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    Prognostic significance of prenatal ultrasound in fetal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Busack Brit,Ott Claus-Eric,Henrich Wolfgang,Verlohren Stefan Archives of gynecology and obstetrics PURPOSE:Fetal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) describes a heterogeneous disease entity characterized by multiple contractures affecting at least two different body areas. The aim of our study was to identify additional sonographic abnormalities in fetuses with AMC Type I-III associated with an unfavorable prognosis and to describe when those signs were first detected. METHODS:This retrospective study included 41 pregnancies of suspected AMC diagnosed 1999-2017 at our tertiary referral center. The affected pregnancies were divided into the 3 AMC subgroups; the time of detection and outcome were analyzed. Prenatal sonograms, pediatric charts, genetic tests, and autopsy reports were studied. RESULTS:Pregnancy outcome data were verifiable in 34 out of 41 cases; in 27 cases, AMC was confirmed. Hydrops was present in 50% of postnatally deceased fetuses, 53% of cases resulting in termination of pregnancy vs. 0% of the surviving 8 children. Absent stomach filling was found in 67% of the children with neonatal death. After subcategorization, the limb-involvement-only-group, 8% showed hydrops vs. 100% in system anomaly group vs. 70% in neuromuscular dysfunction cohort (p = 0.001). Scoliosis, nuchal edema, and absent stomach filling were significantly indicating for a neurological etiology. CONCLUSION:In addition to disease-defining sonographic findings, those with prognostic significance were identified. Hydrops, nuchal edema, scoliosis and absent stomach filling were associated with unfavorable outcomes implicating a neuromuscular etiology. This knowledge can help to predict the further course of the disease and support patient counseling. 10.1007/s00404-020-05828-4
    Fetal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita/fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS)-Aetiology, diagnosis, and management. Niles Kirsten M,Blaser Susan,Shannon Patrick,Chitayat David Prenatal diagnosis Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) refers to an aetiologically heterogenous condition, which consists of joint contractures affecting two or more joints starting prenatally. The incidence is approximately one in 3000 live births; however, the prenatal incidence is higher, indicating a high intrauterine mortality. Over 320 genes have been implicated showing the genetic heterogeneity of the condition. AMC can be of extrinsic aetiology resulting from intrauterine crowding secondary to congenital structural uterine abnormalities (eg, bicornuate or septate uterus), uterine tumors (eg, fibroid), or multifetal pregnancy or intrinsic/primary/fetal aetiology, due to functional abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, muscles, bones, restrictive dermopathies, tendons and joints. Unlike many of the intrinsic/primary/fetal causes which are difficult to treat, secondary AMC can be treated by physiotherapy with good response. Primary cases may present prenatally with fetal akinesia associated with joint contractures and occasionally brain abnormalities, decreased muscle bulk, polyhydramnios, and nonvertex presentation while the secondary cases usually present with isolated contractures. Complete prenatal and postnatal investigations are needed to identify an underlying aetiology and provide information regarding its prognosis and inheritance, which is critical for the obstetrical care providers and families to optimize the pregnancy management and address future reproductive plans. 10.1002/pd.5505