Dendritic Cell Plasticity in Tumor-Conditioned Skin: CD14(+) Cells at the Cross-Roads of Immune Activation and Suppression.
van de Ven Rieneke,Lindenberg Jelle J,Oosterhoff Dinja,de Gruijl Tanja D
Frontiers in immunology
Tumors abuse myeloid plasticity to re-direct dendritic cell (DC) differentiation from T cell stimulatory subsets to immune-suppressive subsets that can interfere with anti-tumor immunity. Lined by a dense network of easily accessible DC the skin is a preferred site for the delivery of DC-targeted vaccines. Various groups have recently been focusing on functional aspects of DC subsets in the skin and how these may be affected by tumor-derived suppressive factors. IL-6, Prostaglandin-E2, and IL-10 were identified as factors in cultures of primary human tumors responsible for the inhibited development and activation of skin DC as well as monocyte-derived DC. IL-10 was found to be uniquely able to convert fully developed DC to immature macrophage-like cells with functional M2 characteristics in a physiologically highly relevant skin explant model in which the phenotypic and functional traits of "crawl-out" DC were studied. Mostly from mouse studies, the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway has emerged as a "master switch" of tumor-induced immune suppression. Our lab has additionally identified p38-MAPK as an important signaling element in human DC suppression, and recently validated it as such in ex vivo cultures of single-cell suspensions from melanoma metastases. Through the identification of molecular mechanisms and signaling events that drive myeloid immune suppression in human tumors, more effective DC-targeted cancer vaccines may be designed.
The IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway may be associated with human renal cell carcinoma cell growth.
Su Ying,Zhao An,Cheng Guoping,Xu Jingjing,Ji Enming,Sun Wenyong
Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
BACKGROUND:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the highest mortality rate of the genitourinary cancers, and the treatment options are very limited. Thus, identification of molecular mechanisms underlying RCC tumorigenesis, is critical for identifying biomarkers for RCC diagnosis and prognosis. OBJECTIVE:To validate whether the IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway is associated with human RCC cell growth. METHODS:qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. The MTT assay was performed to determine cell survival rate. The Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit was used to detect cell apoptosis. We employed RCC tissues and cell lines (A498; ACHN; Caki-1; Caki-2 and 786-O) in the study. IGF-I, and its inhibitor (NT-157) were administrated to detect the effects of IGF-I on the expression of miR-21 and p-JAK2. JAK2 inhibitor (AG490), and si-STAT3 were used to detect the effects of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway on the expression of miR-21. RESULTS:In our study, we firstly showed that the expression levels of IGF-I and miR-21 were up-regulated in RCC tissues and cell lines. After exogenous IGF-I treatment, the expression levels of miR-21, p-IGF-IR and p-JAK2 were significantly increased, whereas NT-157 treatment showed the reversed results. Further study indicated that JAK2 inhibitor or si-STAT3 significantly reversed the IGF-I-induced miR-21 expression level. Finally, we found that IGF-I treatment significantly prompted human RCC cell survival and inhibited cell apoptosis, and NT-157 treatment showed the reversed results. CONCLUSIONS:The IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway may be associated with human RCC cell growth.
The JAK/STAT3 axis: A comprehensive drug target for solid malignancies.
Huynh Jennifer,Etemadi Nima,Hollande Frédéric,Ernst Matthias,Buchert Michael
Seminars in cancer biology
Intercellular communication between tumor cells, immune cells and the stroma characterises the tumor microenvironment, which is instrumental for establishing the ecological niche that fosters tumor growth and metastasis. While tumor cell intrinsic STAT3 signaling provides a crucial axis to support cell proliferation and survival, it also regulates many activities of the non-transformed cells that collectively make up the tumor microenvironment. Accordingly, excessive activation of STAT3 is a hallmark of many malignancies, and often occurs in response to cytokines of the IL-6 and IL-10 families. However, tumor extrinsic STAT3 signaling also regulates the effector function of tumor-associated immune and stromal cells, which support the growth of tumors by suppressing the host's anti-tumor immune response. Given that STAT3 mediates tumorigenic effects in many cell types, the molecular players of STAT3 signaling and its upstream JAK kinases provide viable therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. Here we provide an update on novel insights into the role of STAT3 in immune suppression and describe current therapeutic strategies that target the JAK/STAT3 signaling axis for the treatment of malignancies.