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    Increased Preeclampsia Risk and Reduced Aortic Compliance With In Vitro Fertilization Cycles in the Absence of a Corpus Luteum. von Versen-Höynck Frauke,Schaub Amelia M,Chi Yueh-Yun,Chiu Kuei-Hsun,Liu Jing,Lingis Melissa,Stan Williams R,Rhoton-Vlasak Alice,Nichols Wilmer W,Fleischmann Raquel R,Zhang Wendy,Winn Virginia D,Segal Mark S,Conrad Kirk P,Baker Valerie L Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) In vitro fertilization involving frozen embryo transfer and donor oocytes increases preeclampsia risk. These in vitro fertilization protocols typically yield pregnancies without a corpus luteum (CL), which secretes vasoactive hormones. We investigated whether in vitro fertilization pregnancies without a CL disrupt maternal circulatory adaptations and increase preeclampsia risk. Women with 0 (n=26), 1 (n=23), or >1 (n=22) CL were serially evaluated before, during, and after pregnancy. Because increasing arterial compliance is a major physiological adaptation in pregnancy, we assessed carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and transit time. In a parallel prospective cohort study, obstetric outcomes for singleton livebirths achieved with autologous oocytes were compared between groups by CL number (n=683). The expected decline in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and rise in carotid-femoral transit time during the first trimester were attenuated in the 0-CL compared with combined single/multiple-CL cohorts, which were similar (group-time interaction: P=0.06 and 0.03, respectively). The blunted changes of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid-femoral transit time from prepregnancy in the 0-CL cohort were most striking at 10 to 12 weeks of gestation ( P=0.01 and 0.006, respectively, versus 1 and >1 CL). Zero CL was predictive of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.14-6.49) and preeclampsia with severe features (6.45; 95% CI, 1.94-25.09) compared with 1 CL. Programmed frozen embryo transfer cycles (0 CL) were associated with higher rates of preeclampsia (12.8% versus 3.9%; P=0.02) and preeclampsia with severe features (9.6% versus 0.8%; P=0.002) compared with modified natural frozen embryo transfer cycles (1 CL). In common in vitro fertilization protocols, absence of the CL perturbed the maternal circulation in early pregnancy and increased the incidence of preeclampsia. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12043
    Absent or Excessive Corpus Luteum Number Is Associated With Altered Maternal Vascular Health in Early Pregnancy. von Versen-Höynck Frauke,Narasimhan Purnima,Selamet Tierney Elif Seda,Martinez Nadine,Conrad Kirk P,Baker Valerie L,Winn Virginia D Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) Identifying modifiable factors that contribute to preeclampsia risk associated with assisted reproduction can improve maternal health. Vascular dysfunction predates clinical presentation of preeclampsia. Therefore, we examined if a nonphysiological hormonal milieu, a modifiable state, affects maternal vascular health in early pregnancy. Blood pressure, endothelial function, circulating endothelial progenitor cell numbers, lipid levels, and corpus luteum (CL) hormones were compared in a prospective cohort of women with infertility history based on number of CL: 0 CL (programmed frozen embryo transfer [FET], N=18); 1 CL (spontaneous conception [N=16] and natural cycle FET [N=12]); or >3 CL associated with in vitro fertilization [N=11]. Women with 0 or >3 CL lacked the drop in mean arterial blood pressure compared with those with 1 CL (both P=0.05). Reactive hyperemia index was impaired in women with 0 CL compared with 1 CL ( P=0.04) while baseline pulse wave amplitude was higher with > 3 CL compared with 1 CL ( P=0.01) or 0 CL ( P=0.01). Comparing only FET cycles, a lower reactive hyperemia index and a higher augmentation index is noted in FETs with suppressed CL compared with FETs in a natural cycle (both P=0.03). The number of angiogenic and nonangiogenic circulating endothelial progenitor cell numbers was lower in the absence of a CL in FETs ( P=0.01 and P=0.03). Vascular health in early pregnancy is altered in women with aberrant numbers of CL (0 or >3) and might represent insufficient cardiovascular adaptation contributing to an increased risk of preeclampsia. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12046