Development and validation of a hypoxia-immune-based microenvironment gene signature for risk stratification in gastric cancer.
Liu Yifan,Wu Jianhua,Huang Weiwei,Weng Shaowen,Wang Baochun,Chen Yiming,Wang Hao
Journal of translational medicine
BACKGROUND:Increasing evidences have found that the clinical importance of the interaction between hypoxia and immune status in gastric cancer microenvironment. However, reliable prognostic signatures based on combination of hypoxia and immune status have not been well-established. This study aimed to develop a hypoxia-immune-based gene signature for risk stratification in gastric cancer. METHODS:Hypoxia and immune status was estimated with transcriptomic profiles for a discovery cohort from GEO database using the t-SNE and ESTIMATE algorithms, respectively. The Cox regression model with the LASSO method was applied to identify prognostic genes and to develop a hypoxia-immune-based gene signature. The TCGA cohort and two independent cohorts from GEO database were used for external validation. RESULTS:Low hypoxia status (p < 0.001) and high immune status (p = 0.005) were identified as favorable factors for patients' overall survival. By using the LASSO model, four genes, including CXCR6, PPP1R14A and TAGLN, were identified to construct a gene signature for risk stratification. In the discovery cohort (n = 357), patients with low risk yielded better outcomes than those with high risk regarding overall survival across and within TNM stage subgroups. Multivariate analysis identified the hypoxia-immune-based gene signature as an independent prognostic factor (p < 0.001). A nomogram integrating the gene signature and known risk factors yielded better performance and net benefits in calibration and decision curve analyses. Similar results were validated in the TCGA (n = 321) and two independent GEO (n = 300 and n = 136, respectively) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:The hypoxia-immune-based gene signature represents a promising tool for risk stratification tool in gastric cancer. It might serve as a prognostic classifier for clinical decision-making regarding individualized prognostication and treatment, and follow-up scheduling.
Catabolic cancer-associated fibroblasts transfer energy and biomass to anabolic cancer cells, fueling tumor growth.
Martinez-Outschoorn Ubaldo E,Lisanti Michael P,Sotgia Federica
Seminars in cancer biology
Fibroblasts are the most abundant "non-cancerous" cells in tumors. However, it remains largely unknown how these cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumor growth and metastasis, driving chemotherapy resistance and poor clinical outcome. This review summarizes new findings on CAF signaling pathways and their emerging metabolic phenotypes that promote tumor growth. Although it is well established that altered cancer metabolism enhances tumor growth, little is known about the role of fibroblast metabolism in tumor growth. New studies reveal that metabolic coupling occurs between catabolic fibroblasts and anabolic cancer cells, in many types of human tumors, including breast, prostate, and head & neck cancers, as well as lymphomas. These catabolic phenotypes observed in CAFs are secondary to a ROS-induced metabolic stress response. Mechanistically, this occurs via HIF1-alpha and NFκB signaling, driving oxidative stress, autophagy, glycolysis and senescence in stromal fibroblasts. These catabolic CAFs then create a nutrient-rich microenvironment, to metabolically support tumor growth, via the local stromal generation of mitochondrial fuels (lactate, ketone bodies, fatty acids, glutamine, and other amino acids). New biomarkers of this catabolic CAF phenotype (such as caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and MCT4), which are reversible upon treatment with anti-oxidants, are strong predictors of poor clinical outcome in various types of human cancers. How cancer cells metabolically reprogram fibroblasts can also help us to understand the effects of cancer cells at an organismal level, explaining para-neoplastic phenomena, such as cancer cachexia. In conclusion, cancer should be viewed more as a systemic disease, that engages the host-organism in various forms of energy-transfer and metabolic co-operation, across a whole-body "ecosystem".