Wnt2 acts as an angiogenic growth factor for non-sinusoidal endothelial cells and inhibits expression of stanniocalcin-1.
Klein Diana,Demory Alexandra,Peyre Francis,Kroll Jens,Géraud Cyrill,Ohnesorge Nils,Schledzewski Kai,Arnold Bernd,Goerdt Sergij
Recently, we have shown that Wnt2 is an autocrine growth and differentiation factor for hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells. As Wnt signaling has become increasingly important in vascular development and cancer, we analyzed Wnt signaling in non-sinusoidal endothelial cells of different vascular origin (HUVEC, HUAEC, HMVEC-LLy). Upon screening the multiple components of the Wnt pathway, we demonstrated lack of Wnt2 expression, but presence of Frizzled-4, one of its receptors, in cultured non-sinusoidal endothelial cells. Treatment of these cells by exogenous Wnt2 induced endothelial proliferation and sprouting angiogenesis in vitro. Upon analysis of Wnt2 tissue expression as a basis for paracrine Wnt2 effects on non-sinusoidal endothelial cells in vivo, Wnt2 was found to be expressed in densely vascularized murine malignant tumors and in wound healing tissues in close proximity to CD31+ endothelial cells. By gene profiling, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), a known regulator of angiogenesis, was identified as a target gene of Wnt2 signaling in HUVEC down-regulated by Wnt2 treatment. Tumor-conditioned media counter-acted Wnt2 and up-regulated STC1 expression in HUVEC. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Wnt2 acts as an angiogenic factor for non-sinusoidal endothelium in vitro and in vivo whose target genes undergo complex regulation by the tissue microenvironment.
Mesenchymal stromal cells protect cancer cells from ROS-induced apoptosis and enhance the Warburg effect by secreting STC1.
Ohkouchi Shinya,Block Gregory J,Katsha Ahmed M,Kanehira Masahiko,Ebina Masahito,Kikuchi Toshiaki,Saijo Yasuo,Nukiwa Toshihiro,Prockop Darwin J
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Previous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) enhance cell survival through upregulation and secretion of stanniocalcin-1 (STC1). This study shows that MSC-derived STC1 promotes survival of lung cancer cells by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and shifting metabolism towards a more glycolytic metabolic profile. MSC-derived STC1 upregulated uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in injured A549 cells in an STC1-dependent manner. Knockdown of UCP2 reduced the ability of MSCs and recombinant STC1 (rSTC1) to reduce cell death in the A549 population. rSTC1-treated A549 cells displayed decreased levels of ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and increased lactate production, all of which were dependent on the upregulation of UCP2. Our data suggest that MSCs can promote cell survival by regulating mitochondrial respiration via STC1.
STC1 expression by cancer-associated fibroblasts drives metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Peña Cristina,Céspedes María Virtudes,Lindh Maja Bradic,Kiflemariam Sara,Mezheyeuski Artur,Edqvist Per-Henrik,Hägglöf Christina,Birgisson Helgi,Bojmar Linda,Jirström Karin,Sandström Per,Olsson Eleonor,Veerla Srinivas,Gallardo Alberto,Sjöblom Tobias,Chang Andy C-M,Reddel Roger R,Mangues Ramón,Augsten Martin,Ostman Arne
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling is a major functional determinant of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). Elevated expression of PDGF receptors on stromal CAFs is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis, but mechanism(s) that underlie these connections are not understood. Here, we report the identification of the secreted glycoprotein stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) as a mediator of metastasis by PDGF receptor function in the setting of colorectal cancer. PDGF-stimulated fibroblasts increased migration and invasion of cocultured colorectal cancer cells in an STC1-dependent manner. Analyses of human colorectal cancers revealed significant associations between stromal PDGF receptor and STC1 expression. In an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer, tumors formed in the presence of STC1-deficient fibroblasts displayed reduced intravasation of tumor cells along with fewer and smaller distant metastases formed. Our results reveal a mechanistic basis for understanding the contribution of PDGF-activated CAFs to cancer metastasis.
Stanniocalcin1 is a key mediator of amyloidogenic light chain induced cardiotoxicity.
Guan Jian,Mishra Shikha,Shi Jianru,Plovie Eva,Qiu Yiling,Cao Xin,Gianni Davide,Jiang Bingbing,Del Monte Federica,Connors Lawreen H,Seldin David C,Lavatelli Francesca,Rognoni Paola,Palladini Giovanni,Merlini Giampaolo,Falk Rodney H,Semigran Marc J,Dec G William,Macrae Calum A,Liao Ronglih
Basic research in cardiology
Immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL) results from overproduction of circulating amyloidogenic LC proteins and subsequent amyloid fibril deposition in organs. Mortality in AL amyloidosis patients is highly associated with a rapidly progressive AL cardiomyopathy, marked by profound impairment of diastolic and systolic cardiac function and significant early mortality. While myocardial fibril deposition contributes to the severe diastolic dysfunction seen in AL cardiomyopathy patients, the degree of fibril deposition has not been found to correlate with prognosis. Previously, we and others showed a direct cardiotoxic effect of amyloidogenic LC proteins (AL-LC), which may contribute to the pathophysiology and mortality observed in AL cardiomyopathy patients. However, the mechanisms underlying AL-LC related cardiotoxicity remain unknown. Mammalian stanniocalcin1 (STC1) is associated with a number of cellular processes including oxidative stress and cell death. Herein, we find that STC1 expression is elevated in cardiac tissue from AL cardiomyopathy patients, and is induced in isolated cardiomyocytes in response to AL-LC, but not non-amyloidogenic LC. STC1 overexpression in vitro recapitulates the pathophysiology of AL-LC mediated cardiotoxicity, with increased ROS production, contractile dysfunction and cell death. Overexpression of STC1 in vivo results in significant cardiac dysfunction and cell death. Genetic silencing of STC1 prevents AL-LC induced cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes and protects against AL-LC induced cell death and early mortality in zebrafish. The cardiotoxic effects of STC1 appears to be mediated via mitochondrial dysfunction as indicated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and increased mitochondrial calcium levels. Collectively, this work identifies STC1 as a critical determinant of AL-LC cardiotoxicity.