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    Nutrient and Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Pathogenesis of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis-A Literature Review. Ilesanmi-Oyelere Bolaji Lilian,Kruger Marlena C Life (Basel, Switzerland) Postmenopausal women tend to be susceptible to primary osteoporosis due to its association with oestrogen deficiency. There is emerging evidence that an unhealthy dietary pattern drives an increase in the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO), whereas a healthy dietary pattern may decrease its occurrence. In this narrative literature review, we sought to review the role of nutrient and dietary patterns in the pathogenesis of PO. Therefore, we searched and reported all research articles from 2001 to May 2020 in Web of Science, Cinahl and Scopus that have researched a relationship between nutrient and/or dietary patterns and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have been proven to be beneficial for bone health. Meanwhile, for the dietary patterns, foods such as dairy products especially milk, fibre and protein-rich foods, e.g., meat were directly linked to a positive association with bone mineral density (BMD). Likewise, fruits, vegetables and probiotic and prebiotic foods were reported for its positive relationship with BMD. Therefore, aside from physical activity, nutrition and diet in adequate proportions are suggested to be an important tool for ameliorating osteoporosis and bone health issues in older age. 10.3390/life10100220
    Nutritional considerations for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Grippe Kristen,Ryan Victoria JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants Osteoporosis commonly affects postmenopausal women and accounts for 300,000 hip fractures in the United States each year. More women are deferring or discontinuing pharmacologic treatment because of intolerable adverse reactions or fear of long-term safety. Supplementing dietary intake of certain vitamins and minerals can have positive effects on bone parameters. Calcium is frequently recommended for osteoporotic patients but many not confer much benefit toward bone density. Certain forms of vitamins A and K have been shown to increase bone density. Isoflavones and phytates are phytochemicals found in soy foods that are comparable to bisphosphonates when consumed at certain levels. Lastly, increasing certain daily fruit and vegetable servings can improve bone health. Nutritional interventions are typically safe alternatives that should be considered for postmenopausal women who are seeking nonpharmacologic treatment options for osteoporosis. 10.1097/01.JAA.0000662384.93538.a2