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    Interorgan Metabolic Crosstalk in Human Insulin Resistance. Gancheva Sofiya,Jelenik Tomas,Álvarez-Hernández Elisa,Roden Michael Physiological reviews Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. Circulating lipids such as free fatty acids, acetate, and palmitoleate from adipose tissue and short-chain fatty acids from the gut effectively act on liver and skeletal muscle. Intracellular lipids such as diacylglycerols and sphingolipids can serve as lipotoxins by directly inhibiting insulin action in muscle and liver. In contrast, fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids have been recently shown to exert a series of beneficial effects. Also, ketoacids are gaining interest as potent modulators of insulin action and mitochondrial function. Finally, branched-chain amino acids not only predict metabolic diseases, but also inhibit insulin signaling. Here, we focus on the metabolic crosstalk in humans, which regulates insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis in the main insulin-sensitive tissues, skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. 10.1152/physrev.00015.2017
    Bile acids in glucose metabolism and insulin signalling - mechanisms and research needs. Ahmad Tiara R,Haeusler Rebecca A Nature reviews. Endocrinology Of all the novel glucoregulatory molecules discovered in the past 20 years, bile acids (BAs) are notable for the fact that they were hiding in plain sight. BAs were well known for their requirement in dietary lipid absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion, due to their micelle-forming properties. However, it was not until 1999 that BAs were discovered to be endogenous ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR. Since that time, BAs have been shown to act through multiple receptors (PXR, VDR, TGR5 and S1PR2), as well as to have receptor-independent mechanisms (membrane dynamics, allosteric modulation of N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D). We now also have an appreciation of the range of physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic conditions in which endogenous BAs are altered, raising the possibility that BAs contribute to the effects of these conditions on glycaemia. In this Review, we highlight the mechanisms by which BAs regulate glucose homeostasis and the settings in which endogenous BAs are altered, and provide suggestions for future research. 10.1038/s41574-019-0266-7
    Short-term intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Kramer Caroline Kaercher,Zinman Bernard,Retnakaran Ravi The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that, when implemented early in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment with intensive insulin therapy for 2-3 weeks can induce a glycaemic remission, wherein patients are able to maintain normoglycaemia without any anti-diabetic medication. We thus did a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies to assess the effect of short-term intensive insulin therapy on the pathophysiological defects underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance) and identify clinical predictors of remission. METHODS:We identified studies published between 1950 and Nov 19, 2012, which assessed the effect of intensive insulin therapy on β-cell function or insulin resistance, or both, or assessed long-term drug-free glycaemic remission in adults aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. We calculated pooled estimates by random-effects model. This study is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, number CRD42012002829. FINDINGS:We identified 1645 studies of which seven fulfilled inclusion criteria (n=839 participants). Five studies were non-randomised. A pooled analysis of the seven studies showed a post-intensive insulin therapy increase in Homeostasis Model Assessment of β-cell function as compared with baseline (1·13, 95% CI 1·02 to 1·25) and a decrease in Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (-0·57, -0·84 to -0·29). In the four studies that assessed glycaemic remission (n=559 participants), the proportion of participants in drug-free remission was about 66·2% (292 of 441 patients) after 3 months of follow-up, about 58·9% (222 of 377 patients) after 6 months, about 46·3% (229 of 495 patients) after 12 months, and about 42·1% (53 of 126 patients) after 24 months. Patients who achieved remission had higher body-mass index than those who did not achieve remission (1·06 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0·55 to 1·58) and lower fasting plasma glucose (-0·59 mmol/L, 95% CI -1·11 to -0·07) at baseline. INTERPRETATION:Short-term intensive insulin therapy can improve the underlying pathophysiology in early type 2 diabetes mellitus, and thus might provide a treatment strategy for modifying the natural history of diabetes. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70006-8
    Pursuit of a perfect insulin. Zaykov Alexander N,Mayer John P,DiMarchi Richard D Nature reviews. Drug discovery Insulin remains indispensable in the treatment of diabetes, but its use is hampered by its narrow therapeutic index. Although advances in peptide chemistry and recombinant DNA-based macromolecule synthesis have enabled the synthesis of structurally optimized insulin analogues, the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes have emphasized the need for diabetes therapies that are more efficacious, safe and convenient. Accordingly, a broad set of drug candidates, targeting hyperglycaemia plus other disease abnormalities, is now progressing through the clinic. The development of an insulin therapy that is responsive to glucose concentration remains an ultimate goal, with initial prototypes now reaching the proof-of-concept stage. Simultaneously, the first alternatives to injectable delivery have progressed to registration. 10.1038/nrd.2015.36
    New forms of insulin and insulin therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Cahn Avivit,Miccoli Roberto,Dardano Angela,Del Prato Stefano The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology Insulin is a common treatment option for many patients with type 2 diabetes, and is generally used late in the natural history of the disease. Its injectable delivery mode, propensity for weight gain and hypoglycaemia, and the paucity of trials assessing the risk-to-safety ratio of early insulin use are major shortcomings associated with its use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Development of new insulins-such as insulin analogues, including long-acting and short-acting insulins-now provide alternative treatment options to human insulin. These novel insulin formulations and innovative insulin delivery methods, such as oral or inhaled insulin, have been developed with the aim to reduce insulin-associated hypoglycaemia, lower intraindividual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability, and improve imitation of physiological insulin release. Availability of newer glucose-lowering drugs (such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors) also offers the opportunity for combination treatment; the results of the first trials in this area of research suggest that such treatment might lead to use of reduced insulin doses, less weight gain, and fewer hypoglycaemic episodes than insulin treatment alone. These and future developments will hopefully offer better opportunities for individualisation of insulin treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes. 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00097-2
    Regulation of insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets. Rorsman Patrik,Braun Matthias Annual review of physiology Pancreatic β cells secrete insulin, the body's only hormone capable of lowering plasma glucose levels. Impaired or insufficient insulin secretion results in diabetes mellitus. The β cell is electrically excitable; in response to an elevation of glucose, it depolarizes and starts generating action potentials. The electrophysiology of mouse β cells and the cell's role in insulin secretion have been extensively investigated. More recently, similar studies have been performed on human β cells. These studies have revealed numerous and important differences between human and rodent β cells. Here we discuss the properties of human pancreatic β cells: their glucose sensing, the ion channel complement underlying glucose-induced electrical activity that culminates in exocytotic release of insulin, the cellular control of exocytosis, and the modulation of insulin secretion by circulating hormones and locally released neurotransmitters. Finally, we consider the pathophysiology of insulin secretion and the interactions between genetics and environmental factors that may explain the current diabetes epidemic. 10.1146/annurev-physiol-030212-183754
    Impaired insulin action in the human brain: causes and metabolic consequences. Heni Martin,Kullmann Stephanie,Preissl Hubert,Fritsche Andreas,Häring Hans-Ulrich Nature reviews. Endocrinology Over the past few years, evidence has accumulated that the human brain is an insulin-sensitive organ. Insulin regulates activity in a limited number of specific brain areas that are important for memory, reward, eating behaviour and the regulation of whole-body metabolism. Accordingly, insulin in the brain modulates cognition, food intake and body weight as well as whole-body glucose, energy and lipid metabolism. However, brain imaging studies have revealed that not everybody responds equally to insulin and that a substantial number of people are brain insulin resistant. In this Review, we provide an overview of the effects of insulin in the brain in humans and the relevance of the effects for physiology. We present emerging evidence for insulin resistance of the human brain. Factors associated with brain insulin resistance such as obesity and increasing age, as well as possible pathogenic factors such as visceral fat, saturated fatty acids, alterations at the blood-brain barrier and certain genetic polymorphisms, are reviewed. In particular, the metabolic consequences of brain insulin resistance are discussed and possible future approaches to overcome brain insulin resistance and thereby prevent or treat obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are outlined. 10.1038/nrendo.2015.173
    Circadian clocks and insulin resistance. Stenvers Dirk Jan,Scheer Frank A J L,Schrauwen Patrick,la Fleur Susanne E,Kalsbeek Andries Nature reviews. Endocrinology Insulin resistance is a main determinant in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The circadian timing system consists of a central brain clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and various peripheral tissue clocks. The circadian timing system is responsible for the coordination of many daily processes, including the daily rhythm in human glucose metabolism. The central clock regulates food intake, energy expenditure and whole-body insulin sensitivity, and these actions are further fine-tuned by local peripheral clocks. For instance, the peripheral clock in the gut regulates glucose absorption, peripheral clocks in muscle, adipose tissue and liver regulate local insulin sensitivity, and the peripheral clock in the pancreas regulates insulin secretion. Misalignment between different components of the circadian timing system and daily rhythms of sleep-wake behaviour or food intake as a result of genetic, environmental or behavioural factors might be an important contributor to the development of insulin resistance. Specifically, clock gene mutations, exposure to artificial light-dark cycles, disturbed sleep, shift work and social jet lag are factors that might contribute to circadian disruption. Here, we review the physiological links between circadian clocks, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and present current evidence for a relationship between circadian disruption and insulin resistance. We conclude by proposing several strategies that aim to use chronobiological knowledge to improve human metabolic health. 10.1038/s41574-018-0122-1
    Metabolites as regulators of insulin sensitivity and metabolism. Yang Qin,Vijayakumar Archana,Kahn Barbara B Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology The cause of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not limited to impaired insulin signalling but also involves the complex interplay of multiple metabolic pathways. The analysis of large data sets generated by metabolomics and lipidomics has shed new light on the roles of metabolites such as lipids, amino acids and bile acids in modulating insulin sensitivity. Metabolites can regulate insulin sensitivity directly by modulating components of the insulin signalling pathway, such as insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) and AKT, and indirectly by altering the flux of substrates through multiple metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, lipid oxidation, protein synthesis and degradation and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Moreover, the post-translational modification of proteins by metabolites and lipids, including acetylation and palmitoylation, can alter protein function. Furthermore, the role of the microbiota in regulating substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity is unfolding. In this Review, we discuss the emerging roles of metabolites in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. A comprehensive understanding of the metabolic adaptations involved in insulin resistance may enable the identification of novel targets for improving insulin sensitivity and preventing, and treating, T2DM. 10.1038/s41580-018-0044-8
    Mechanisms of Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance. Petersen Max C,Shulman Gerald I Physiological reviews The 1921 discovery of insulin was a Big Bang from which a vast and expanding universe of research into insulin action and resistance has issued. In the intervening century, some discoveries have matured, coalescing into solid and fertile ground for clinical application; others remain incompletely investigated and scientifically controversial. Here, we attempt to synthesize this work to guide further mechanistic investigation and to inform the development of novel therapies for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The rational development of such therapies necessitates detailed knowledge of one of the key pathophysiological processes involved in T2D: insulin resistance. Understanding insulin resistance, in turn, requires knowledge of normal insulin action. In this review, both the physiology of insulin action and the pathophysiology of insulin resistance are described, focusing on three key insulin target tissues: skeletal muscle, liver, and white adipose tissue. We aim to develop an integrated physiological perspective, placing the intricate signaling effectors that carry out the cell-autonomous response to insulin in the context of the tissue-specific functions that generate the coordinated organismal response. First, in section II, the effectors and effects of direct, cell-autonomous insulin action in muscle, liver, and white adipose tissue are reviewed, beginning at the insulin receptor and working downstream. Section III considers the critical and underappreciated role of tissue crosstalk in whole body insulin action, especially the essential interaction between adipose lipolysis and hepatic gluconeogenesis. The pathophysiology of insulin resistance is then described in section IV. Special attention is given to which signaling pathways and functions become insulin resistant in the setting of chronic overnutrition, and an alternative explanation for the phenomenon of ‟selective hepatic insulin resistanceˮ is presented. Sections V, VI, and VII critically examine the evidence for and against several putative mediators of insulin resistance. Section V reviews work linking the bioactive lipids diacylglycerol, ceramide, and acylcarnitine to insulin resistance; section VI considers the impact of nutrient stresses in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria on insulin resistance; and section VII discusses non-cell autonomous factors proposed to induce insulin resistance, including inflammatory mediators, branched-chain amino acids, adipokines, and hepatokines. Finally, in section VIII, we propose an integrated model of insulin resistance that links these mediators to final common pathways of metabolite-driven gluconeogenesis and ectopic lipid accumulation. 10.1152/physrev.00063.2017
    Mechanistic understanding of insulin receptor modulation: Implications for the development of anti-diabetic drugs. Yunn Na-Oh,Kim Jaeyoon,Kim Youndong,Leibiger Ingo,Berggren Per-Olof,Ryu Sung Ho Pharmacology & therapeutics The insulin receptor is an important regulator of metabolic processes in the body, and in particular of glucose homeostasis, including glucose uptake into peripheral tissues. Thus, insulin administration is an effective treatment for diabetes, which is characterized by chronic elevation of blood glucose. However, insulin is not only a metabolic regulator, but also functions as a growth hormone. Accordingly, studies of long-term insulin administration and of the hyperinsulinemia associated with type 2 diabetes have raised concerns about possible increases in the risks of cancer and atherosclerosis, due to excessive stimulation of cell proliferation. Interestingly, some insulin receptor ligands that have been developed based on a peptide, an antibody, and an aptamer selectively have metabolic effects exerted through the insulin receptor but do not cause significant cellular proliferation. Although these ligands therefore have potential as anti-diabetic drugs for advanced diabetes care, the mechanism whereby they specifically activate the insulin receptor is still unclear. Recently, studies of the structure of the insulin receptor have progressed considerably, and have provided further mechanistic understanding of insulin receptor activation. Based on this progress, we propose a mechanistic model of this specificity and discuss the potential for the development of novel anti-diabetic drugs that would not have the adverse effects caused by excessive mitogenic action. 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2017.12.005
    Biochemical and cellular properties of insulin receptor signalling. Haeusler Rebecca A,McGraw Timothy E,Accili Domenico Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology The mechanism of insulin action is a central theme in biology and medicine. In addition to the rather rare condition of insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, genetic and acquired abnormalities of insulin action underlie the far more common conditions of type 2 diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance. The latter predisposes to diseases ranging from hypertension to Alzheimer disease and cancer. Hence, understanding the biochemical and cellular properties of insulin receptor signalling is arguably a priority in biomedical research. In the past decade, major progress has led to the delineation of mechanisms of glucose transport, lipid synthesis, storage and mobilization. In addition to direct effects of insulin on signalling kinases and metabolic enzymes, the discovery of mechanisms of insulin-regulated gene transcription has led to a reassessment of the general principles of insulin action. These advances will accelerate the discovery of new treatment modalities for diabetes. 10.1038/nrm.2017.89
    Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and insulin sensitivity. Kim Y A,Keogh J B,Clifton P M Nutrition research reviews Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism. The anti-diabetic effects of probiotics include reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines via a NF-κB pathway, reduced intestinal permeability, and lowered oxidative stress. SCFA play a key role in glucose homeostasis through multiple potential mechanisms of action. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors on L-cells by SCFA promotes the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY resulting in increased insulin and decreased glucagon secretion, and suppressed appetite. SCFA can decrease intestinal permeability and decrease circulating endotoxins, lowering inflammation and oxidative stress. SCFA may also have anti-lipolytic activities in adipocytes and improve insulin sensitivity via GLUT4 through the up-regulation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase signalling in muscle and liver tissues. Resistant starch and synbiotics appear to have favourable anti-diabetic effects. However, there are few human interventions. Further well-designed human clinical studies are required to develop recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes with pro- and prebiotics. 10.1017/S095442241700018X