipolytic response and depletion of white adipose mass. Conversely, genetic ablation of sympathetic inputs onto fat pads blocks leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and consequent lipolysis, as do knockouts of dopamine β-hydroxylase, an enzyme required for catecholamine synthesis. Thus, neuro-adipose junctions are necessary and sufficient for the induction of lipolysis in white adipose tissue and are an efferent effector of leptin action. Direct activation of sympathetic inputs to adipose tissues may represent an alternative approach to induce fat loss, circumventing central leptin resistance. PAPERCLIP. 10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.055
    Hyperleptinemia is associated with impaired pulmonary host defense. Ubags Niki D J,Stapleton Renee D,Vernooy Juanita H J,Burg Elianne,Bement Jenna,Hayes Catherine M,Ventrone Sebastian,Zabeau Lennart,Tavernier Jan,Poynter Matthew E,Parsons Polly E,Dixon Anne E,Wargo Matthew J,Littenberg Benjamin,Wouters Emiel F M,Suratt Benjamin T JCI insight We have previously reported that obesity attenuates pulmonary inflammation in both patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in mouse models of the disease. We hypothesized that obesity-associated hyperleptinemia, and not body mass per se, drives attenuation of the pulmonary inflammatory response and that this e_ect could also impair the host response to pneumonia. We examined the correlation between circulating leptin levels and risk, severity, and outcome of pneumonia in 2 patient cohorts (NHANES III and ARDSNet-ALVEOLI) and in mouse models of diet-induced obesity and lean hyperleptinemia. Plasma leptin levels in ambulatory subjects (NHANES) correlated positively with annual risk of respiratory infection independent of BMI. In patients with severe pneumonia resulting in ARDS (ARDSNet-ALVEOLI), plasma leptin levels were found to correlate positively with subsequent mortality. In obese mice with pneumonia, plasma leptin levels were associated with pneumonia severity, and in obese mice with sterile lung injury, leptin levels were inversely related to bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, as well as to plasma IL-6 and G-CSF levels. These results were recapitulated in lean mice with experimentally induced hyperleptinemia. Our findings suggest that the association between obesity and elevated risk of pulmonary infection may be driven by hyperleptinemia. 10.1172/jci.insight.82101