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    Procalcitonin-guided therapy may reduce length of antibiotic treatment in intensive care unit patients with secondary peritonitis: A multicenter retrospective study. Maseda Emilio,Suarez-de-la-Rica Alejandro,Anillo Víctor,Tamayo Eduardo,García-Bernedo Carlos A,Ramasco Fernando,Villagran Maria-Jose,Maggi Genaro,Gimenez Maria-Jose,Aguilar Lorenzo,Granizo Juan-José,Buño Antonio,Gilsanz Fernando Journal of critical care PURPOSE:Because procalcitonin (PCT) might be surrogate for antimicrobial discontinuation in general intensive care units (ICUs), this study explored its use for secondary peritonitis in 4 surgical ICUs (SICUs). METHODS:A retrospective study including all consecutive patients with secondary peritonitis, controlled infection source, requiring surgery, and at least 48-hour SICU admission was performed (June 2012-June 2013). Patients were divided following notations in medical records into PCT-guided (notation of PCT-based antibiotic discontinuation) and non-PCT-guided (no notation) groups. RESULTS:A total of 121 patients (52 PCT-guided, 69 non-PCT-guided) were included. No differences in clinical scores, biomarkers, or septic shock (30 [57.7%] PCT-guided vs 40 [58.0%] non-PCT-guided) were found. Length of intra-SICU (median, 5.0 days; both groups) or in-hospital (median, 20.0 vs 17.5 days) stay, and mortality intra-SICU (9.6% vs 13.0%), 28-day (15.4% vs 20.3%), or in-hospital (19.2% vs 29.0%) were not significantly different (PCT-guided vs non-PCT-guided). In septic shock patients, no mortality differences were found (PCT-guided vs non-PCT-guided): 16.7% vs 22.5% (intra-SICU), 26.7% vs 32.5% (28-day), and 33.3% vs 42.5% (in-hospital). Treatment was shorter in the PCT-guided group (5.1 ±2.1 vs 10.2 ± 3.7 days, P < .001), without differences between patients with and without septic shock. CONCLUSION:Procalcitonin guidance produced 50% reduction in antibiotic duration (P < .001, log-rank test). 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.12.014
    A procalcitonin-based algorithm to guide antibiotic therapy in secondary peritonitis following emergency surgery: a prospective study with propensity score matching analysis. Huang Ting-Shuo,Huang Shie-Shian,Shyu Yu-Chiau,Lee Chun-Hui,Jwo Shyh-Chuan,Chen Pei-Jer,Chen Huang-Yang PloS one BACKGROUND:Procalcitonin (PCT)-based algorithms have been used to guide antibiotic therapy in several clinical settings. However, evidence supporting PCT-based algorithms for secondary peritonitis after emergency surgery is scanty. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a PCT-based algorithm could safely reduce antibiotic exposure in this population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:From April 2012 to March 2013, patients that had secondary peritonitis diagnosed at the emergency department and underwent emergency surgery were screened for eligibility. PCT levels were obtained pre-operatively, on post-operative days 1, 3, 5, and 7, and on subsequent days if needed. Antibiotics were discontinued if PCT was <1.0 ng/mL or decreased by 80% versus day 1, with resolution of clinical signs. Primary endpoints were time to discontinuation of intravenous antibiotics for the first episode and adverse events. Historical controls were retrieved for propensity score matching. After matching, 30 patients in the PCT group and 60 in the control were included for analysis. The median duration of antibiotic exposure in PCT group was 3.4 days (interquartile range [IQR] 2.2 days), while 6.1 days (IQR 3.2 days) in control (p < 0.001). The PCT algorithm significantly improves time to antibiotic discontinuation (p < 0.001, log-rank test). The rates of adverse events were comparable between 2 groups. Multivariate-adjusted extended Cox model demonstrated that the PCT-based algorithm was significantly associated with a 87% reduction in hazard of antibiotic exposure within 7 days (hazard ratio [HR] 0.13, 95% CI 0.07-0.21, p < 0.001), and a 68% reduction in hazard after 7 days (adjusted HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11-0.99, p  =  0.047). Advanced age, coexisting pulmonary diseases, and higher severity of illness were significantly associated with longer durations of antibiotic use. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The PCT-based algorithm safely reduces antibiotic exposure in this study. Further randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings and incorporate cost-effectiveness analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000601831. 10.1371/journal.pone.0090539
    Serum procalcitonin is a sensitive marker for septic shock and mortality in secondary peritonitis. Pupelis Guntars,Drozdova Nadezda,Mukans Maksims,Malbrain Manu L N G Anaesthesiology intensive therapy BACKGROUND:Serum procalcitonin (PCT) is considered to be a sensitive marker for the early recognition of severe infection. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic accuracy of serum procalcitonin levels to predict the risk of septic shock and mortality in patients with secondary peritonitis. METHODS:We carried out a retrospective review of patients (November 2010 to November 2012) admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) with secondary peritonitis classified into localised peritonitis (LP) or diffuse peritonitis (DP) groups. Organ dysfunction was assessed with the SOFA score. Demographic data was collected as well as results for neutrophil count, C- reactive protein, blood lactate, and PCT levels. The primary end-point was ICU mortality. RESULTS:From a total of 222 patients, 123 were allocated to the LP group and 99 to the DP group. Severe sepsis was observed in 41.9% of all patients in the DP group. The PCT levels increased significantly in the DP group, with the development of septic shock in 29 patients. Higher PCT levels were associated with an increased risk for septic shock with a cut-off value of 15.3 ng mL⁻¹ and an increased risk for mortality with a cut-off value 19.6 ng mL⁻¹. A total of 59.1% of those who developed septic shock died. CONCLUSION:An increase in PCT levels is an indirect sign of diffuse secondary peritonitis and this is associated with an increased risk of septic shock. Increased PCT level on admission is associated with an increased risk of mortality in this category of patients. 10.5603/AIT.2014.0043