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    The effect of Pilates exercise training for scoliosis on improving spinal deformity and quality of life: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Gou Yanyun,Lei Huangwei,Zeng Yi,Tao Jing,Kong Weicheng,Wu Jingsong Medicine BACKGROUND:It remains unclear if Pilates is conducive to reducing spinal deformity and improving patients' quality of life (QOL) with scoliosis. The aim of this study was to systematically review the published evidence to determine whether Pilates exercise training is an efficacious therapy for scoliosis. METHODS:Searches was conducted in Medline, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane library, Baidu Scholar, and Green Medical to identify randomized studies that tested the effect of Pilates exercise training on Cobb angle, pain level, trunk range of motion (ROM), angle of trunk rotation, and QOL in idiopathic scoliosis. Separate meta-analyses were performed on the endpoints of these outcome measures. The PEDro scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS:This review included 10 randomized controlled trials (n = 359). PEDro scores ranged from 3 to 10, with the mean score across all articles being 5.3/10 and judged to be of fair quality. The results indicated that Pilates exercises was effective in reducing Cobb angle (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11-2.35), angle of trunk rotation (SMD = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.01-1.73), and pain level (SMD = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.55-4.01), as well as improving trunk ROM (SMD = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.45-2.00), and QOL (SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.59-3.51) in patients with scoliosis. CONCLUSION:Pilates exercise training may reduce the Cobb angle and trunk rotation, relieve pain, increase trunk ROM, and improve QOL for patients with scoliosis. Due to the poor quality of the evidence, however, these results should be interpreted with caution. 10.1097/MD.0000000000027254
    Improvement of health-related quality of life and radiographic parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients after Schroth exercises. Gao Ang,Li Jun-Yu,Shao Rui,Wu Tong-Xuan,Wang Yong-Qiang,Liu Xiao-Guang,Yu Miao Chinese medical journal BACKGROUND:Finding an optimal treatment strategy for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients remains challenging because of its intrinsic complexity. For mild to moderate scoliosis patients with lower skeletal growth potential (Risser 3-5), most clinicians agree with observation treatment; however, the curve progression that occurs during puberty, the adolescent period, and even in adulthood, remains a challenging issue for clinicians. The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of Schroth exercise in AIS patients with lower skeletal growth potential (Risser 3-5) and moderate scoliosis (Cobb angle 20°-40°). METHODS:From 2015 to 2017, data of 64 patients diagnosed with AIS in Peking University Third Hospital were reviewed. Forty-three patients underwent Schroth exercise were classified as Schroth group, and 21 patients underwent observation were classified as observation group. Outcomes were measured by health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and radiographic parameters. HRQOL was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back, Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) patient questionnaire. Radiographic spinopelvic parameters were obtained from anteroposterior and lateral X-rays. The pre-treatment and post-treatment HRQOL and radiographic parameters were tested to validate Schroth exercise efficacy. The inter-rater reliability of the radiographic parameters was tested using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The paired t test was used to examine HRQOL and radiographic parameters. Clinical relevance between C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and thoracic kyphosis was analyzed using Spearman correlation. RESULTS:In Schroth group, VAS back score, SRS-22 pain, and SRS-22 self-image domain were significantly improved from pre-treatment 3.0 ± 0.8, 3.6 ± 0.5, and 3.5 ± 0.7 to post-treatment 1.6 ± 0.6 (t = 5.578, P = 0.013), 4.0 ± 0.3 (t = -3.918, P = 0.001), and 3.7 ± 0.4 (t = -6.468, P < 0.001), respectively. No significant improvements of SRS-22 function domain (t = -2.825, P = 0.088) and mental health domain (t = -3.174, P = 0.061) were observed. The mean Cobb angle decreased from 28.9 ± 5.5° to 26.3 ± 5.2° at the final follow-up, despite no statistical significance was observed (t = 1.853, P = 0.102). The mean C2-C7 SVA value decreased from 21.7 ± 8.4 mm to 17.0 ± 8.0 mm (t = -1.224 P = 0.049) and mean T1 tilt decreased from 4.9 ± 4.2 ° to 3.5 ± 3.1° (t = 2.913, P = 0.011). No significant improvement of radiographic parameters and HRQOL were observed in observation group. CONCLUSIONS:For AIS patients with a Risser 3-5 and a Cobb angle 20°-40°, Schroth exercises improved HRQOL and halted curve progression during the follow-up period. Both cervical spine alignment and shoulder balance were also significantly improved after Schroth exercises. We recommend Schroth exercises for patients with AIS. 10.1097/CM9.0000000000001799
    Effects of a Home-Based Exercise Intervention (E-Fit) on Bone Density, Muscle Function, and Quality of Life in Girls with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Lau Rufina Wing-Lum,Cheuk Ka-Yee,Ng Bobby Kin-Wah,Tam Elisa Man-Shan,Hung Alec Lik-Hang,Cheng Jack Chun-Yiu,Hui Stanley Sai-Chuen,Lam Tsz-Ping International journal of environmental research and public health BACKGROUND:Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients have lower physical activity levels than normal adolescents, and there is an association with poorer bone and muscle health. This study evaluated the effects of a home-based exercise intervention (E-Fit) on bone mineral density (BMD), muscle function, and quality of life (QoL) in AIS-affected girls. METHODS:A total of 40 AIS females aged 11 to 14 years were randomly assigned to the E-Fit or control group. The E-Fit group performed modified 7-min high-intensity interval training (HIIT) 5 days per week for 6 months. Outcome measures including BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), muscle strength and endurance tests, physical activity levels, and QoL using self-reported questionnaires were assessed at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. RESULTS:In total, 14 patients in the E-Fit and 16 in the control group completed the study. The E-Fit group showed a marginally significant interaction effect in the whole body areal BMD at the 6- ( = 0.096) and 12-month follow-ups ( = 0.085). The left arm lean mass in the E-Fit group showed a statistically significant interaction effect between the 6- and 12-month follow-ups ( = 0.046). The E-Fit group showed improvements in physical activity participation, as measured by the Modified Baecke Questionnaire (MBQ), with a significant interaction effect in work index ( = 0.043), sport index ( = 0.050), and total score ( = 0.016) from baseline to the 12-month follow-up. Improvement on self-image were noted in E-Fit group across time. CONCLUSIONS:The present results provided some evidence to support the positive benefits of E-Fit for bone health and muscle function in AIS girls. 10.3390/ijerph182010899
    Safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive scoliosis surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a retrospective case series of 84 patients. Yang Jae Hyuk,Chang Dong-Gune,Suh Seung Woo,Damani Neelesh,Lee Hoon-Nyun,Lim Jungwook,Mun Frederick European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate a prospective series of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated with minimally invasive scoliosis surgery (MISS) technique with a minimum follow-up more than 1 year. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the prospectively collected data of 84 patients with AIS treated with MIS technique using two or three coin hole size incisions and a muscle-splitting approach. The clinical and radiological data such as the correction of deformity, coronal and sagittal profile and record of the perioperative morbidity of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS:The mean primary Cobb angle was corrected from 59.8° preoperatively to 18.6° postoperatively with a mean correction of 68.9% (p < 0.001). The mean kyphosis at T2 to T12 was maintained within normal range with an increase from 31.2° preoperatively to 35.3° postoperatively (p < 0.001). The 30-day perioperative complication rate was 7.14% with one deep infection and five cases of hemothorax. The mean operation time was 312.8 min; mean estimated blood loss was 846.6 ml (range 420-2800); and mean length of stay was 8.5 days (range 5 to 14). All data of postoperative SRS-22 questionnaire were significantly improved (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:MISS used for AIS provides adequate correction in both planes and acceptable rate of perioperative complications, with a low estimated blood loss and short length of stay. Considering all the positives, the application of MISS technique for AIS seems meaningful and can become a valid alternative to posterior approach in the routine use. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material. 10.1007/s00586-019-06172-1
    The effectiveness of core stabilization exercise in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A randomized controlled trial. Gür Gözde,Ayhan Cigdem,Yakut Yavuz Prosthetics and orthotics international BACKGROUND:Core stabilization training is used to improve postural balance in musculoskeletal problems. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of stabilization training in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. STUDY DESIGN:A randomized controlled trial, pretest-posttest design. METHODS:In total, 25 subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into two groups: stabilization group ( n = 12) and control group ( n = 13). The stabilization group received core stabilization in addition to traditional rehabilitation, and the control group received traditional rehabilitation for 10 weeks. Assessment included Cobb's angle on radiograph, apical vertebral rotation in Adam's test, trunk asymmetry (Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index), cosmetic trunk deformity (Trunk Appearance Perception Scale), and quality of life (Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire). RESULTS:Inter-group comparisons showed significantly greater improvements in the mean change in lumbar apical vertebral rotation degree and the pain domain of Scoliosis Research Society-22 in the stabilization group than those in the control group ( p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for other measurements between the groups; however, trends toward greater improvement were observed in the stabilization group. CONCLUSION:Core stabilization training in addition to traditional exercises was more effective than traditional exercises alone in the correction of vertebral rotation and reduction of pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Clinical relevance Stabilization exercises are more effective in reducing rotation deformity and pain than traditional exercises in the conservative rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. These improvements suggest that stabilization training should be added to rehabilitation programs in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 10.1177/0309364616664151
    Effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises for alleviating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review. Fan Yunli,Ren Qing,To Michael Kai Tsun,Cheung Jason Pui Yin BMC musculoskeletal disorders BACKGROUND:Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common pediatric spinal deformity with reported complications including pain, mental health concern and respiratory dysfunction. The scoliosis-specific exercise (SSE) is prescribed throughout pubertal growth to slow progression although effects are unclear. This review aims to establish the effectiveness of SSE for alleviating AIS in terms of reducing Cobb angle, improving trunk asymmetry and quality of life (QoL). Additionally, it aims to define the effects of age, skeletal maturity, curve magnitude and exercise compliance on the outcomes of SSE. METHODS:A systematic reviewed was conducted to net SSE articles. Searched databases included PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL and Google scholar. The quality of study was critically appraised according to the PEDro scale. RESULTS:A total of ten trials with an average PEDro score of 6.9/10 were examined in this study. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two clinical controlled trials suggested that SSE alone and with bracing or traditional exercise had clinical significance in reducing Cobb angle more than 5°. One RCT specifically implicated no comparable effects between bracing and SSE in prevention of curve progression for moderate scoliosis. There was insufficient evidence to support the positive effects of SSE on improving truck asymmetry (n = 4) and QoL (n = 3). Five studies evaluated the interaction effects of age (n = 2), skeletal maturity (n = 1) and curve magnitude (n = 2) with SSE in reducing Cobb angle yet without drawing any firm conclusions. CONCLUSIONS:Insufficient evidence is available to prove that SSE with or without other conservative treatments can reduce Cobb angle, improve trunk balance and QoL. The interaction effects of age, skeletal maturity, curve magnitude, and exercise compliance with SSE in reducing Cobb angle are not proven. Future studies should investigate the relationship of influencing factors and SSE in treating AIS but not only testing its effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION:INPLASY202050100 . 10.1186/s12891-020-03517-6
    Does Curve Regression Occur During Underarm Bracing in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis? Cheung Jason Pui Yin,Cheung Prudence Wing Hang,Yeng Wing Cheung,Chan Lawrence Chi Kwan Clinical orthopaedics and related research BACKGROUND:Successful brace treatment entails good control of scoliosis with avoidance of surgery. However, achieving curve regression may be an even better radiological result than prevention of curve progression for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Vertebral remodeling may occur with well-fitted braces. Better in-brace curve correction may influence the likelihood of vertebral remodeling and the chance of curve regression. Only a few reports have evaluated curve regression with brace treatment, and the factors associated with these events are unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:(1) What changes in curvature are observed with brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? (2) What factors are associated with curve improvement? (3) What factors are associated with curve deterioration? (4) Is curve regression associated with improvements in patient-reported objective outcome scores? METHODS:Between September 2008 and December 2013, 666 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis underwent underarm brace treatment and were followed until skeletal maturity at 18 years old. Among these patients, 80 were excluded because of early discontinuation of brace treatment (n = 66) and loss to follow-up (n = 14). Hence, 586 patients were included in this study, with a mean brace-wear duration of 3.8 ± 1.5 years and post-weaning follow-up duration of 2.0 ± 1.1 years. The mean age at baseline was 12.6 ± 1.2 years. Most patients were female (87%, 507 of 586) and up to 53% (267 of 507) of females were post-menarche. Bracing outcomes were based on changes in the Cobb angle measured out of brace. These included curve regression, as indicated by at least a 5° reduction in the Cobb angle, curve progression, as indicated by at least a 5° increase in the Cobb angle, and unchanged, as indicated by a change in the Cobb angle of less than 5°. We studied the pre-brace and supine Cobb angles, curve flexibility (pre-brace Cobb angle - supine Cobb angle / pre-brace Cobb angle x 100%), correction rate (pre-brace Cobb angle - in-brace Cobb angle / pre-brace Cobb angle x 100%), location of apical vertebrae, apical ratio (convex vertebral height/concave vertebral height), change in the major curve Cobb angle, and apical ratio post-bracing. The refined 22-item Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire was used for patient-reported outcomes and is composed of five domains (function, pain, appearance, mental health and satisfaction with treatment). Its minimum clinically important difference, based on a scale from 0 to 5, has been quoted as 0.2 for pain, 0.08 for activity and 0.98 for appearance domains. Mental health has no quoted minimum clinically important difference for the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis population. Satisfaction with treatment is described based on improvement or deterioration in domain scores. Intergroup differences between bracing outcomes were evaluated with the Kruskal Wallis test. Univariate analyses of bracing outcomes were performed with a point-biserial correlation coefficient for continuous variables and Pearson's chi-square test for categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression models were created for improved and deteriorated outcomes. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS:In all, 17% of patients (98 of 586) had an improved angle and 40% of patients (234 of 586) had curve deterioration. In patients who improved, the mean reduction in the Cobb angle was 9 ± 4°, while in patients who deteriorated, the mean increase in the Cobb angle was 15 ± 9°, and this was maintained at the latest post-brace weaning follow-up. Despite a trend for patients with curve regression to have higher baseline flexibility and correction rate, after controlling for age, Risser staging, radius and ulnar grading, and Sanders staging, we found no clinically important differences with increased correction rate or flexibility. We did find that improvement in the Cobb angle after bracing was associated with reduced apical ratio (odds ratio [OR] 0.84 [95% CI 0.80 to 0.87]; p < 0.001). Curve progression was associated with younger age (OR 0.71 [95% CI 0.55 to 0.91]; p = 0.008), pre-menarche status (OR 2.46 [95% CI 1.31 to 4.62]; p = 0.005), and increased apical ratio (OR 1.24 [95% CI 1.19 to 1.30]; p < 0.001) but no clinically important differences were observed with less flexible curves and reduced correction rate. Improvements in scores of the refined 22-item Scoliosis Research Society domains of function (mean difference on a scale from 0 to 5: 0.2; p = 0.001 versus 0.1; p < 0.001) and pain (mean difference on a scale from 0 to 5: 0.2; p = 0.020 versus 0.0; p = 0.853) were greater in the post-brace improvement group than in the deterioration group and fulfilled the minimum clinically important difference threshold. The appearance domain did not fulfill the minimum clinically important difference. Satisfaction with treatment domain score minimally improved with the curve regression group (mean difference on a scale from 0 to 5: 0.2) but deteriorated in the curve progression group (mean difference on a scale from 0 to 5: -0.4). CONCLUSIONS:Curve regression occurs after underarm bracing and is associated with superior patient-reported outcome scores. This possible change in Cobb angle should be explained to patients before and during bracing. Whether this may help improve patients' duration of brace-wear should be addressed in future studies. Patients with well-fitting braces may experience curve improvement and possible vertebral remodeling. Those braced at a younger age and with increased vertebral wedging are more likely to have curve progression. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III, therapeutic study. 10.1097/CORR.0000000000000989
    Physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises performed immediately after spinal manipulative therapy for the treatment of mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial. Wang Li,Wang Chun,Youssef Ahmed S A,Xu Jiang,Huang Xiaolin,Xia Nan Trials BACKGROUND:Spinal manipulative therapy is commonly used in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Some therapists also rely on physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercise (PSSE). Combining these two modalities seems reasonable, but the effectiveness of this combination has never been rigorously tested. Here, a protocol for a pilot study is proposed to determine the feasibility of conducting a larger randomized trial. The pilot study was designed to test the hypothesis that spinal manipulative therapy followed by PSSE is more effective than PSSE alone in improving the Cobb angle, sensorimotor integration, the angle of trunk rotation (ATR), body symmetry, and quality of life. METHODS:The protocol describes a randomized controlled pilot trial with 40 subjects divided into study and control groups. Both groups will receive 8 weeks of PSSE, but the study group will also receive spinal manipulative therapy during the first 2 weeks before PSSE. The primary outcome will be an estimate of the feasibility of conducting a full-scale experiment. The influencing factors will be the time to complete enrollment, the recruitment rate, subject retention, and adherence to the treatment allocations. The secondary outcomes that will be used to assess the efficacy of treatment will include the Cobb angle, somatosensory evoked potentials, ATR, three-dimensional postural parameters, and scores on the 22-item Scoliosis Research Society outcomes questionnaire. The Cobb angle will be measured at baseline and at the end of 8 weeks of training. The somatosensory evoked potentials will be measured at baseline and at the end of 2 weeks of training. The ATR, three-dimensional postural parameters, and scores on the 22-item Scoliosis Research Society outcomes questionnaire will be measured at baseline and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of treatment. DISCUSSION:This study will inform the design of a future full-scale trial. The outcomes will provide preliminary data about the efficacy of the combination of spinal manipulative therapy and exercise in treating scoliosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Prospectively registered at Chinese clinical trial registry, ChiCTR1900027037 . Registered on 29 October 2019. http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=44954&htm=4. 10.1186/s13063-020-05000-y
    Does static trunk motion analysis reflect its true position during daily activities in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis? Pesenti Sébastien,Prost Solène,Pomero Vincent,Authier Guillaume,Roscigni Lionel,Viehweger Elke,Blondel Benjamin,Jouve Jean-Luc Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR INTRODUCTION:Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is common condition in pediatric orthopedics that is generally analyzed with standard radiographs. However, the conditions under which the radiographs are made are completely different than the position that patients use during day-to-day activities. We hypothesized that the trunk's static position differs from its dynamic one. The aim of this study was to determine differences between the trunk's static and dynamic positions using motion analysis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This prospective, single-center study enrolled adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who were scheduled to undergo surgical correction. The day before the surgery, radiographs were made and motion analysis was performed (static and dynamic acquisitions). Various parameters were measured on the radiographs and motion analysis, including the coronal vertical axis (CVA), sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and coronal shoulder tilt. RESULTS:The study enrolled 62 patients with a mean age of 15.5 years. There was a significant correlation between the radiographic measurements and the static motion analysis results for most parameters. Conversely, dynamic measurements of CVA, SVA and coronal shoulder tilt were not correlated to their static measurements (R=0.229; 0.198 and -0.109 respectively, all p>0.05). The static coronal shoulder tilt was opposite to the one found during walking (-0.9° vs. 0.5°, p=0.031). DISCUSSION:Our study is the first to compare the trunk's static position with its dynamic position during walking in a cohort of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Motion analysis provides new information about the trunk's dynamic positions. Based on our findings, radiographic analysis only partially captures the spinal alignment and cannot be used to draw reliable conclusions about the trunk's dynamic balance. 10.1016/j.otsr.2019.12.023
    Nighttime bracing with the Providence thoracolumbosacral orthosis for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A retrospective consecutive clinical series. Davis Leigh,Murphy Joshua S,Shaw Kenneth A,Cash Kaitlin,Devito Dennis P,Schmitz Michael L Prosthetics and orthotics international BACKGROUND::Orthotic treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a mainstay in nonoperative treatment to prevent progressive spinal deformity. OBJECTIVE::To determine the effectiveness of the Providence orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. STUDY DESIGN::Retrospective review. METHODS::Patients treated with a Providence orthosis for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included the following: age of 10-18 years; curve magnitude of 25°-40°; Risser stage of 0-2; and, if female, <1 year post menarche at the time of brace initiation. Failure was defined as curve magnitudes progressing >5° or to >45° or surgery. Radiographs and clinical information were recorded and compared between treatment success and failure cohorts. RESULTS::56 patients (51 female and 5 male; average of 12.26 years) were identified with average of 2.21-year follow-up and a 57.1% success rate for preventing curve progression. Factors associated with successful treatment included curve apex T10 and caudal and Risser sign ⩾ 1. Multivariate analysis identified Risser ⩾ 1 and curve apex T10 and caudal as independent predictors of successful treatment. CONCLUSION::The Providence nighttime orthosis can be an effective treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Curve Apex at T10 or caudal was an independent predictors of treatment success. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:This study identifies variables associated with treatment success using the Providence nighttime orthosis in a consecutive series of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. This information provides the foundation for identifying ideal patients for nighttime bracing to guide clinical treatment. 10.1177/0309364618792727
    Asymmetric biomechanical characteristics of the paravertebral muscle in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Liu Yuzeng,Pan Aixing,Hai Yong,Li Wenjing,Yin Li,Guo Ruijun Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) BACKGROUND:We sought to assess the biomechanical properties of the paravertebral muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with Lenke Type 1, 2, or 3 (Lenke 1-3) curves. METHODS:The MyotonPro® and shear wave elasticity imaging system were used to assess the biomechanical features of the thoracic paravertebral muscles on concave and convex side in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with Lenke 1-3 curves. The Cobb angle of the main curve was measured using the anteroposterior whole spine radiograph in the standing position. FINDINGS:A total of 40 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with a mean Cobb angle of 66.49° (SD 32.8°) were included in this study. Muscle tone, stiffness and Deborah number on the concave side was significantly greater than that on the convex side. Relaxation time was significantly longer on the convex side than on the concave side. No statistically significant difference in muscle elasticity was observed between the concave side and the convex side (P > 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that stiffness on the concave side was moderately positively correlated with the Cobb angle (P < 0.05, r = 0.582); the Deborah number on both sides and the relaxation time on the concave side showed a moderate negative correlation with the Cobb angle (P < 0.05, r = -0.632; r = -0.432; r = -0.611). INTERPRETATION:Concave paravertebral muscle tone and stiffness were greater than those on convex side in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. The asymmetric biomechanical characteristics of paravertebral muscles are closely related to the severity of scoliosis. 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2019.03.013
    Is brace treatment unnecessary for cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis above Risser sign 3? Kawasaki Sachiko,Shigematsu Hideki,Tanaka Masato,Suga Yuma,Yamamoto Yusuke,Tanaka Yasuhito Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association BACKGROUND:Skeletally mature cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with mild curves are generally considered to have a low risk of deterioration. Previous reports have indicated that brace treatment in these cases has a high success rate; however, it is unclear whether brace treatment is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis progression during one year of follow-up in cases with a Risser sign ≥3, which were not treated with a brace, and to identify risk factors for progression. METHODS:This retrospective, single center study included 54 cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis presenting to a university hospital in Japan between 2008 and 2017, with a Risser sign ≥3, which were not treated with brace treatment and had at least 2 years of follow-up data. The primary outcome was adolescent idiopathic scoliosis progression, defined as a deterioration in the Cobb angle of ≥ 6. Statistical analyses were performed to identify patient characteristics that were associated with progression. RESULTS:The mean age of the 54 included cases was 14.1 years, and the male to female ratio was 8:46. Scoliosis progressed in 8 (14.8%) cases within 2 years of follow-up. Female patients with progression were more likely to have recently gone through menarche than those without progression (p < 0.01). There was a slight statistical difference in age (p < 0.05), but no significant differences in sex, Risser-sign Stage, initial Cobb angle or main curve between adolescent patients with and without progression. CONCLUSIONS:We recommend brace treatment for cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with a Risser sign ≥ 3 who have recently gone through menarche. 10.1016/j.jos.2020.01.007
    The end of being a straight child: an autoethnography of coping with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Grantham Weronika,Jespersen Ejgil,Płaszewski Maciej Disability and rehabilitation PURPOSE:In the field of research on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, the personal dimension is undervalued. Even the most comprehensive and current recommendations focus on biomedical issues and are entirely based on quantitative studies. Reports and narratives presenting people's preferences, values, views, and opinions, especially of those affected by this health condition, are not considered in those reports. This article's aim is to present personal experiences of scoliosis screening, diagnosis, and treatment, to contribute to the discussion. METHODS:This is an evocative narrative autoethnography study, which allows focusing on the personal story of the author's experiences of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis management, connecting it to the rehabilitation context. RESULTS:Experiences of non-person-centred rehabilitation resulted in stigmatisation, distress, and emotional upset, including anxiety and fear. In contrast, person-centred therapeutic relationship involved more positive outcomes of care, such as becoming an engaged co-responsible and active partner in rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS:It is strongly suggested to promote biographical research into the personal experiences of all aspects of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, to identify patients' preferences and values more clearly. Furthermore, screening, diagnosis and treatment processes should be reviewed in terms of person-centredness, to ensure they are responsive to young people's needs in the vulnerable time of puberty. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, including the treatment, and even the diagnosis, may be stigmatising and may lead to emotional and psychosocial harms Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening, diagnosis and treatment processes need to be person-centred, recognising young people's needs for privacy and support in the vulnerable time of puberty Emotional support from therapists ought to be part of the professional relationship based upon being with another person An explication of experiences of living with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis should be considered as a legitimate contribution to the practical and scientific understanding of this health condition. 10.1080/09638288.2019.1624989