How to treat patients with chronic kidney disease: With special focus on IgA nephropathy.
Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
Chronic kidney disease has become a worldwide problem. Among chronic kidney disease patients, IgA nephropathy is common in the world. Serum levels of galactose deficient (Gd)-IgA1 and Gd-IgA1-specific antibodies are elevated in most IgA nephropathy patients. Glomerular Gd-IgA1 deposition has been observed by immunofluorescence. There are many reports that the anti-proteinuric effect is significantly greater in groups who receive tonsillectomy with steroid pulse therapy in IgA nephropathy patients. Furthermore, patients with tonsillectomy with steroid pulse therapy have shown a strong down-regulation of delta serum IgA/C3 per year and have conserved their renal function. New treatments, that is, Atacicept and glucocorticoid budesonide, have been developed for this disease.
Recent advances in risk prediction, therapeutics and pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.
Moran Sarah M,Cattran Daniel C
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the world's commonest primary glomerular disease with variable clinical presentation and progression rates that are dependent on clinical-pathologic phenotype and duration of follow-up. Overall 4-40% of patients progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) by 10 years. Treatment decisions remain a challenge due to these variations. The ultimate goal of management is to prevent progression to ESKD and of vital importance is the potential reversible early detection of active glomerular inflammation prior to scarring. IgAN is globally, is the most common biopsy proven glomerulonephritis and a leading cause of ESKD. The Oxford pathological classification was devised by a collaborative pathology and nephrology network to provide an evidence-based scoring system with reproducible independent pathology features of predictive value. Clinical variables that alter prognosis include male sex, increasing age, increased body weight, smoking, Pacific Asian ethnicity, hypertension, proteinuria, and complement deficiency. Excellent conservative therapy is the cornerstone of therapy with tight blood control, renin-angiotensin system inhibition, and statin therapy. The role of immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids in IgAN remains open with ongoing clinical trials of low dose oral corticosteroids and enteric coated budesonide. Complement activation contributes to the pathogenic process of IgAN with evidence from genetic, serological, histological and in-vitro studies. This knowledge has translated to clinical trials of investigational agents directly targeting the alternative pathway.
A New Vision of IgA Nephropathy: The Missing Link.
Sallustio Fabio,Curci Claudia,Di Leo Vincenzo,Gallone Anna,Pesce Francesco,Gesualdo Loreto
International journal of molecular sciences
IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) is a primary glomerulonephritis problem worldwide that develops mainly in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life and reaches end-stage kidney disease after 20 years from the biopsy-proven diagnosis, implying a great socio-economic burden. IgAN may occur in a sporadic or familial form. Studies on familial IgAN have shown that 66% of asymptomatic relatives carry immunological defects such as high IgA serum levels, abnormal spontaneous in vitro production of IgA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), high serum levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1, and an altered PBMC cytokine production profile. Recent findings led us to focus our attention on a new perspective to study the pathogenesis of this disease, and new studies showed the involvement of factors driven by environment, lifestyle or diet that could affect the disease. In this review, we describe the results of studies carried out in IgAN patients derived from genomic and epigenomic studies. Moreover, we discuss the role of the microbiome in the disease. Finally, we suggest a new vision to consider IgA Nephropathy as a disease that is not disconnected from the environment in which we live but influenced, in addition to the genetic background, also by other environmental and behavioral factors that could be useful for developing precision nephrology and personalized therapy.
Effects of Two Immunosuppressive Treatment Protocols for IgA Nephropathy.
Rauen Thomas,Fitzner Christina,Eitner Frank,Sommerer Claudia,Zeier Martin,Otte Britta,Panzer Ulf,Peters Harm,Benck Urs,Mertens Peter R,Kuhlmann Uwe,Witzke Oliver,Gross Oliver,Vielhauer Volker,Mann Johannes F E,Hilgers Ralf-Dieter,Floege Jürgen
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
The role of immunosuppression in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is controversial. In the Supportive Versus Immunosuppressive Therapy for the Treatment of Progressive IgA Nephropathy (STOP-IgAN) Trial, 162 patients with IgAN and proteinuria >0.75 g/d after 6 months of optimized supportive care were randomized into two groups: continued supportive care or additional immunosuppression (GFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m: 6-month corticosteroid monotherapy; GFR=30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m: cyclophosphamide for 3 months followed by azathioprine plus oral prednisolone). Coprimary end points were full clinical remission and GFR loss ≥15 ml/min per 1.73 m during the 3-year trial phase. In this secondary intention to treat analysis, we separately analyzed data from each immunosuppression subgroup and the corresponding patients on supportive care. Full clinical remission occurred in 11 (20%) patients receiving corticosteroid monotherapy and three (6%) patients on supportive care (odds ratio, 5.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 26.36; =0.02), but the rate did not differ between patients receiving immunosuppressive combination and controls on supportive care (11% versus 4%, respectively; =0.30). The end point of GFR loss ≥15 ml/min per 1.73 m did not differ between groups. Only corticosteroid monotherapy transiently reduced proteinuria at 12 months. Severe infections, impaired glucose tolerance, and/or weight gain in the first year were more frequent with either immunosuppressive regimen than with supportive care. In conclusion, only corticosteroid monotherapy induced disease remission in a minority of patients who had IgAN with relatively well preserved GFR and persistent proteinuria. Neither immunosuppressive regimen prevented GFR loss, and both associated with substantial adverse events.
New strategies and perspectives on managing IgA nephropathy.
Selvaskandan Haresh,Cheung Chee Kay,Muto Masahiro,Barratt Jonathan
Clinical and experimental nephrology
IgA nephropathy is an inflammatory renal disease characterised by the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium and is the most commonly reported primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Thirty to forty percent of patients with the disease develop progressive renal function decline, requiring renal replacement therapy within two decades of diagnosis. Despite this, accurate individual risk stratification at diagnosis and predicting treatment response remains a challenge. Furthermore, there are currently no disease specific treatments currently licensed to treat the condition due to long standing challenges in the nature and prevalence of the disease. Despite this, there have been exciting recent advances in the field that may represent paradigm shifts in the way IgA nephropathy is managed in the near future. In this review, we explore the evidence base informing current approaches to management and explore new strategies and future directions in the diagnosis and management of IgA nephropathy.
A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Rituximab in IgA Nephropathy with Proteinuria and Renal Dysfunction.
Lafayette Richard A,Canetta Pietro A,Rovin Brad H,Appel Gerald B,Novak Jan,Nath Karl A,Sethi Sanjeev,Tumlin James A,Mehta Kshama,Hogan Marie,Erickson Stephen,Julian Bruce A,Leung Nelson,Enders Felicity T,Brown Rhubell,Knoppova Barbora,Hall Stacy,Fervenza Fernando C
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
IgA nephropathy frequently leads to progressive CKD. Although interest surrounds use of immunosuppressive agents added to standard therapy, several recent studies have questioned efficacy of these agents. Depleting antibody-producing B cells potentially offers a new therapy. In this open label, multicenter study conducted over 1-year follow-up, we randomized 34 adult patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy and proteinuria >1 g/d, maintained on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with well controlled BP and eGFR<90 ml/min per 1.73 m, to receive standard therapy or rituximab with standard therapy. Primary outcome measures included change in proteinuria and change in eGFR. Median baseline serum creatinine level (range) was 1.4 (0.8-2.4) mg/dl, and proteinuria was 2.1 (0.6-5.3) g/d. Treatment with rituximab depleted B cells and was well tolerated. eGFR did not change in either group. Rituximab did not alter the level of proteinuria compared with that at baseline or in the control group; three patients in each group had ≥50% reduction in level of proteinuria. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 or antibodies against galactose-deficient IgA1 did not change. In this trial, rituximab therapy did not significantly improve renal function or proteinuria assessed over 1 year. Although rituximab effectively depleted B cells, it failed to reduce serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 and antigalactose-deficient IgA1 antibodies. Lack of efficacy of rituximab, at least at this stage and severity of IgA nephropathy, may reflect a failure of rituximab to reduce levels of specific antibodies assigned salient pathogenetic roles in IgA nephropathy.
Clinical and histological features and therapeutic strategies for IgA nephropathy.
Clinical and experimental nephrology
Chronic glomerulonephritis is the second most common reason, after diabetic nephropathy, for initiation of dialysis in Japan and IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent form of chronic glomerulonephritis. In the half century since IgAN was initially reported, our understanding of the long-term prognosis, clinical and histological features, pathogenesis of onset and progression, risk factors for progression, and appropriate treatment under different clinical and histological conditions, has steadily increased. Strong experimental and clinical evidence, the Clinical Practice Guidelines for IgA Nephropathy in Japan, the Oxford Classification, and the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines have all contributed to the appropriate treatment of IgAN. Several intensive therapies, such as tonsillectomy, steroid therapy, and their combinations, can result in clinical remission, and prevent the progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, some IgAN patients still progress to ESRD even when treated with intensive therapies. In this review, we discuss the clinical and histological features of IgAN, focusing primarily on our previous reports, and our opinions on therapeutic strategies for IgAN.
IgA Nephropathy: Core Curriculum 2021.
Pattrapornpisut Prapa,Avila-Casado Carmen,Reich Heather N
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide. The diagnostic histologic hallmark is dominant or codominant IgA staining on kidney biopsy; however, patients may present with various clinical syndromes ranging from asymptomatic abnormalities noted on urinalysis to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Given substantial heterogeneity in the clinical course of disease, online risk calculators are available that may assist in prognostication and inform discussions with patients. Comprehensive supportive treatment is central in the initial therapy of IgAN; the additive benefit of currently available immunosuppressive agents remains an area of controversy. Although proteinuria is attenuated by the use of corticosteroids, the long-term benefits have been questioned, and the use of corticosteroids is associated with severe adverse effects, notably infection. Recent advances in our understanding of mucosal immunity and the role of the complement system in IgAN pathogenesis are leading to development of novel therapeutic options, which are being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. In this installment of the AJKD Core Curriculum in Nephrology, IgAN pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, histology, prediction tools, and treatment are reviewed, and case examples are presented to illustrate the approach to the management of patients with IgAN.
Improving treatment decisions using personalized risk assessment from the International IgA Nephropathy Prediction Tool.
Barbour Sean J,Canney Mark,Coppo Rosanna,Zhang Hong,Liu Zhi-Hong,Suzuki Yusuke,Matsuzaki Keiichi,Katafuchi Ritsuko,Induruwage Dilshani,Er Lee,Reich Heather N,Feehally John,Barratt Jonathan,Cattran Daniel C,
Immunosuppression in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) should be reserved for patients at high-risk of disease progression, which KDIGO guidelines determine based solely on proteinuria 1g or more/day. To investigate if treatment decisions can be more accurately accomplished using individualized risk from the International IgAN Prediction Tool, we simulated allocation of a hypothetical immunosuppression therapy in an international cohort of adults with IgAN. Two decision rules for treatment were applied based on proteinuria of 1g or more/day or predicted risk from the Prediction Tool above a threshold probability. An appropriate decision was defined as immunosuppression allocated to patients experiencing the primary outcome (50% decline in eGFR or ESKD) and withheld otherwise. The net benefit and net reduction in treatment are the proportion of patients appropriately allocated to receive or withhold immunosuppression, adjusted for the harm from inappropriate decisions, calculated for all threshold probabilities from 0-100%. Of 3299 patients followed for 5.1 years, 522 (15.8%) experienced the primary outcome. Treatment allocation based solely on proteinuria of 1g or more/day had a negative net benefit (was harmful) because immunosuppression was increasingly allocated to patients without progressive disease. Compared to using proteinuria, treatment allocation using the Prediction Tool had a larger net benefit up to 23.4% (95% confidence interval 21.5-25.2%) and a larger net reduction in treatment up to 35.1% (32.3-37.8%). Thus, allocation of immunosuppression to high-risk patients with IgAN can be substantially improved using the Prediction Tool compared to using proteinuria.