Characterization of serum microRNAs profile of PCOS and identification of novel non-invasive biomarkers.
Long Wei,Zhao Chun,Ji Chenbo,Ding Hongjuan,Cui Yugui,Guo Xirong,Shen Rong,Liu Jiayin
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Despite the high prevalence of hyperandrogenemia, a definitive endocrine marker for PCOS has so far not been identified. Circulating miRNAs have recently been shown to serve as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in patients with cancers. Our current study focused on the altered expression of serum miRNAs and their correlation with PCOS. METHOD AND RESULTS:We systematically used the TaqMan Low Density Array followed by individual quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to identify and validate the expression of serum miRNAs of PCOS patients. The expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-222, miR-146a and miR-30c) were significantly increased in PCOS patients with respect to the controls in our discovery evaluation and followed validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is 0.799, 0.706, and 0.688, respectively. The combination of the three miRNAs using multiple logistic regression analysis showed a larger AUC (0.852) that was more efficient for the diagnosis of PCOS. In addition, logistic binary regression analyses show miR-222 is positively associated with serum insulin, while miR-146a is negatively associated with serum testosterone. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis indicated that the predicted targets function of the three miRNAs mainly involved in the metastasis, cell cycle, apoptosis and endocrine. CONCLUSION:Serum miRNAs are differentially expressed between PCOS patients and controls. We identified and validated a class of three serum miRNAs that could act as novel non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosis of PCOS. These miRNAs may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS.
MicroRNAs related to androgen metabolism and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Sørensen Anja E,Udesen Pernille B,Wissing Marie Louise,Englund Anne Lis M,Dalgaard Louise T
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disorder in women. PCOS is associated with altered features of androgen metabolism, increased insulin resistance and impaired fertility. Furthermore, PCOS, being a syndrome diagnosis, is heterogeneous and characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and evidence of hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. A number of androgen species contribute to the symptoms of increased androgen exposure seen in many, though not all, cases of PCOS: Testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), where the quantitatively highest amount of androgen is found as DHEAS. The sulfation of DHEA to DHEAS depends on a number of enzymes, and altered sulfate metabolism may be associated with and contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that these might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome.
Circulating inflammatory markers in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and metaanalysis.
Escobar-Morreale Héctor F,Luque-Ramírez Manuel,González Frank
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To perform a review and metaanalysis of the studies evaluating the status of serum inflammatory markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN:Systematic review and metaanalysis of articles published in English before January 2010 and identified using the PubMed search engine. SETTING:Academic hospital. PATIENT(S):Women with PCOS and appropriate controls. INTERVENTION(S):Measurement of serum concentrations of inflammatory markers by high-sensitivity techniques. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Metaanalyses of the mean difference in serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations among patients with PCOS and appropriate controls, applying random-effects models to limit interstudy variability, and using appropriate estimates of evidence dissemination bias. RESULT(S):Metaanalysis of the 31 articles meeting inclusion criteria showed that circulating CRP was 96% higher in women with PCOS compared to controls (95% confidence interval, 71%-122%; z = 7.32) without evidence of dissemination bias (Egger's regression intercept, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, -2.30 to 3.21). These findings persisted after excluding five studies with mismatches in body mass, frequency of obesity, or both, between women with PCOS and controls. Metaanalyses involving 10 studies of IL-6, and nine studies of TNF-α revealed no statistically significant differences between PCOS and controls. CONCLUSION(S):Women with PCOS exhibit an elevation in circulating CRP that is independent of obesity. This finding corroborates existing molecular evidence of the chronic low-grade inflammation that may underpin the pathogenesis of this disorder.
Increased expression of circulating miRNA-93 in women with polycystic ovary syndrome may represent a novel, non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis.
Sathyapalan T,David R,Gooderham N J,Atkin S L
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a novel class of small noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. There is increasing evidence of their importance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective was to determine if miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 are differentially expressed in the circulation of women with PCOS compared to age matched women. A case-control study comparing women with PCOS (n = 25) to age and weight matched controls (n = 24) without PCOS was performed. MiRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were determined by total RNA reverse transcription. Both miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were significantly increased relative to the control group (p < 0.01, p = 0.029 respectively). In both groups there was no correlation of either miRNA-93 or miRNA-223 with insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β or testosterone levels. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for miR-223 and miR-93 was 0.66 and 0.72 respectively, suggesting miR-93 is a more efficient biomarker than miR-223 for diagnosis of PCOS. The combination of the two miRNAs together, tested using multiple logistic regression analysis, did not improve the diagnostic potential. In conclusion, circulating miRNA-93 and miRNA-223 were higher in women with PCOS compared to age and weight matched controls independent of insulin resistance and testosterone levels, and miR-93 may represent a novel diagnostic biomarker for PCOS.
Ciculating miRNA-21 as a Biomarker Predicts Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Patients.
Jiang Liyan,Li Wei,Wu Minmin,Cao Sifan
BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, and infertility. In PCOS, abnormal regulation of relevant genes is required for follicular development. By binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'URT), microRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation. However, few studies have been conducted on circulating miRNA expression in PCOS. This study aims to describe altered expression of circulating miR-21 in PCOS. METHODS:The expression of serum miRNAs of PCOS patients were explored using the TaqMan Low Density Array followed by individual quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. The protein level of LATS1 was determined using Western blot. To validate whether miR-21 targeted LATS1, the luciferase assay was applied. RESULTS:In comparison with normal subjects, the circulating level of miRNA-21 was significantly enhanced in PCOS patients. In PCOS patients, the expression levels of MST1/2, LATS1/2, TAZ were much lower than the control subjects. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that LATS1 was a downstream target of miR-21. CONCLUSIONS:In comparison with normal subjects, serum miR-21 is obviously increased in PCOS patients. Through targeting LATS1, miR-21 could prompt PCOS progression and could act as a novel non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis of PCOS.
Increased MicroRNA Levels in Women With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome but Without Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Prospective Study.
Butler Alexandra E,Ramachandran Vimal,Cunningham Thomas Keith,David Rhiannon,Gooderham Nigel J,Benurwar Manasi,Dargham Soha R,Hayat Shahina,Sathyapalan Thozhukat,Najafi-Shoushtari S Hani,Atkin Stephen L
Frontiers in endocrinology
Background:Small noncoding microRNA (miRNA) have regulatory functions in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that differ to those in women without PCOS. However, little is known about miRNA expression in women with PCOS who are not insulin resistant (IR). Methods:Circulating miRNAs were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 24 non-obese BMI and age matched women with PCOS and 24 control women. A miRNA data set was used to determine miRNA levels. Results:Women with PCOS showed a higher free androgen index (FAI) and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) but IR did not differ. Four miRNAs (miR-1260a, miR-18b-5p, miR-424-5p, and miR let-7b-3p) differed between control and PCOS women that passed the false discovery rate (FDR) out of a total of 177 circulating miRNAs that were detected. MiRNA let-7b-3p correlated with AMH in PCOS (p < 0.05). When the groups were combined, miR-1260a correlated with FAI and let-7b-3p correlated with body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05). There was no correlation to androgen levels. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed that nine of the top 10 miRNAs reported were associated with inflammatory pathways. Conclusion:When IR did not differ between PCOS and control women, only four miRNA differed significantly suggesting that IR may be a driver for many of the miRNA changes reported. Let-7b-3p was related to AMH in PCOS, and to BMI as a group, whilst miR-1260a correlated with FAI. Androgen levels, however, had no effect upon circulating miRNA profiles. The expressed miRNAs were associated with the inflammatory pathway involving TNF and IL6.
Circulating microRNAs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Ding Cai-Fei,Chen Wang-Qiang,Zhu Yu-Tian,Bo Ya-Li,Hu Hui-Min,Zheng Ruo-Heng
Human fertility (Cambridge, England)
AIM:To explore the pattern of expression of circulating miRNAs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Microarray and qRT-PCR were used to investigate circulating miRNAs in PCOS during clinical diagnosis. The targets of dys-regulated miRNAs were predicted using bioinformatics, followed by function and pathway analysis using the databases of Gene Ontology and the KEGG pathway. RESULTS:BMI, triglyceride, HOMA-IR, Testosterone and CRP levels were significantly higher, while estradiol was significantly lower in PCOS than in control groups. After SAM analysis, 5 circulating miRNAs were significantly up-regulated (let-7i-3pm, miR-5706, miR-4463, miR-3665, miR-638) and 4 (miR-124-3p, miR-128, miR-29a-3p, let-7c) were down-regulated in PCOS patients. Hierarchical clustering showed a general distinction between PCOS and control samples in a heat map. After joint prediction by different statistical methods, 34 and 41 genes targeted were up-and down-regulated miRNAs, in PCOS and controls, respectively. Further, GO and KEGG analyses revealed the involvement of the immune system, ATP binding, MAPK signaling, apoptosis, angiogenesis, response to reactive oxygen species and p53 signaling pathways in PCOS. CONCLUSIONS:We report a novel non-invasive miRNA profile which distinguishes PCOS patients from healthy controls. The miRNA-target database may provide a novel understanding of PCOS and potential therapeutic targets.
Low Circulating Levels of miR-451a in Girls with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Different Effects of Randomized Treatments.
Díaz Marta,Bassols Judit,López-Bermejo Abel,de Zegher Francis,Ibáñez Lourdes
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
CONTEXT:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent disorder in adolescent girls, purportedly driven by hepato-visceral fat excess, and often followed by subfertility and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE:We studied the baseline microRNA (miRNA) profile of girls with PCOS, and the effects of a randomized treatment with an oral contraceptive (OC) or with spironolactone-pioglitazone-metformin (SPIOMET, aiming at loss of hepato-visceral fat excess) for 1 year. DESIGN & PATIENTS:The miRNA profile was assessed by RNA sequencing in girls with PCOS who had participated in a randomized, open-label, single-center, pilot study (n = 31; age 15.7 years, body mass index (BMI) 23.1 kg/m2). Healthy age- and BMI-matched girls (n = 13) served as controls. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in the entire study population. Post-treatment ovulation rates were assessed by salivary progesterone in PCOS girls. SETTING:Endocrinology Department, University Hospital. RESULTS:Girls with PCOS, compared with controls, had markedly reduced concentrations of circulating miR-451a, miR-652-3p, miR-106b-5p, and miR-206; pathway enrichment analysis showed that these miRNAs target genes involved in energy homeostasis and cell cycle control. In the present study, miR-451a could diagnose PCOS with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. SPIOMET (but not OC) was accompanied by on-treatment normalization of the miRNA profile in girls with PCOS; miR-451a concentrations after 1 year on OC or SPIOMET treatment associated closely (r = 0.66; P < .0001) with post-treatment ovulation rates. CONCLUSION:SPIOMET treatment for 1 year normalizes the miRNA profile of girls with PCOS. Circulating miR-451a may become a biomarker to guide the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS in adolescence.