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    Cellular and molecular pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus: lessons from animal models. Pathak Simanta,Mohan Chandra Arthritis research & therapy Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease characterized by the appearance of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens and the involvement of multiple organ systems, including the kidneys. The precise immunological events that trigger the onset of clinical manifestations of SLE are not yet well understood. However, research using various mouse strains of spontaneous and inducible lupus in the last two decades has provided insights into the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of this disease. According to our present understanding, the immunological defects resulting in the development of SLE can be categorized into two phases: (a) systemic autoimmunity resulting in increased serum antinuclear and antiglomerular autoantibodies and (b) immunological events that occur within the target organ and result in end organ damage. Aberrations in the innate as well as adaptive arms of the immune system both play an important role in the genesis and progression of lupus. Here, we will review the present understanding--as garnered from studying mouse models--about the roles of various immune cells in lupus pathogenesis. 10.1186/ar3465
    Beneficial effect of Bupleurum polysaccharides on autoimmune-prone MRL-lpr mice. Jiang Yi-Wen,Li Hong,Zhang Yun-Yi,Li Wen,Jiang Yi-Fan,Ou Ying-Ye,Chen Dao-Feng Clinical & developmental immunology Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease leading to inflammatory tissue damage in multiple organs. The crude polysaccharides (BPs) isolated from the roots of Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium have anticomplementary activity and immunomodulatory functions on macrophages. To study its potential benefit on SLE, we examined effects of BPs on MRL-lpr mice, which have similar disease features to human SLE. MRL-lpr mice were treated orally with BPs 15, 30, or 60 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for 12 weeks and their SLE characteristics were evaluated. The results revealed that BPs elongated life span, improved kidney function, delayed lymphadenopathy, and reduced autoantibodies. It seemed to be mediated by inhibition of complement and macrophages activation and suppression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression in the kidney. These results implicate that BPs may be an immunomodulator for the treatment of autoimmune diseases like SLE. 10.1155/2012/842928
    Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression Potentiates the Immune Modulatory Function Of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Park Min-Jung,Baek Jin-Ah,Choi Jeong Won,Jang Se Gwang,Kim Da-Som,Park Sung-Hwan,Cho Mi-La,Kwok Seung-Ki Frontiers in immunology Multiple studies have explored the potential role of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a mediator of Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) effects in various cancers. However, the role PD-L1 expression in MDSCs on autoimmune disease is still largely unknown.This study was undertaken to whether MDSC expressing PD-L1 have more potent immunoregulatory activity and control autoimmunity more effectively in two murine models of lupus (MRL/ mice and Roquin mice). The populations of MDSC were increased in peripheral blood of lupus patients. The mRNA levels of immunosuppressive molecules were profoundly decreased in MDSCs from lupus patients and mice. Co-culture with splenocytes showed that PD-L1 expressing MDSCs from control mice expand both Treg cells and regulatory B cells more potently. Infusion of PD-L1 expressing MDSCs reduced autoantibody levels and degree of proteinuria and improved renal pathology of two animal models of lupus. Moreover, PD-L1 expressing MDSCs therapy can suppress double negative (CD4-CD8-CD3+) T cells, the major pathogenic immune cells and follicular helper T cells in MRL/ mice, and podocyte damage. Our results indicate PD-L1 expressing MDSCs have more potent immunoregualtory activity and ameliorate autoimmunity more profoundly. These findings suggest PD-L1 expressing MDSCs be a promising therapeutic strategy targeting systemic autoimmune diseases. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.606024
    Blockade of anti-dsDNA ameliorates systemic lupus erythematosus in MRL/Faslpr mice through ameliorating inflammation via the PKCδ-NLRC4 axis. Yang Fan,Yang Yinhui,Zeng Weihui Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire Anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) is closely associated with the inflammatory burden in the brain after ischemic stroke. Here, we studied the inflammatory cascade and investigated the mechanisms behind the pro-inflammatory role of dsDNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The serum levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 in SLE patients and the corresponding controls were evaluated using ELISA, and the expression level of caspase-1 was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found that the serum levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were increased in the SLE patients. The expression of caspase-1 was upregulated and positively correlated with the levels of pro-inflammatory factors. The level of anti-dsDNA was also elevated and positively correlated with the results for the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of caspase-1. Additionally, we evaluated the functions of PRKCD encoding protein kinase c delta (PKCδ) and NLRC4, in vivo, in MRL/Faslpr mice. We found that renal injury was aggravated, and the levels of pro-inflammatory factors were increased in the MRL/Faslpr mice. We also found that increased levels of NLRC4 in the mice exacerbated renal injury and increased the levels of pro-inflammatory factors, whereas inhibition of PKCδ had the opposite results. These findings provide unique perspectives on pathogenesis of SLE and indicate that inhibition of anti-dsDNA could attenuate renal inflammatory burden, representing a promising therapeutic opportunity for SLE. 10.1139/bcb-2020-0265
    Rapamycin alleviates renal damage in mice with systemic lupus erythematosus through improving immune response and function. Song Xinghui,Gao Jinglin,Liu Huicong,Liu Xiuhua,Tang Kaijiang Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect and mechanism of rapamycin (RAPA) on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in BALB/C mice induced by pristane. The mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6): control, model, saline, RAPA (1 mg/kg) and RAPA (2 mg/kg). All groups were injected with pristane except control. HE staining revealed 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg RAPA treatments obviously alleviated pathological changes in the kidney of SLE mice such as glomeruli enlargement, hyperplasia of mesangial cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and edema-like degeneration of renal tubules. Compared with control group, body weights and anti-ribosomal P-protein antibody (ARPA) level of the mice in model group and saline group decreased (P < 0.05), while immune complex deposition and levels of anti-dsDNA antibody, anti-smRNP antibody and urine protein in model group and saline group increased (P < 0.05). However, compared with model group and saline group, body weights of the mice in RAPA (1 mg/kg) group and RAPA (2 mg/kg) group increased (P < 0.05), while immune complex deposition and levels of anti-dsDNA antibody, anti-smRNP antibody, ARPA, and urine protein in RAPA (1 mg/kg) group and RAPA (2 mg/kg) group decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with control group, the proportion of dentritic cells (DC) in the kidney and peripheral blood decreased while the proportion of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells in the spleen, kidney and peripheral blood increased in model group and saline group (P < 0.05). Compared with model group and saline group, 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg RAPA treatments boosted the proportion of DC in the kidney and peripheral blood, reduced the proportion of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen, kidney and peripheral blood, and lessened the proportion of Th2 cells in the kidney and peripheral blood (P < 0.05). In conclusion, RAPA alleviated renal damage in SLE mice through improving immune response and function. 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111289
    Advances in Drug Therapy for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Zhao Xinghua,Zhang Jiaojiao,Liang Yutong,Li Jie,Ding Shi,Wang Yang,Chen Ye,Liu Ju Current medicinal chemistry BACKGROUND:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a local or systemic inflammatory response. At present, the increasing research results show that the pathogenesis of the disease is complex, and the methods of clinical treatment also show diversity. This review analyzes and summarizes the existing mechanism research and drug treatment methods in order to provide a reference value for further drug research and development. METHOD:We carried out a thorough literature search using databases. According to the main purpose of the article, irrelevant articles were excluded after further examination and directly relevant articles were included. Finally, the information related to the article was summarized. RESULT:In this article, seventy-four articles are included. According to related articles, there are mainly four kinds of drugs, namely antimalarial drugs, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressive agents and biological agents. About fifty-five articles summarized the drugs for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. The rest of the articles were related to the research progress of the mechanism of systemic lupus erythematosus. CONCLUSION:This article describes the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, and summarizes the traditional and new therapeutic drugs, which is not only beneficial to the treatment of lupus erythematosus patients, but also plays a vital reference significance for the future development of new systemic lupus erythematosus drugs. 10.2174/0929867327666200625150408