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    Melasma treatment: a systematic review. Neagu Nicoleta,Conforti Claudio,Agozzino Marina,Marangi Giovanni Francesco,Morariu Silviu Horia,Pellacani Giovanni,Persichetti Paolo,Piccolo Domenico,Segreto Francesco,Zalaudek Iris,Dianzani Caterina The Journal of dermatological treatment Melasma is a common chronic refractory disorder of pigmentation affecting people with darker skin types. Overall prevalence varies between 8.8% and 40%, depending on the ethnicity of the population and the geographical area. Therapeutic management of melasma is challenging, with high recurrence rates which significant impacts on the quality of life. No single treatment is universally efficacious. Systemic treatments with tranexamic acid and polypodium leucotmatous had promising results, although the former was related to systemic side effects. Microneedling and peeling were also efficacious, although their superiority to topical hydroquinone, the gold standard in melasma treatment, remains to be established. Similarly, laser and light devices have been beneficial. However, recurrence rates remain high in all treatment groups. Combination therapies, either in double or triple combinations yielded the best results when compared to single terapies. Treatment choice should be made after Wood's lamp examination, as well as dermatoscopic evaluation, in order to select the best treatment option, targeted at each melasma subtype. 10.1080/09546634.2021.1914313