Low Temperature Promotes Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Related Gene Expression in the Seedlings of Purple Head Chinese Cabbage ( L.).
He Qiong,Ren Yanjing,Zhao Wenbin,Li Ru,Zhang Lugang
To elucidate the effect of low temperature on anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple head Chinese cabbage, we analyzed anthocyanin accumulation and related gene expression in the seedlings of purple head Chinese cabbage, white head parent Chinese cabbage, and its purple male parent under a normal 25 °C temperature and a low 12 °C temperature. Anthocyanin accumulation in purple lines was strongly induced by low temperature, and the total anthocyanin content of seedlings was significantly enhanced. In addition, nearly all phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway genes (PMPGs) were down-regulated, some early biosynthesis genes (EBGs) were up-regulated, and nearly all late biosynthesis genes (LBGs) directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis showed higher expression levels in purple lines after low-temperature induction. Interestingly, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) gene '' and a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) regulatory gene '' were highly up-regulated in purple lines after low temperature induction, and two negative regulatory genes '' and '' were up-regulated in the white line. and may play important roles in co-activating the anthocyanin structural genes in purple head Chinese cabbage after low-temperature induction, whereas down-regulation of and up-regulation of some negative regulators might be responsible for white head phenotype formation. Data presented here provide new understanding into the anthocyanin biosynthesis mechanism during low temperature exposure in crops.
Transcriptome and Metabolome Analysis Unveil Anthocyanin Metabolism in Pink and Red Testa of Peanut ( L.).
Xue Qiqin,Zhang Xiurong,Yang Hui,Li Huadong,Lv Yuying,Zhang Kun,Liu Yongguang,Liu Fengzhen,Wan Yongshan
International journal of genomics
Peanut ( L.) is an important source of oil and food around the world, and the testa color affects its appearance and commercial value. However, few studies focused on the mechanism of pigment formation in peanut testa. In this study, cultivars Shanhua 15 with pink testa and Zhonghua 12 with red testa were used as materials to perform the combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolome. A total of 198 flavonoid metabolites were detected, among which petunidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin O-acetylhexoside in Zhonghua12 were 15.23 and 14.72 times higher than those of Shanhua 15 at the R7 stage, revealing the anthocyanins underlying the red testa. Transcriptome analysis showed that there were 6059 and 3153 differentially expressed genes between Shanhua 15 and Zhonghua 12 in different growth periods, respectively. These differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in the flavonoid biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and metabolic pathways. Integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome indicated CHS gene (), F3'H genes ( and ), and DFR genes ( and ) may be the key functional genes controlling the formation of pink and red testa in peanut. Transcription factors MYB (, , , , and ), bHLH (N, , and ), and WD40 () in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanin were significantly upregulated in Zhonghua 12 which may be the key regulatory genes in testa pigment formation. This is a comprehensive analysis on flavonoid metabolites and related genes expression in peanut testa, providing reference for revealing the regulatory mechanism of pigment accumulation in peanut testa.
Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).
Zhang Yanjie,Hu Zongli,Zhu Mingku,Zhu Zhiguo,Wang Zhijin,Tian Shibing,Chen Guoping
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.