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    [Phosphorylation of Smurf2 at Thr249 by Erk5 regulates TGF-β signaling]. Iezaki Takashi,Hinoi Eiichi Nihon yakurigaku zasshi. Folia pharmacologica Japonica Vertebral bone and limb bone are formed by endochondral ossification, which is replaced with bone tissue by osteoblasts after cartilage formation. Bone growth is regulated by the balance between epiphyseal chondrocyte proliferation and ossification. We attempted to elucidate the mechanism of chondrocyte differentiation and maturation regulated by the Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (Erk5) signal. Erk5 is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, which includes Erk1/2, JNK, and p38. Mesenchymal stem cell-specific Erk5-deficient mice exhibited the phenotype of deformities of the metatarsal bones, enlargement of the long bones in limbs, and overgrowth of cartilage tissue. Based on this result, we searched for factors that directly phosphorylate Erk5, and We demonstrated that Erk5 directly phosphorylates and activates Smurf2 (a ubiquitin E3 ligase) at Thr249 to activate its function and promotes ubiquitination-mediated degradation. The TGF-β-Smad signal suppresses the proliferation of many cells and regulates the production of extracellular matrix. Our findings may lead to the development of novel drugs targeting TGF-β associated diseases. In this paper, we investigated the function of Smurf2 phosphorylation and the possibility as new therapeutic target for various diseases. 10.1254/fpj.21029