Gestational Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Biomarker Screening Models and Lack of Postpartum Resolution.
Street Linda M,Aschenbrenner Carol A,Houle Timothy T,Pinyan Clark W,Eisenach James C
Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
STUDY OBJECTIVES:To measure prevalence and severity of third trimester obstructive sleep apnea and evaluate postpartum resolution. To assess a novel biomarker for screening for obstructive sleep apnea in pregnancy. METHODS:This prospective observational study was performed at Wake Forest School of Medicine obstetrics clinics between April 2014 and December 2015. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements and sleep studies were obtained and compared at 32 0/7 to 35 6/7 weeks gestation and postpartum. Exhaled nitric oxide and risk factors for the development of gestational sleep apnea were evaluated for predictive ability independently and in screening models. RESULTS:Of 76 women enrolled, 73 performed valid sleep studies in pregnancy and 65 had an additional valid study 6 to 15 weeks postpartum. Twenty-four women (37%) had gestational sleep apnea compared with 23 (35%) with postpartum sleep apnea ( > .99). Eight of 11 women (73%) retested 6 to 8 months postpartum had persistent sleep apnea. Exhaled nitric oxide had moderate discrimination screening for sleep apnea in pregnancy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.64). A model utilizing exhaled nitric oxide, pregnancy-specific screening, and Mallampati score improved ability to identify women at risk for gestational sleep apnea (sensitivity = 46%, specificity = 91% and likelihood ratio = 5.11, area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS:Obstructive sleep apnea is common in the early postpartum period and often persisted at least 6 months. Exhaled nitric oxide as a sole biomarker to screen for sleep apnea in pregnancy has only modest discrimination. Combined with additional parameters sensitivity and specificity improved. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02100943, Title: Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Biomarker of Gestational Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Persistence Postpartum, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02100943.
Beneficial effects of estrogens in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.
Zhang Lixiu,Ou Xiyan,Zhu Tonggang,Lv Xiaohong
Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung
Epidemiological studies showing the higher frequency of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in men, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in post-menopausal women suggest the beneficial role of estrogen. These findings are well supported by the pre-clinical studies (ten research studies described in this review) showing that estrogen and phytoestrogens attenuate the deleterious effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (obstructive apnea in animals) on the genioglossal muscles and on other organs (co-morbidities) in ovariectomized rodents. Moreover, clinical studies (four research studies described in this review) have also shown the beneficial role of estrogen therapy on the parameters of obstructive apnea in post-menopausal women. The beneficial effects of estrogen and phytoestrogens on obstructive sleep apnea and its co morbidities have been attributed to increase in thioredoxin, Nrf-2, activation of p38 MAP kinases, inhibition of vagal C fibers, and attenuation of HIF-1α. It is possible that estrogen-mediated activation of p38 MAP kinase may inhibit HIF-1α to attenuate lung inflammation, which may inhibit the activation of vagal C fibers to attenuate bronchoconstriction and prevent obstruction during sleep. Moreover, estrogen-mediated increase in thioredoxin and Nrf-2 may also contribute in increasing antioxidant defense and attenuating inflammation.