Signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Garcia-Lezana Teresa,Lopez-Canovas Juan Luis,Villanueva Augusto
Advances in cancer research
Despite the recent introduction of new effective systemic agents, the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at advanced stages remains dismal. This underscores the need for new therapies, which has spurred extensive research on the identification of the main drivers of pathway de-regulation as a source of novel therapeutic targets. Frequently altered pathways in HCC involve growth factor receptors (e.g., VEGFR, FGFR, TGFA, EGFR, IGFR) and/or its cytoplasmic intermediates (e.g., PI3K-AKT-mTOR, RAF/ERK/MAPK) as well as key pathways in cell differentiation (e.g., Wnt/β-catenin, JAK/STAT, Hippo, Hedgehog, Notch). Somatic mutations, chromosomal aberrations and epigenetic changes are common mechanisms for pathway deregulation in HCC. Aberrant pathway activation has also been explored as a biomarker to predict response to specific therapies, but currently, these strategies are not implemented when deciding systemic therapies in HCC patients. Beyond the well-established molecular cascades, there are numerous emerging signaling pathways also deregulated in HCC (e.g., tumor microenvironment, non-coding RNA, intestinal microbiota), which have opened new avenues for therapeutic exploration.
FAM83D associates with high tumor recurrence after liver transplantation involving expansion of CD44+ carcinoma stem cells.
Lin Binyi,Chen Tianchi,Zhang Qijun,Lu Xiaoxiao,Zheng Zhiyun,Ding Jun,Liu Jinfeng,Yang Zhe,Geng Lei,Wu Liming,Zhou Lin,Zheng Shusen
To investigate the potential oncogene promoting recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation (LT), throughput RNA sequencing was performed in a subgroup of HCC patients. The up-regulated FAM83D in HCC tissues was found and further verified in 150 patients by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. FAM83D overexpression significantly correlated with high HCC recurrence rate following LT and poor HCC characteristics such as high AFP, poor differentiation. Of cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers, CD44 expression was effectively suppressed when FAM83D was knocked down by siRNA. Meanwhile, the siRNA transfected cells suppressed formation of sphere and ability of self-renew. In a xenograft tumorigenesis model, FAM83D knockdown apparently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. Microarray assays revealed that FAM83D promotes CD44 expression via activating the MAPK, TGF-β and Hippo signaling pathways. Furthermore, CD44 knockdown presented reverse effect on above signaling pathways, which suggested that FAM83D was a key activator of loop between CD44 and above signaling pathways. In conclusion, FAM83D promotes HCC recurrence by promoting CD44 expression and CD44+ CSCs malignancy. FAM83D provides a novel therapeutic approach against HCC recurrence after LT.
Transforming growth factor-beta1 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation via activation of Hippo signaling.
Zhang Xiaodong,Fan Qing,Li Yan,Yang Zhaoguo,Yang Liang,Zong Zhihong,Wang Biao,Meng Xin,Li Qin,Liu Jingang,Li Hangyu
In this study, we examined the expression of core proteins of the Hippo signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells treated with transforming growth factor-β 1(TGF-β1) and investigated the relationship between TGF-β1 and the Hippo signaling pathway, in order to better understand their roles in HCC and their potential implications for cancer therapy. We prove that the Hippo signaling pathway is involved in the TGF-β1-induced inhibition of the growth of HCC cells. Large tumor suppressor expression (LATS1) was overexpression and yes association protein 1(YAP1) translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in HCC cells treated with TGF-β1. Overexpression of LATS1 and the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of YAP1 play an anti-oncogenetic role in the occurrence and development of liver cancer. Our findings provide new insight into strategies for liver cancer therapy.