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    Thiol-disulfide as a novel indicator of obstructive sleep apnea. Argüder Emine,Parlak Ebru Ş,Kılıç Hatice,Hezer Habibe,Neşelioğlu Salim,Hasanoğlu Hatice Canan,Yalçıner Gökhan,Babademez Mehmet Ali,Erel Özcan The clinical respiratory journal INTRODUCTION:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an oxidative stress disease, which has been considered to be a notable risk and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thiol-disulfide homeostasis is as a novel indicator of oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to evaluate thiol-disulfide homeostasis in a large patient population with OSA. METHODS:A total of 230 with OSA and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Inclusion criteria for OSA patients are having apnoea-hypopnoea index of ≥5/hour, being more than 18 years of age and having no previous treatment for OSA. Thiol-disulfide analysis was done for the patients and control group. Blood thiol-disulfide homeostasis was analysed using the new automatic method, developed by Erel and Neşelioğlu. RESULTS:Among all OSA subjects, 149 (64.8%) were males and the mean ages of the patients were 53.38 ± 10.22. Total thiol, native thiol (SH) and disulfide (SS) levels were significantly lower in OSA group compared to the control group (P < .001, P < .001 and P = .039 respectively). Also, total thiol and native thiol (SH) were significantly different between the groups according to OSA severity (mild-moderate to severe OSA) (P < .001 and P < .001 respectively). Thiol-disulfide redox parameters were correlated with apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) scores. CONCLUSION:The present prospective study showed that thiol/disulfide homeostasis was unbalanced in OSA patients. Especially, in OSA patients have low level of thiol/disulfide redox parameters when compared to healthy subjects. Evaluating thiol-disulfide homeostasis in OSA may be a contributing aspect to assessment and monitoring of the patient. 10.1111/crj.13180
    Effects of 8 weeks of CPAP on lipid-based oxidative markers in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized trial. Sivam Sheila,Witting Paul K,Hoyos Camilla M,Maw Aung M,Yee Brendon J,Grunstein Ronald R,Phillips Craig L Journal of sleep research Dyslipidaemia and increased oxidative stress have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea, and both may be related to the development of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown in a randomized crossover study in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea that therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 8 weeks improved postprandial triglycerides and total cholesterol when compared with sham continuous positive airway pressure. From this study we have now compared the effect of 8 weeks of therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure on oxidative lipid damage and plasma lipophilic antioxidant levels. Unesterified cholesterol, esterified unsaturated fatty acids (cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2; and cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4; the major unsaturated and oxidizable lipids in low-density lipoproteins), their corresponding oxidized products [cholesteryl ester-derived lipid hydroperoxides and hydroxides (CE-O(O)H)] and antioxidant vitamin E were assessed at 20:30 hours before sleep, and at 06:00 and 08:30 hours after sleep. Amongst the 29 patients completing the study, three had incomplete or missing [CE-O(O)H] data. The mean apnea -hypopnoea index, age and body mass index were 38 per hour, 49 years and 32 kg m(-2) , respectively. No differences in lipid-based oxidative markers or lipophilic antioxidant levels were observed between the continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure arms at any of the three time-points [unesterified cholesterol 0.01 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2 0.05 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4 0.02 mm, P = 0.05; CE-O(O)H 2.5 nm, P > 0.05; and lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E 0.03 μm, P > 0.05]. In this study, accumulating CE-O(O)H, a marker of lipid oxidation, does not appear to play a role in oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea. 10.1111/jsr.12271
    Is there a correlation between obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome severity and prolidase activity as an oxidative stress marker? Gunbatar H,Kaplan H S,Yildiz S Nigerian journal of clinical practice Objective:Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent breathing disorder in sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OSAS and prolidase activity, the oxidative stress index (OSI), total antioxidative capacity (TAC), total oxidative capacity (TOC) and the carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Method:: After night polysomnography, 74 people were diagnosed with OSAS and simple snoring. Plasma prolidase activities, TAC and TOC were measured in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. The patients' bilateral common carotid arteries were scanned. Results:In total, 56 patients were in OSAS group [13 subjects 23.2% mild, 19 subjects 33.9% moderate, 24 subjects 42.8% severe] and 18 in simple snoring control group. The mean Prolidase, TOC, TAC and OSI levels were 744.7 ± 156.8, 59.2 ± 19.2, 2.12 ± 0.41, 3.12 ± 1.03, in the mild OSAS group, 761.6 ± 114.4, 57.9 ± 18.3, 2.03 ± 0.37, 3.15 ± 0.8, in the moderate OSAS group, 754.08 ± 133.9, 51.15 ± 12.1, 1.97 ± 0.27, 2.8 ± 0.82, in the severe OSAS group, and 711.9 ± 139, 52.3 ± 15.1, 1.83 ± 0.32, 3.06 ± 0.92 in the control group, respectively. Mean CIMT measurements were 0.71(±0,13) in the OSAS group and 0.76(±0.07) in the control group. Conclusion:There was no difference between the control and OSAS groups in terms of the parameters studied. Further studies should be undertaken in order to clarify the relation. 10.4103/njcp.njcp_381_18
    Evaluation of oxidative stress markers in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and additional antioxidant therapy: a review article. Lira Amanda Bastos,de Sousa Rodrigues Célio Fernando Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung PURPOSE:The hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) cause a change in the oxidative balance, leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species capable of reacting with other organic molecules impairing their functions. This study aimed to determine the best markers of oxidative stress in OSAS and what better antioxidant agent to be used to treat the disease. METHODS:Searches were conducted in three different databases (PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO), using as descriptors the terms obstructive sleep apnea, oxidative stress, and antioxidant therapy. A total of 120 articles were found but only those considered of interest to the research were selected. Thus, 10 articles were included for further analysis regarding the biomarkers of oxidative stress in OSAS, and 6 articles to evaluate the antioxidant most often used for demonstration of efficacy. RESULTS:The thioredoxin, malondialdehyde, superoxide dysmutase, and reduced iron were the most commonly used biomarkers and showed a more consistent relationship between increased oxidative stress and OSAS. As antioxidant therapy, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) presented interesting results as a reduction of oxidative stress, which may become an alternative to the complementary treatment of OSAS. CONCLUSIONS:This review's findings agree mostly to measure that the markers of oxidative stress in OSAS may be a contributing aspect to assessment and monitoring of patient, and the antioxidant therapy appears to be beneficial in the treatment of OSAS. 10.1007/s11325-016-1367-3