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    Is Screening for Pulmonary Embolism in Patients With COPD Necessary? Hunasikatti Mahadevappa Chest 10.1016/j.chest.2017.03.058
    The paradoxical association between pulmonary embolism and COPD. Bertoletti Laurent The European respiratory journal 10.1183/13993003.00959-2017
    Pulmonary Embolism Prevalence Among Hospitalized Patients With COPD-Reply. Couturaud Francis,Sanchez Olivier,Bertoletti Laurent JAMA 10.1001/jama.2021.3247
    Pulmonary Embolism Prevalence Among Hospitalized Patients With COPD. Franciosi Alessandro N,McCarthy Cormac JAMA 10.1001/jama.2021.3244
    Incidence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with both Pulmonary Embolism and COPD. Castellana Giorgio,Intiglietta Pierluigi,Dragonieri Silvano,Carratù Pierluigi,Buonamico Paolo,Peragine Maria,Capozzolo Alberto,Carone Mauro,Carpagnano Giovanna Elisiana,Resta Onofrio Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis BACKGROUND:There are no studies investigating populations of patients with both pulmonary embolism and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PE-COPD) with and without deep venous thrombosis (DVT). AIM OF THE STUDY:To define prevalence of DVT in COPD with PE and to compare characteristics of COPD patients who develop PE, with and without DVT. Secondly, we aimed to assess differences in the localization of PE among study groups.  METHODS. 116 patients with PE were enrolled in a retrospective study. Clinical data as well as echocardiographic and lower limb ultrasonography records were collected for all subjects. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence of COPD: Group 1, 54 patients with diagnosis of PE without COPD and Group 2, 66 patients diagnosed of PE with  COPD. Then, individuals of Group 2 were subdivided in two subgroups according to the presence (n=21) or absence (n=45) of DVT. RESULTS:33% of patients with COPD and PE showed DVT.  These subjects had higher PaCO2 and ejection fraction (p<0.05 for all) and higher percentage of chronic renal failure and diabetes mellitus compared to those without DVT (p<0.05 for all). Moreover, in COPD-PE patients with DVT, the most frequent localization was proximal (54% of total), whereas COPD-PE patients without DVT showed a more frequent segmental localization (60% of total). No difference was found in clinical presentation and blood-chemistry tests. CONCLUSIONS:DVT was non-common in PE-COPD patients. Chronic renal failure, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are more frequent in PE-COPD patients with DVT, that showed a higher frequency of proximal localization, thereby indicating a greater risk of more severe clinical implications. Conversely, PE- COPD subjects without DVT showed a more frequent segmental localization and were less hypercapnic. PE should be taken into account in COPD with worsening of respiratory symptoms, also in absence of DVT. 10.23750/abm.v92i3.11258
    Effect of a Pulmonary Embolism Diagnostic Strategy on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Jiménez David,Agustí Alvar,Tabernero Eva,Jara-Palomares Luis,Hernando Ascensión,Ruiz-Artacho Pedro,Pérez-Peñate Gregorio,Rivas-Guerrero Agustina,Rodríguez-Nieto María Jesús,Ballaz Aitor,Agüero Ramón,Jiménez Sonia,Calle-Rubio Myriam,López-Reyes Raquel,Marcos-Rodríguez Pedro,Barrios Deisy,Rodríguez Carmen,Muriel Alfonso,Bertoletti Laurent,Couturaud Francis,Huisman Menno,Lobo José Luis,Yusen Roger D,Bikdeli Behnood,Monreal Manuel,Otero Remedios, JAMA Importance:Active search for pulmonary embolism (PE) may improve outcomes in patients hospitalized for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective:To compare usual care plus an active strategy for diagnosing PE with usual care alone in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation. Design, Setting, and Participants:Randomized clinical trial conducted across 18 hospitals in Spain. A total of 746 patients were randomized from September 2014 to July 2020 (final follow-up was November 2020). Interventions:Usual care plus an active strategy for diagnosing PE (D-dimer testing and, if positive, computed tomography pulmonary angiogram) (n = 370) vs usual care (n = 367). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), readmission for COPD, or death within 90 days after randomization. There were 4 secondary outcomes, including nonfatal new or recurrent VTE, readmission for COPD, and death from any cause within 90 days. Adverse events were also collected. Results:Among the 746 patients who were randomized, 737 (98.8%) completed the trial (mean age, 70 years; 195 [26%] women). The primary outcome occurred in 110 patients (29.7%) in the intervention group and 107 patients (29.2%) in the control group (absolute risk difference, 0.5% [95% CI, -6.2% to 7.3%]; relative risk, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.82-1.28]; P = .86). Nonfatal new or recurrent VTE was not significantly different in the 2 groups (0.5% vs 2.5%; risk difference, -2.0% [95% CI, -4.3% to 0.1%]). By day 90, a total of 94 patients (25.4%) in the intervention group and 84 (22.9%) in the control group had been readmitted for exacerbation of COPD (risk difference, 2.5% [95% CI, -3.9% to 8.9%]). Death from any cause occurred in 23 patients (6.2%) in the intervention group and 29 (7.9%) in the control group (risk difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -5.7% to 2.3%]). Major bleeding occurred in 3 patients (0.8%) in the intervention group and 3 patients (0.8%) in the control group (risk difference, 0% [95% CI, -1.9% to 1.8%]; P = .99). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients hospitalized for an exacerbation of COPD, the addition of an active strategy for the diagnosis of PE to usual care, compared with usual care alone, did not significantly improve a composite health outcome. The study may not have had adequate power to assess individual components of the composite outcome. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02238639. 10.1001/jama.2021.14846
    The prevalence and clinical features of pulmonary embolism in patients with AE-COPD: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Fu Xiaofang,Zhong Yonghong,Xu Wucheng,Ju Jiangang,Yu Min,Ge Minjie,Gu Xiaofei,Chen Qingqing,Sun Yibo,Huang Huaqiong,Shen Linfeng PloS one BACKGROUND:The prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) is highly controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the epidemiology and characteristics of PE with AE-COPD for current studies. METHODS:We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for studies published prior to October 21, 2020. Pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. Odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals were used as effect measures for dichotomous and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 17 studies involving 3170 patients were included. The prevalence of PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in AE-COPD patients was 17.2% (95% CI: 13.4%-21.3%) and 7.1% (95% CI: 3.7%-11.4%%), respectively. Dyspnea (OR = 6.77, 95% CI: 1.97-23.22), pleuritic chest pain (OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 2.06-5.12), lower limb asymmetry or edema (OR = 2.46, 95% CI:1.51-4.00), higher heart rates (MD = 20.51, 95% CI: 4.95-36.08), longer hospital stays (MD = 3.66, 95% CI: 3.01-4.31) were associated with the PE in the AE-COPD patients. Levels of D-dimer (MD = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.80-2.23), WBC counts (MD = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.14-2.70) were significantly higher and levels of PaO2 was lower (MD = -17.20, 95% CI: -33.94- -0.45, P<0.05) in the AE-COPD with PE group. The AE-COPD with PE group had increased risk of fatal outcome than the AE-COPD group (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.43-3.50). CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of PE during AE-COPD varies considerably among the studies. AE-COPD patients with PE experienced an increased risk of death, especially among the ICU patients. Understanding the potential risk factors for PE may help clinicians identify AE-COPD patients at increased risk of PE. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42021226568. 10.1371/journal.pone.0256480
    Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism Among Patients With COPD Hospitalized With Acutely Worsening Respiratory Symptoms. Couturaud Francis,Bertoletti Laurent,Pastre Jean,Roy Pierre-Marie,Le Mao Raphael,Gagnadoux Frédéric,Paleiron Nicolas,Schmidt Jeannot,Sanchez Olivier,De Magalhaes Elodie,Kamara Mariam,Hoffmann Clément,Bressollette Luc,Nonent Michel,Tromeur Cécile,Salaun Pierre-Yves,Barillot Sophie,Gatineau Florence,Mismetti Patrick,Girard Philippe,Lacut Karine,Lemarié Catherine A,Meyer Guy,Leroyer Christophe, JAMA Importance:The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acutely worsening respiratory symptoms remains uncertain. Objective:To determine the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with COPD admitted to the hospital for acutely worsening respiratory symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up conducted in 7 French hospitals. A predefined pulmonary embolism diagnostic algorithm based on Geneva score, D-dimer levels, and spiral computed tomographic pulmonary angiography plus leg compression ultrasound was applied within 48 hours of admission; all patients had 3-month follow-up. Patients were recruited from January 2014 to May 2017 and the final date of follow-up was August 22, 2017. Exposures:Acutely worsening respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was pulmonary embolism diagnosed within 48 hours of admission. Key secondary outcome was pulmonary embolism during a 3-month follow-up among patients deemed not to have venous thromboembolism at admission and who did not receive anticoagulant treatment. Other outcomes were venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism and/or deep vein thrombosis) at admission and during follow-up, and 3-month mortality, whether venous thromboembolism was clinically suspected or not. Results:Among 740 included patients (mean age, 68.2 years [SD, 10.9 years]; 274 women [37.0%]), pulmonary embolism was confirmed within 48 hours of admission in 44 patients (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.5%-7.9%). Among the 670 patients deemed not to have venous thromboembolism at admission and who did not receive anticoagulation, pulmonary embolism occurred in 5 patients (0.7%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.7%) during follow-up, including 3 deaths related to pulmonary embolism. The overall 3-month mortality rate was 6.8% (50 of 740; 95% CI, 5.2%-8.8%). The proportion of patients who died during follow-up was higher among those with venous thromboembolism at admission than the proportion of those without it at admission (14 [25.9%] of 54 patients vs 36 [5.2%] of 686; risk difference, 20.7%, 95% CI, 10.7%-33.8%; P < .001). The prevalence of venous thromboembolism was 11.7% (95% CI, 8.6%-15.9%) among patients in whom pulmonary embolism was suspected (n = 299) and was 4.3% (95% CI, 2.8%-6.6%) among those in whom pulmonary embolism was not suspected (n = 441). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the hospital with an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary embolism was detected in 5.9% of patients using a predefined diagnostic algorithm. Further research is needed to understand the possible role of systematic screening for pulmonary embolism in this patient population. 10.1001/jama.2020.23567