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    Evaluation of Commercial Disinfectants against and spp. of Poultry Origin. Saha Otun,Rakhi Nadira Naznin,Istiaq Arif,Islam Israt,Sultana Munawar,Hossain M Anwar,Rahaman Md Mizanur Veterinary medicine international Introduction:Effective sanitation strategies for poultry farms require an appropriate selection of the disinfectant based on the contaminants present and their sensitivity to the disinfectants. Aim:The current study investigated the prevalence of streptococci/micrococci in poultry farms of Bangladesh and the efficacy of commercial disinfectants (Savlon, Lysol, Quatovet, Virkon S, and Virocid) along with alcohol against these pathogens to adopt appropriate strategies. Materials and Methods:Conventional approaches and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to confirm the isolates at the species level along with microtiter biofilm assay to determine their biofilm-forming ability. Efficacy of the disinfectants was tested against those isolates using agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test by broth dilution method using different dilutions of the disinfectants. Results: ( = 32), ( = 7), and ( = 4) were confirmed among 102 presumptively screened streptococci/micrococci isolates from 43 samples. No single disinfectant showed equally high efficacy against all three bacterial species in agar well diffusion test, although Virocid showed the lowest MIC against all three of them. Lysol was least effective among the commercial disinfectants by both MIC and diffusion method, although each commercial disinfectant was more effective than alcohol. Considering both the average diameter of the inhibition zones and the MIC values, efficacy can be interpreted as Virocid > Quatovet > Savlon > Virkon S > Lysol. Although the efficacy decreased with decreasing concentration, the disinfectants retained a satisfactory level of efficacy at 50% concentration. Among test pathogens, was the most sensitive to the disinfectants and the weakest biofilm producers, whereas 4/14 and 1/5 were strong biofilm producers, which may cause more reduction in the efficacy in environmental conditions. Conclusion:As no ideal disinfectant was found in the study, the efficacy of the disinfectants should be routinely evaluated and validated to ensure the sanitation standards in the poultry sector. 10.1155/2020/8811540
    Surface Wiping Test to Study Biocide -Cinnamaldehyde Combination to Improve Efficiency in Surface Disinfection. Malheiro Joana F,Oliveira Catarina,Cagide Fernando,Borges Fernanda,Simões Manuel,Maillard Jean-Yves International journal of molecular sciences Disinfection is crucial to control and prevent microbial pathogens on surfaces. Nonetheless, disinfectants misuse in routine disinfection has increased the concern on their impact on bacterial resistance and cross-resistance. This work aims to develop a formulation for surface disinfection based on the combination of a natural product, cinnamaldehyde, and a widely used biocide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The wiping method was based on the Wiperator test (ASTM E2967-15) and the efficacy evaluation of surface disinfection wipes test (EN 16615:2015). After formulation optimization, the wiping of a contaminated surface with 6.24 log colony-forming units (CFU) of or 7.10 log CFU of led to a reduction of 4.35 log CFU and 4.27 log CFU when the wipe was impregnated with the formulation in comparison with 2.45 log CFU and 1.50 log CFU as a result of mechanical action only for and , respectively. Furthermore, the formulation prevented the transfer of bacteria to clean surfaces. The work presented highlights the potential of a combinatorial approach of a classic biocide with a phytochemical for the development of disinfectant formulations, with the advantage of reducing the concentration of synthetic biocides, which reduces the potentially negative environmental and public health impacts from their routine use. 10.3390/ijms21217852
    Evaluating the impact of sampling design on drinking water quality monitoring program outcomes. da Luz Nelson,Kumpel Emily Water research Drinking water suppliers around the world are required by regulations to sample and test water quality in their distribution systems with the intention of generating information that can be used to protect human health. Requirements for where samples must be collected can vary and guidance on how to select locations to meet these requirements is limited. There is a need to better define and evaluate the meaning of representative in the context of selecting locations for collecting grab samples while considering the regulatory context and resources available to suppliers. We develop sampling programs for monitoring disinfectant residual concentrations and compare the results and efficacy of these programs using synthetic water quality data for two example distribution systems. Results showed that achieving accurate estimates of worst quality conditions in a network was more likely than achieving accurate estimates of systemwide conditions, and that using constant locations makes it difficult to accurately represent systemwide conditions. Results also showed that timing of sample collection is likely important depending on factors such as consumer demand patterns, and that it is inappropriate to make conclusions about systemwide conditions when few samples are taken over an evaluation period. This research has implications for developing recommendations that water suppliers and regulators can use to design and evaluate effective sampling programs. 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116217
    Evaluation of antifungal and disinfectant-resistant Candida species isolated from hospital wastewater. Mataraci-Kara Emel,Ataman Merve,Yilmaz Gulsum,Ozbek-Celik Berna Archives of microbiology The present study aims to examine the in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from hospital wastewater, and the efficacy of widely used disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite and benzalkonium chloride) against planktonic and biofilm cells were assessed. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that the two azoles were more effective against C. albicans than non-albicans isolates. When we determine the efficiency of disinfectants against the planktonic cells, benzalkonium chloride did not show any activity in all the studied strains under tested conditions except C. albicans-1. However, sodium hypochlorite showed ≥ 4 log killing in viable cells for different contact times. On the other hand, while 0.1% and 1% concentrations of benzalkonium chloride showed fungicidal activity against biofilm cells, sodium hypochlorite at 1% only demonstrated fungicidal activity. Those results showed that surface water is a possible transmission path for fungi in the investigated hospital region and may be a health risk, especially for the immunocompromised host. 10.1007/s00203-020-01975-z
    and evaluation of some antimicrobials and disinfectants against bacterial pathogens from hoof lesions in dairy cattle. Ali S,Avais M,Durrani A Z,Ashraf K,Bilal M,Nasir A,Khan J A,Awais M Iranian journal of veterinary research Background:Lameness in dairy cattle is prevalent worldwide and has serious economic and welfare implications. Nevertheless, it is an overlooked and least studied dairy problem in Pakistan. Aims:This study was executed for and evaluation of antimicrobials and disinfectants against bacterial pathogens from hoof lesions of commercial dairy cattle. Methods:For studies, 23 bacterial isolates (n=10 , n=8 , and n=5 ) from hoof lesions were used for antimicrobial and disinfectants susceptibility testing. trials were carried out among 4 groups of dairy cows suffering from hoof lesions using different combinations of antimicrobials, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and disinfectants either parenterally or topically. Results:Results indicated that most of the isolates of , , and were resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, and tylosin. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antimicrobials () against all three bacterial pathogens. Comparison of efficacy of disinfectants showed that copper sulfate was the most effective disinfectant against the three pathogens followed by povidone-iodine and chloroxylenol. trials revealed that ciprofloxacin at 5 mg/kg/day intramuscular (IM) for 7 days, flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg/day IM for 7 days, and copper sulfate (5% solution) as foot-bath twice daily for 21 days was the most effective treatment regimen to treat lameness in commercial dairy cows. Conclusion:It was concluded that antibiogram and disinfectant studies were useful tools to assess the effectiveness of routinely used antimicrobials and disinfectants for the treatment of lameness. 10.22099/ijvr.2020.37776.5493
    Efficiency evaluation of some novel disinfectants and anti-bacterial nanocomposite on zoonotic bacterial pathogens in commercial Mallard duck pens for efficient control. Abdel-Latef Gihan K,Mohammed Asmaa N Journal of advanced veterinary and animal research Objective:This work aimed to detect the frequency of pathogenic bacteria of zoonotic importance in ducks' dropping, their surrounding environment, and farmworkers in contact with them. Furthermore, the susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria to antimicrobial drugs and the efficiency of disinfectants (CID 20, Durak plus, and hydrogen peroxide (HO), nano zinc oxide (ZnO NPs), and hydrogen peroxide loaded nano zinc oxide (HO/ZnO NPs) composites against isolated bacteria were evaluated. Materials and Methods:A total of samples were collected from duck pens, including 35 fecal droppings, 200 environmental samples, and 36 from the hands of pen workers for isolation and identification of bacterial strains using standard microbiological procedures. After that, the antibiotic sensitivity testing of 40 bacterial isolates was carried out using disk diffusion assay. ZnO NPs and HO/ZnO NPs were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectrum and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The efficacy of disinfectants and nanocomposites was evaluated against enteropathogenic bacteria using the broth macro-dilution method. Results:The results showed that the overall prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in duck pens was 62.73. The highest isolation rate was detected in duck fecal droppings (100%), while was found to be the most isolated pathogen (56.47%), followed by (21.8%), (15.29), and species (6.47%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was detected in the majority of bacterial isolates. The efficiency of CID 20 and Durak plus disinfectants against all bacterial isolates was highly susceptible (100%) after 120 min of exposure time compared to the effectiveness of HO on enteropathogenic bacteria which did not exceeded 60% at 5% concentration. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of spp. to Durak plus did not exceeded 80%. Conclusion:The duck fecal droppings are the primary source of bacterial isolates. MDR isolates were susceptible to both CID 20 and Durak plus disinfectants after 120 min of exposure time at a concentration of 1:100 ml. Besides, HO/ZnO NPs composite proved its lethal effect against all testing strains at 0.02 mg/ml after 120 min of exposure. Strict biosecurity guidelines are required to mitigate and prevent the transmission of potentially zoonotic pathogens through the farm environment and/or duck droppings. 10.5455/javar.2021.h492