Preoperative inflammatory markers of NLR and PLR as indicators of poor prognosis in resectable HCC.
BACKGROUND:Many recent studies have demonstrated the predominant role chronic inflammation plays in cancer cell propagation, angiogenesis and immunosuppression. Cancer-related inflammation (CRI) has been shown to correlate with poor cancer prognosis. Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone liver resection. METHODS:Between 2012 and 2015, 239 patients with HCC who had undergone liver resection at XiangYa Hospital Central South University were included in this study. The values of simple inflammatory markers, including the NLR and PLR, used in predicting the long-term outcomes of these patients were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models. RESULTS:The cutoff values of the NLR and PLR were 2.92 and 128.1, respectively. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high NLR (≥2.92) and high PLR (≥128.1) were independent risk factors predicting poorer outcomes in patients with HCC. However, high NLR and high PLR were prognostic factors in tumor size and tumor number. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we identified that high NLR (≥2.92) and high PLR (≥128.1) are useful prognostic factors in predicting outcomes in patients with HCC whom underwent liver resection.
Lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio as a prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.
International journal of clinical oncology
BACKGROUND:Systemic inflammation has been correlated with worse survival for some cancers. We evaluated prognostic values of various inflammatory factor combinations in patients who underwent resections for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS:We retrospectively analysed 306 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent curative liver resections. After assessing eight combinations of inflammatory markers for predictive value for recurrence, we focused on lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) to elucidate its associations with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in univariate and multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards model). We also used immunohistochemical CD34 and CD8 staining to investigate the mechanism of LCR elevation. RESULTS:LCR showed the highest association with RFS in HCC patients among the compared indices. High preoperative LCR correlated with a high serum albumin concentration, small tumour size, early Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage and low rates of microscopic vascular invasion and microscopic intrahepatic metastasis. Higher preoperative LCR was an independent predictor of longer RFS and OS in this cohort. High LCR patients had fewer vessels encapsulating tumour clusters, and higher intratumoural CD8 T-cell counts than low LCR patients. CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative LCR is a novel and convenient prognostic marker for patients with HCC, and is associated with the tumour microenvironment immune status.
A simple prognostic score system predicts the prognosis of solitary large hepatocellular carcinoma following hepatectomy.
Shen Jun-Yi,Li Chuan,Wen Tian-Fu,Yan Lv-Nan,Li Bo,Wang Wen-Tao,Yang Jia-Yin,Xu Ming-Qing
Solitary large hepatocellular carcinomas (SLHCC) form a heterogeneous group of patients with different survival probabilities. The aim of our study was to develop a simple prognostic index for identifying prognostic subgroups of SLHCC patients.A retrospective analysis of clinical data from 268 patients with operable SLHCC was conducted to investigate prognostic factors and to construct a score system based on risk factors. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the variables associated with prognosis. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves.Three variables remained in the final multivariate model: platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), microvascular invasion (MVI), and tumor size with hazard ratios equal to 1.004 (95% confidence interval: 1.001-1.006), 1.092 (1.044-1.142), and 2.233 (1.125-2.233), respectively. A score of 1 was assigned to each risk factor. Patient scores were determined based on these risk factors; thus, the scores ranged between 0 and 3. Ultimately, three categories (0, 1-2, 3) were defined. Patients with scores of 3 had a 5-year survival rate of 25.4%, whereas patients with a score of 0 had a 5-year survival rate of 52.1%. The prognosis significantly worsened as the score increased. Similar results were found among cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients.Our simple prognostic index successfully predicts SLHCC survival.
Preoperative platelet lymphocyte ratio as independent predictors of prognosis in pancreatic cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Song Wei,Tian Chuan,Wang Kai,Zhang Run-Jin,Zou Shu-Bing
BACKGROUND:Recently, the preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been found reported to predict oncologic outcomes in multiple malignancies. However, its prognostic value in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of preoperative PLR in PC. METHODS:MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify studies evaluating the prognostic significance of preoperative PLR in PC. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) were calculated using fixed-effects/random-effects models. RESULTS:A total of eight studies comprising 1,904 patients with PC were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis demonstrated that elevated PLR had an association with decreased OS (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.43, p = 0.02). Subgroup analysis showed that a high PLR significantly predicted poor OS in Asian studies (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.52, p = 0.02), patients with metastatic disease (HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.77, p = 0.04) and patients with PLR >150 (HR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.21-2.49, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS:The preoperative PLR may be a significant independent prognostic factor in patients with PC.
Use of the alkaline phosphatase to prealbumin ratio as an independent predictive factor for the prognosis of gastric cancer.
Li Yang,Wang Jin-Shen,Guo Yun,Zhang Tao,Li Le-Ping
World journal of gastroenterology
BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by a low 5-year survival rate. The prognosis is still not satisfactory although it has significantly improved due to developments in medicine. Thus, the identification of more efficient indices for the evaluation of GC prognosis is required. We propose, for the first time, that the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to prealbumin (PA) ratio (APR) can be used as an independent prognostic factor in GC. AIM:To evaluate the prognostic value the APR in GC. METHODS:According to the exclusion strategy, we collected the preoperative serologic examination results and clinical information of 409 GC patients treated in Shandong Provincial Hospital from January to December, 2016. By calculating the APR, the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin (ALB) ratio, platelet and lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte and monocyte ratio, and the relationship with clinical information, we verified the role of preoperative APR ratio in the prognosis of GC. In addition, we used a Cox model combined with the APR and tumor stage to demonstrate its efficacy in assessing the prognosis of GC patients. RESULTS:Preoperative APR was an independent prognostic factor for GC. The median age of patients in the APR-high group was greater compared with that in the APR-low group. Patients with a higher APR had a more advanced clinical stage, higher neutrophil to lymphocyte, CRP to ALB, and platelet to lymphocyte ratios, but a lower lymphocyte to monocyte ratio ( < 0.05). The APR-high group also had higher glycoprotein antigen 199 and carbohydrate antigen 125 levels than the APR-low group ( < 0.05). Median overall survival and disease-free survival were significantly longer in the APR-low group than in the APR-high group. In addition, a Cox model based on the APR and tumor stage was more effective in evaluating the prognosis of patients than models based on stage alone or stage plus the NLR. CONCLUSION:A higher APR is an independent and negative prognostic factor for GC. The prognosis of GC can be better evaluated using a Cox model based on the APR and stage.
Prognostic value of inflammatory and nutritional markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT:Many clinical studies have demonstrated that the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) are visibly involved in the prognosis of a variety of tumors. In our research, we aim to determin the prognostic impact of NLR, PLR, and OPNI for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Data of hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing treatment in Changzhi People's Hospital between 2011 and 2017 were reviewed. 270 patients with HCC were under inclusion criteria. The optimal cut-off points of OPNI, NLR and PLR were determined by using the X-tile program. The overall survival (OS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression model to determine independent prognostic indicators for HCC.As revealed by Univariate and multivariate analysis, OPNI, Treatment, PLR, and BCLC Stage can be used as independent prognostic indicators for HCC. Comparing the P values and hazard ratios, we found out that the OPNI has greatest influence on prognosis in these indexes. The appropriate cut-off points of NLR, PLR, and OPNI were 2.5, 133.3, and 39.5, respectively. High score OPNI group had a better OS. In the analysis between OPNI and clinicopathological characteristics, there were differences in treatment, postoperative therapy, AST, ALBI grade, NLR and PLR between the high OPNI group and the low OPNI group, while others did not.OPNI is a straightforward and effective independent prognostic indicator for HCC.
Serum D-dimer, albumin and systemic inflammatory response markers in ovarian clear cell carcinoma and their prognostic implications.
Chen Wei,Zhong Siyuan,Shan Boer,Zhou Shuling,Wu Xiaohua,Yang Huijuan,Ye Shuang
Journal of ovarian research
BACKGROUND:This study attempts to evaluate whether preoperative systemic inflammatory response (SIR) markers or other hematological variables, such as albumin, D-dimer, and carbohydrate antigen 125, play roles in predicting chemotherapy response and survival outcome in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). METHODS:Preoperative leukocyte differential counts, as well as platelet, serum albumin, plasma D-dimer and CA-125 levels, were measured in patients with FIGO IC-IV ovarian clear cell cancer. The correlations of these hematological biomarkers with clinicopathological features, chemotherapy response, and survival outcomes were further analyzed. Survival time was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier model, whereas Cox regression was conducted for multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Among the 84 patients, 28.6% were classified as platinum resistant, and 69.0% were platinum sensitive. Preoperative CA125, albumin, and D-dimer levels; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios (NLR); and monocyte to lymphocyte ratios were significantly correlated with FIGO stage, residual tumor, and platinum response. Platelet to lymphocyte ratio was not related to platinum response (P = 0.060). The median follow-up time was 28 months (range, 1 to 128 months). Preoperative CA125, albumin, and D-dimer levels were significant prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In the univariate analysis, only NLR exhibited prognostic significance for PFS (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis indicated that D-dimer > 3.27 (P = 0.001 for OS; P = 0.040 for PFS) and albumin < 39.6 (P = 0.005 for OS and P = 0.041 for PFS) retained significance. CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative NLR has some predictive value for platinum resistance in patients with IC-IV stage OCCC but has little predictive effect on prognosis. Elevated D-dimer and reduced albumin might be potential biomarkers for worse response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and poor clinical outcomes.
Postoperative C-reactive protein/albumin ratio is a biomarker of risk of recurrence and need for adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colorectal cancer.
Matsuoka Hiroya,Ando Koji,Hu Qingjiang,Zaitsu Yoko,Tsuda Yasuo,Hisamatsu Yuichi,Nakashima Yuichiro,Kimura Yasue,Oki Eiji,Mori Masaki
International journal of clinical oncology
BACKGROUND:Adjuvant chemotherapy is generally recommended for patients with stage III colorectal cancer. Even with adjuvant chemotherapy, 20-30% of such patients develop recurrences; the risk factors for recurrence are currently unclear. The preoperative systemic inflammation index has been linked to poor prognoses in patients with colorectal cancer; however, the relationship between postoperative systemic inflammation index and recurrence is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between preoperative and postoperative systemic inflammation indexes and recurrence in patients with stage III colorectal cancer. METHODS:The following laboratory data of 133 patients with stage III colorectal cancer were analyzed: preoperative and postoperative C-reactive protein/albumin ratios (CAR); neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios (NLR); and platelet to lymphocyte ratios (PLR) and their relationships with recurrence analyzed. RESULTS:The optimal cutoff values for systemic inflammation indexes were determined by examining receiver operating characteristic curves. Multivariate analyses indicated that N-stage, postoperative complications, preoperative NLR, and postoperative CAR were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival (RFS). Postoperative CAR was also an independent predictor of overall survival (OS). Patients with postoperative CAR ≥ 0.035 who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy had shorter RFS and OS than those who did. There were no significant differences in RFS and OS between patients with postoperative CAR < 0.035 who did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS:Postoperative CAR is strongly associated with poor prognosis in patients with stage III colorectal cancer and is a useful biomarker for determining whether adjuvant chemotherapy should be administered.
Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) Predicts Tumor Recurrence of Very Early/Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Surgical Resection.
Chan Anthony W H,Chan Stephen L,Wong Grace L H,Wong Vincent W S,Chong Charing C N,Lai Paul B S,Chan Henry L Y,To Ka-Fai
Annals of surgical oncology
BACKGROUND:Approximately one-quarter of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0/A hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suffer from tumor relapse within the first year after surgical resection. Little data is available for inflammatory indices, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), in predicting the clinical outcome of patients with very early/early stage HCC who underwent curative surgery. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study of 324 patients with BCLC stage 0/A primary HCC undergoing surgical resection was conducted to investigate the prognostic impacts of NLR, PLR, and PNI. RESULTS:The low-PNI group (<45) had an adverse overall survival (1-year survival rate of 92 vs. 97 %; 5-year survival rate of 57 vs. 82 %; p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (1-year survival rate of 69 vs. 85 %; 5-year survival rate of 39 vs. 63 %; p < 0.001). It was an independent predictor for disease-specific death, and early and late tumor relapses, with hazard ratios of 2.78 (p < 0.001), 1.82 (p = 0.011), and 2.55 (p = 0.013), respectively. Neither NLR nor PLR had any prognostic significance. CONCLUSIONS:The PNI is a significant prognostic factor for OS and DFS of patients with very early/early stage HCC receiving curative surgery.
Neutropenia and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in a healthy Korean population: race and sex should be considered.
Kweon O J,Lee M-K,Kim H-J,Chung J-W,Choi S-H,Kim H R
International journal of laboratory hematology
INTRODUCTION:We evaluated the prevalence and severity of asymptomatic neutropenia in a healthy Korean population according to sex and age. We explored normal neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in an asymptomatic Korean population and the association of these ratios with biomarkers related to inflammation, rheumatoid disease, and glucose metabolism. METHODS:We analyzed complete blood cell counts in 83 740 subjects who participated in a routine health check-up program. NLR and PLR were compared to age, rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin A1c, and fasting glucose levels. RESULTS:Of the entire study population, 7.48% exhibited neutropenia; 8.61% of females and 6.69% of males. The neutropenia was more severe in females compared to males (P < 0.01). Median NLR and PLR values were 1.53 and 121.07, respectively. An inverse relationship was observed between NLR and age, but no differences were seen between sexes. CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and fasting glucose level were significantly correlated with NLR. CONCLUSION:Our data indicate that the normal range of absolute neutrophil counts should be adjusted and cutoff values for neutropenia should be re-established according to sex and race. NLR and PLR cutoff values for disease evaluation should be established separately according to race and age.
The systemic inflammatory response as a prognostic factor for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis.
Aino Hajime,Sumie Shuji,Niizeki Takashi,Kuromatsu Ryoko,Tajiri Nobuyoshi,Nakano Masahito,Satani Manabu,Okamura Shusuke,Shimose Shigeo,Miyahara Kensuke,Torimura Takuji
Molecular and clinical oncology
Several indices have been proposed to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response (SIR), which has been reported to be a useful prognostic factor in various types of cancer. We investigated the usefulness of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic factors in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastasis (stage IVB). Between April, 1997 and March, 2013, a total of 434 HCC patients who developed extrahepatic metastasis were enrolled in the present study. The GPS was defined on the basis of pretreatment C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin (Alb) levels, and the subjects were grouped according to GPS 0-2. The NLR was calculated as the neutrophil count/lymphocyte count, and the PLR was calculated as the platelet count/lymphocyte count. A comparative examination was performed using a survival analysis with approximate median values to determine the cut-off value for both ratios. The median survival time (MST) of the 434 patients overall was 7.3 months, with cumulative survival rates of 31.8, 14.5 and 7.7% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. The patient backround was as follows: The male:female ratio was 363:71, with a median age of 67.0 years (range, 15.0-92.0 years). Hepatitis B virus patients:hepatitis C virus patients:non-B, non-C hepatitis patients = 75:303:56. Child-Pugh class A:B:C = 218:153:63. As regards T stage, ≤T2:T3:T4 = 60:190:181. The median white blood cell count was 4,650/l (range, 1,400-20,500/l); the platelet count was 11.1×10/µl (range, 3.1×10-45.5×10/µl); the aspartate aminotransferase level was 40.0 U/l (range, 7.0-338.0 U/l) and the alanine aminotransferase level 64.5 U/l (range, 16.0-407.0 U/l); the α-fetoprotein level was 622.1 ng/ml (range, 1.5-3,311,794.0 ng/ml); and the des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin level was 1,285.0 mAU/ml (range, 8.0->75,000 mAU/ml). The principal sites of metastasis included the lungs (53.9%), bone (38.9%), lymph nodes (21.4%) and adrenal glands (10.1%). The survival analysis revealed that hepatic functional reserve [Child-Pugh class B+C; hazard ratio (HR)=2.055; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.592-2.651, P<0.001], T stage (T3; HR=2.359; 95% CI: 1.648-3.376, P<0.001), AFP (≥200 ng/ml; HR=1.416; 95% CI: 1.125-1.783, P=0.003), NLR (≥3; HR=1.569; 95% CI: 1.253-1.963, P<0.001) and GPS (1+2; HR=1.410; 95% CI: 1.060-1.874, P=0.018) were independent risk factors. A total of 136 patients were included in the GPS 0 group, 169 patients in the GPS 1 group and 129 patients in the GPS 2 group. The low together with the high NLR groups comprised 217 patients. The MST was 480 days in the GPS 0 group, 154 days in the GPS 1 and 2 groups, 115 days in the high NLR group and 321 days in the low NLR group; a significant difference in survival was observed for the GPS and NLR groups. Therefore, we consider GPS and NLR to be useful prognostic factors in patients with stage IVB HCC.
High platelet counts increase metastatic risk in huge hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization.
Xue Tong-Chun,Ge Ning-Ling,Xu Xin,Le Fan,Zhang Bo-Heng,Wang Yan-Hong
Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
AIM:Accumulating evidence suggests platelets play critical roles in tumor metastasis. Moreover, the role of platelets in metastasis is partially correlated with inflammation. However, evidence regarding the contribution of platelets to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis is lacking. This study investigated the association between platelets and metastatic risk in HCC. METHODS:We used huge HCC (diameter over 10 cm), a tumor subgroup with a strong inflammatory background, as a model to evaluate the potential predictive role of platelets and platelet-related biomarkers for metastasis in HCC patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. A logistic regression model was used to analyze risk factors for metastasis. RESULTS:Patients with huge HCC (n = 178) were enrolled, and 24.7% (44/178) of patients had remote metastases after treatment. Univariate analyses showed high platelet counts (P = 0.012), pretreatment platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (pre-PLR) of 100 or more (P = 0.018) and post-PLR of 100 or more (P = 0.013) were potential risk factors for metastasis. Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed high platelet counts (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.074-4.443; P = 0.031) and platelet-related biomarkers were independent risk factors for HCC metastasis. Particularly, the risk of metastasis in patients with high post-PLR values was significantly greater than patients with low post-PLR values. For tumor response and survival, patients with high platelet counts had faster disease progression (P = 0.002) and worse survival (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION:High platelet counts increase the extrahepatic metastasis risk of huge HCC undergoing chemoembolization, which supply clinical verification of the association between high platelet counts and HCC metastasis.
Prognostic efficacy of inflammation-based markers in patients with curative colorectal cancer resection.
Akgül Özgür,Çetinkaya Erdinç,Yalaza Metin,Özden Sabri,Tez Mesut
World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
AIM:To evaluate the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and other clinicopathological factors in patients undergoing curative resection of colon cancer. METHODS:183 patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer who had undergone potentially curative resection between 2010 and 2016 at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively analyzed and clinicopathological characteristics included age, sex, tumor type, grade, size and localization, the number of metastatic and total number of lymph nodes removed, vascular and perineural invasion of the tumor, TNM stages, tumor marker levels (CEA, CA19-9, AFP, CA-125, CA15-3), complete blood counts, albumin levels, overall survival (months), NLR, PLR, LMR and PNI ratios were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed from the electronic database. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. RESULTS:Regarding overall survival, on univariate analysis the following variables were significantly associated with poor outcome following resection: T-stage ( = 0.037), lymph node invasion ( = 0.037), cancer stage ( = 0.034), CEA ( = 0.042), CA19-9 ( = 0.004), and PNI ( = 0.001). To evaluate the independent prognostic value, multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis to control for other prognostic factors was used. Using cancer-specific death as an end point for NLR, PLR, LMR, PNI and CA19-9 the optimal cut off values were calculated by ROC analysis. Regarding overall survival, on multivariate analysis high CA19-9 (HR = 1.001, 95%CI: 1.00-1.002, = 0.012) and low PNI (HR = 0.938, 95%CI: 0.891-0.987, = 0.014) were the only variables independently associated with shortened overall survival. Patients with a PNI < 35 had a median OS of 52.25 mo. In contrast, patients with an PNI > 35 had a median OS of 66 mo. Patients with a CA 19-9 < 17 had a median OS of 66 mo and in patients with a CA19-9 > 17 had a median OS of 53.76 mo. CONCLUSION:This study shows that decrease in the PNI and increase in CA 19-9 is associated with poor survival in patients with resectable colon cancer.
Clinical and Prognostic Significance of Pathological and Inflammatory Markers in Mucinous Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Curative Surgery.
Zhao Jian,Xu Jian,Zhang Rui
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of pathological and inflammatory marker in mucinous rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and curative surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively evaluated the patient records of mucinous rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and curative surgery at Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute from January 2006 to December 2013. The relationship between overall survival (OS) and clinicopathologic variables, pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), pretreatment platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), pretreatment lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and other biomarkers were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing. Subsequently a Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios for the risk of death. RESULTS A total of 100 mucinous rectal cancer patients were included for analysis during the study period. The median age at presentation was 60.5 years (range, 26-81 years). The median overall survival (OS) for the whole group was 94 months. On univariate analysis, time interval from CCRT to operation (HR 0.37, p=0.03), lymphovascular invasion (HR 3.23, p=0.009), pretreatment NLR (HR 3.87, p=0.012), and LMR (HR 0.31, p=0.002) were significant prognostic factors for OS. In a multivariate analysis, pretreatment LMR was found to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR, 0.43; 95%CI, 0.18 to 1.00, p=0.045). CONCLUSIONS Pretreatment lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio is a useful prognostic marker of OS in patients with mucinous rectal carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and curative surgery.
Prognostic significance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in patients treated with selective internal radiation therapy.
D'Emic Nicole,Engelman Alexander,Molitoris Jason,Hanlon Alexandra,Sharma Navesh K,Moeslein Fred M,Chuong Michael D
Journal of gastrointestinal oncology
BACKGROUND:Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) may represent markers of a suboptimal host immune response to cancer and have been shown to correlate with prognosis in multiple tumor types across different treatment modalities, including radiation therapy. Limited data suggest that NLR may predict for survival and disease control in patients receiving selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). The correlation between clinical outcomes and change in NLR and PLR after SIRT has not been evaluated. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 339 consecutive patients with primary (n=37) or metastatic (n=79) liver cancer treated with SIRT from 2006 to 2014. Complete blood counts with differential were available for 116 patients both before and after (median, 29 and 20 days, respectively) SIRT. Survival and progression were calculated from date of initial SIRT. Patient and tumor characteristics evaluated for ability to predict overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) included pre- and post-treatment neutrophil, platelet, and lymphocyte counts (LCs), as well as NLR, PLR, and relative change in NLR and PLR. Cutoff values were determined for variables that were significant on multivariate analysis (MVA) for OS and/or PFS. RESULTS:Median follow-up of surviving patients was 12 months. Median OS was 8 months from SIRT and 20 months from date of liver metastasis diagnosis. Significant factors on univariate analysis (UVA) for both lower OS and PFS included higher post-treatment neutrophil count (NC), higher post-treatment NLR, higher liver tumor volume, higher percentage liver tumor burden, and worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. Significant factors on MVA for lower OS and PFS were ECOG performance status ≥2, higher liver tumor volume, higher pretreatment PLR, and increase in PLR after SIRT. Post-treatment increase in PLR >3-fold was the most predictive early marker for increased risk of death when compared with those whose PLR did not increase or increased <3-fold. Pretreatment PLR >78 was the most predictive serum marker associated with improved OS prior to therapy. CONCLUSIONS:This is the largest study to evaluate the association between NLR and PLR with clinical outcomes in patients receiving SIRT, with results that confirm that pre- and/or post-treatment NLR and/or PLR are predictive of clinical outcomes. The largest increase in risk of death as well as local and extrahepatic disease progression was related to change in PLR, a datum not well reported in the literature. The impact of SIRT on blood count changes and the underlying implications of these ratios should be further characterized in a prospective study.
Prognostic value of preoperative prognostic nutritional index and its associations with systemic inflammatory response markers in patients with stage III colon cancer.
Peng Jianhong,Zhang Rongxin,Zhao Yixin,Wu Xiaojun,Chen Gong,Wan Desen,Lu Zhenhai,Pan Zhizhong
Chinese journal of cancer
BACKGROUND:The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been widely applied for predicting survival outcomes of patients with various malignant tumors. Although a low PNI predicts poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer after tumor resection, the prognostic value remains unknown in patients with stage III colon cancer undergoing curative tumor resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of PNI in patients with stage III colon cancer. METHODS:Medical records of 274 consecutive patients with stage III colon cancer undergoing curative tumor resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and capecitabine between December 2007 and December 2013 were reviewed. The optimal PNI cutoff value was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The associations of PNI with systemic inflammatory response markers, including lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and clinicopathologic characteristics were assessed using the Chi square or Fisher's exact test. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) stratified by PNI were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and prognostic factors were identified by Cox regression analyses. RESULTS:The preoperative PNI was positively correlated with LMR (r = 0.483, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with NLR (r = - 0.441, P < 0.001), PLR (r = - 0.607, P < 0.001), and CRP level (r = - 0.333, P < 0.001). A low PNI (≤ 49.22) was significantly associated with short OS and DFS in patients with stage IIIC colon cancer but not in patients with stage IIIA/IIIB colon cancer. In addition, patients with a low PNI achieved a longer OS and DFS after being treated with 6-8 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy than did those with < 6 cycles. Multivariate analyses revealed that PNI was independently associated with DFS (hazard ratios 2.001; 95% confidence interval 1.157-3.462; P = 0.013). CONCLUSION:The present study identified preoperative PNI as a valuable predictor for survival outcomes in patients with stage III colon cancer receiving curative tumor resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
A comprehensive comparison of hematological parameters among 39 common diseases.
Gao Xing,Yin Junping,Wang Xiaoli,Petersen Frank,Yu Xinhua
Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation
Hematological parameters have been shown to be associated with morbidity and/or mortality of various disorders such as inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this study, we performed a comprehensive comparison of hematological parameters among 39 diseases, including cancer, inflammatory, autoimmune, allergic and infectious diseases as well as some further common disorders. In total, 19,038 patients and 23,610 matched healthy controls were recruited and evaluated. Our results revealed distinct hematological profiles among disease groups in which erythrocyte-related parameters were specifically associated with cancer, neutrophil- and lymphocyte-related parameters were associated with inflammatory diseases, viral infectious diseases, cancer, autoimmune and allergic diseases and platelets-related parameters were associated with viral infectious diseases. Furthermore, both neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly higher in patients with inflammatory diseases, cancer, autoimmune and allergic diseases than corresponding controls. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that several hematological parameters showed good diagnostic values for cancer, inflammatory diseases, and viral infectious diseases. Therefore, our results provide a valuable resource of hematological abnormalities in common diseases.
Low lymphocyte monocyte ratio after neoadjuvant therapy predicts poor survival after pancreatectomy in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.
Kawai Manabu,Hirono Seiko,Okada Ken-Ichi,Miyazawa Motoki,Shimizu Atsushi,Kitahata Yuji,Kobayashi Ryohei,Ueno Masaki,Hayami Shinya,Tanioka Kensuke,Yamaue Hiroki
BACKGROUND:The impact of systemic immune inflammatory markers to predict survival in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer has not been sufficiently investigated. This study aims to evaluate whether systemic immune inflammatory markers after neoadjuvant therapy followed by pancreatectomy become preoperative prognostic factors to predict survival in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 67 borderline resectable pancreatic cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy and 58 borderline resectable pancreatic cancer patients undergoing upfront surgery between 2010 and 2016. The association between survival and systemic immune inflammatory markers was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and prognostic nutrition index were assessed as systemic immune inflammatory markers. RESULTS:In univariate analysis, the postneoadjuvant neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and prognostic nutrition index are significantly associated with survival as systemic immune inflammatory markers. The optimal cutoff value of the postneoadjuvant neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and prognostic nutrition index were 2.5, 3.0, and 45, respectively. Patients with a lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio <3.0 had significantly poor survival compared with those who had a lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio ≥3.0 (14.9 months vs 31.7 months, P = .006). The multivariate analysis identified the following as predictors of poor prognosis: postneoadjuvant lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio <3.0 (HR 2.59; 95% CI 1.02-6.58; P = .045), T4 (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.11-3.01; P = .029), lymph node status (HR 2.62; 95% CI 1.24-5.51; P = .012), and no completion of adjuvant therapy (HR 7.09; 95% CI 3.08-16.4; P < .001). CONCLUSION:A low lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio after neoadjuvant therapy is useful prognostic information for patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. This result might indicate a potential role of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios in stratification of treatment strategy in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer patients.
Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Survival After TAS-102 Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Matsuda Akihisa,Yamada Takeshi,Matsumoto Satoshi,Sakurazawa Nobuyuki,Kawano Youichi,Shinozuka Eriko,Sekiguchi Kumiko,Suzuki Hideyuki,Yoshida Hiroshi
BACKGROUND/AIM:TAS-102 is recommended as salvage-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but practical predictors for its efficacy are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In a single-institutional retrospective study of 33 patients treated with TAS-102, we investigated the predictive value of the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR), and lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR) ratios for progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival. Predictive ability using cut-offs of the median value (3.14) and 5 for NLR were compared. RESULTS:In univariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score, NLR, and PLR were negatively significantly associated with PFS and OS. The number of treatment lines was negatively associated with PFS. The NLR cut-off of 5 was superior to the median value. Multivariate analyses showed a significant prognostic impact for NLR at cut-off 5 (hazard ratio(HR)=6.26, p=0.02 for PFS; HR=6.97, p=0.07 for OS). CONCLUSION:The pretreatment NLR is a prognostic biomarker for patients with mCRC who receive TAS-102 treatment.
Comparison of Hematologic and Other Prognostic Markers in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Mercier Joey,Voutsadakis Ioannis A
Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
BACKGROUND:Associations of thrombocytosis, neutrophilia, and lymphopenia with prognosis have been confirmed in many cancers. This study aims at comparing various prognostic indices based on blood counts in metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Records from 152 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were treated in our center were reviewed. Demographic and disease characteristics and hematologic parameters data were extracted and patients were stratified according to their scores of several hematologic ratios. Hematologic ratios and parameters considered included the platelet-neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (PNLR), the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the Abnormal Hematological Markers Index (AHMI), and the neutrophil-platelet score (NPS). Optimal cutoffs were defined with the aid of an online tool. Baseline parameters of the two groups derived for each tool were evaluated and compared with the χ test. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were performed on variables of interest. RESULTS:Progression-Free Survival (PFS) hazard ratios (HR) between the high-risk and low-risk groups derived from the multivariate analyses for each index were as follows: for PNLR 2.0 (95% CI 1.28-3.13), for PLR 1.74 (95% CI 1.13-2.67), for NLR 1.54 (95% CI 1.04-2.29), for AHMI 1.62 (95% CI 1.06-2.46), and for NPS 1.47 (95% CI 1.1-1.96). Overall Survival (OS) hazard ratios (HR) derived from the multivariate analyses for each index were as follows: for PNLR 2.23 (95% CI 1.36-3.66), for PLR 1.68 (95% CI 1.03-2.75), for NLR 1.62 (95% CI 1.06-2.49), for AHMI 1.7 (95% CI 1.07-2.69), and for NPS 1.53 (95% CI 1.11-2.11). Another prognostic index called PRONOPALL, which is based on ECOG PS (0-1 versus 2-3 versus 4), number of metastatic sites (≤ 1 versus ≥ 2), LDH (< 600 U/L versus ≥ 600 U/L), and albumin (≥ 33 g/L versus < 33 g/L), had HRs of 1.75 and 2.20 for PFS and OS, respectively, with a cutoff of < 4 versus ≥ 4. This score has a range of 0 to 10 and points are attributed for the presence of each of the four prognostic factors. CONCLUSION:In this analysis of metastatic colorectal cancer patients, several ratios and other prognostic tools had prognostic value for both OS and PFS. While other variables held significance for poorer prognosis, PNLR had the highest HR and the highest significance in multivariate analysis for both PFS and OS. Thus, it represents a valid prognostic tool in metastatic colorectal cancer among the spectrum of hematologic parameter-constructed tools.
Markers of Systemic Inflammatory Response are Prognostic Factors in Patients with Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PNETs): A Prospective Analysis.
Gaitanidis Apostolos,Patel Dhaval,Nilubol Naris,Tirosh Amit,Sadowski Samira,Kebebew Electron
Annals of surgical oncology
BACKGROUND:The prognosis and behavior of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) vary and may be divergent even at the same stage or tumor grade. Markers of systemic inflammatory response are readily available and are inexpensive, and have been shown to be prognostic factors in several cancers. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic utility of markers of systemic inflammatory response in patients with PNETs. METHODS:A prospective study of 97 patients with PNETs was performed (median follow-up of 15 months, range 12-73 months). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NLRs) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios (LMRs) were calculated at baseline and preoperatively. The primary outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) after curative resection. RESULTS:Among all patients, an NLR > 2.3 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-6.08, p = 0.038] and the presence of distant metastases (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.26-6.21, p = 0.012) were independent predictors of disease progression. Among patients who did not undergo surgery during the study period, both platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) > 160.9 (HR 5.86, 95% CI 1.27-27.08, p = 0.023) and mean platelet volume > 10.75 fL (HR 6.63, 95% CI 1.6-27.48, p = 0.009) were independently associated with worse PFS on multivariable analysis. Among patients who underwent complete resection, an LMR < 3.46 was associated with a worse RFS (HR 9.72, 95% CI 1.19-79.42, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS:PLR > 160.9 and an MPV > 10.75 fL at baseline are independent predictors of disease progression, while an LMR < 3.46 is an independent predictor of tumor recurrence after complete resection in patients with PNETs.
Prognostic value of pretreatment systemic inflammatory markers in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
Zhang Yiyi,Liu Xing,Xu Meifang,Chen Kui,Li Shoufeng,Guan Guoxian
The aim of this study was to explore the most powerful systemic inflammation marker of survival in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients and construct prognostic nomograms. A total of 472 LARC patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and radical surgery from 2011 to 2015 were included. The optimal cutoff points for the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII); and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte (MLR) ratios were calculated and determined by using the X-tile program. The cut-off values were 797.6. 2.3, 169.5, and 0.4, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that higher pathological TNM stage, the AJCC tumor regression grade, and the NLR level were significantly associated with increased overall survival and disease-free survival. High NLR level (≥ 2.3) was associated with higher pre-NCRT CA19-9 levels, lower hemoglobin, larger tumor size, and more lymph nodes retrieved (p = 0.012, p = 0.024, and p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively). High NRL scores were associated with poorer 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival (p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Predictive nomograms and time-independent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve that included the NLR score group were superior to those without NLR scores. Higher NLR scores (≥2 0.3) were associated with poorer DFS and OS in LARC patients. In addition, NLR was identified as the most effective marker for systemic inflammation, and the prognostic value was further confirmed by time-dependent ROC analysis. More intense adjuvant treatment could be considered for higher NLR score patients with LARC following NCRT.
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: a hidden gem in predicting neoadjuvant treatment response in locally advanced rectal cancer?
Andras David,Crisan Dana,Craciun Rares,Nemes Andrada,Caziuc Alexandra,Drasovean Radu,Seicean Radu,Scurtu Razvan,Bințințan Vasile,Eniu Dan,Coman Ioan,Dindelegan George
Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
PURPOSE:The link between the pro-inflammatory status, tumor aggressiveness and treatment response has been well established in multiple cancers. Various hematologic and biochemical variables representing surrogates for inflammation have been used as predictive markers. Our primary aim was to assess the prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in evaluating neoadjuvant treatment response in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS:We included 60 consecutive patients with LARC, admitted for surgery, after completing a standard full-course neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy regimen. NLR and other hematologic parameters were collected one day prior to surgery. Treatment response was assessed on the resection specimens. RESULTS:On univariate analysis, poor responders had a significantly higher NLR value when compared with good responders: 5.81 (5.40-7.28) vs. 3.51 (2.36-4.04), p<0.0001. NLR retained its significance on multivariate analysis, with an OR of 3.51 (1.54-6.57), p=0.001. A NLR cut-off value of 4.50 had the best predictive value for poor response, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85, sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 83.3% (p<0.001). Other hematologic ratios, such as the derived NLR (dNLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were also significant predictors for poor response, although to a lesser extent when compared to NLR. CONCLUSION:NLR is a simple and cost-effective predictor for neoadjuvant treatment response in LARC. As more data is generated, clear cut-off values could provide valuable insight regarding the management of LARC.
Monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in peripheral whole blood samples of colorectal cancer patients.
Jakubowska Katarzyna,Koda Mariusz,Grudzińska Małgorzata,Kańczuga-Koda Luiza,Famulski Waldemar
World journal of gastroenterology
BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy worldwide. Therefore, it is critically important to identify new useful markers that can be easily obtained in routine practice. Inflammation is a crucial issue in the pathogenesis and development of cancer. AIM:To evaluate the prognostic value of absolute monocyte count, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), the combination of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR-PLR), and combined platelet and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLT-NLR) in peripheral blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer undergoing surgery. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective study of 160 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery, and 42 healthy controls. The status of absolute monocyte count, MLR, NLR-PLR and PLT-NLR was calculated on the basis of blood samples obtained before and after surgery. Haematologic factors were examined in correlation with the type of tumour growth, tumour size, histological type, percentage of mucinous component, grade of malignancy, Tumour-Node-Metastasis stage, venous, lymphatic and perineural invasion of cancer cells, status of lymph node invasion and the presence of cancer cell deposits. The Kaplan-Meier method and the long-rank test were used to compare survival curves. To determine independent prognostic factors, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied. RESULTS:The PLT-NLR status was correlated with tumour size and the presence of perineural invasion ( = 0.015; = -0.174, = 0.037). Moreover, high NLR-PLR and PLR-NLR ratios in the blood samples obtained after surgery were positively associated with histological type of cancer and percentage of the mucinous component (NLR-PLR: = 0.002; = 0.009; PLR-NLR status: = 0.002; = 0.007). The analysis of 5-year disease-free survival showed that the MLR of whole blood obtained after surgery [HR = 2.903, 95%CI: (1.368-6.158), = 0.005] and the status of lymph node metastasis [HR = 0.813, 95%CI: (0.653-1.013), = 0.050] were independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer patients. CONCLUSION:The postoperative MLR in whole blood samples can be used as an independent prognostic factor in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
The Provocative Roles of Platelets in Liver Disease and Cancer.
Frontiers in oncology
Both platelets and the liver play important roles in the processes of coagulation and innate immunity. Platelet responses at the site of an injury are rapid; their immediate activation and structural changes minimize the loss of blood. The majority of coagulation proteins are produced by the liver-a multifunctional organ that also plays a critical role in many processes: removal of toxins and metabolism of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and drugs. Chronic inflammation, trauma, or other causes of irreversible damage to the liver can dysregulate these pathways leading to organ and systemic abnormalities. In some cases, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios can also be a predictor of disease outcome. An example is cirrhosis, which increases the risk of bleeding and prothrombotic events followed by activation of platelets. Along with a triggered coagulation cascade, the platelets increase the risk of pro-thrombotic events and contribute to cancer progression and metastasis. This progression and the resulting tissue destruction is physiologically comparable to a persistent, chronic wound. Various cancers, including colorectal cancer, have been associated with increased thrombocytosis, platelet activation, platelet-storage granule release, and thrombosis; anti-platelet agents can reduce cancer risk and progression. However, in cancer patients with pre-existing liver disease who are undergoing chemotherapy, the risk of thrombotic events becomes challenging to manage due to their inherent risk for bleeding. Chemotherapy, also known to induce damage to the liver, further increases the frequency of thrombotic events. Depending on individual patient risks, these factors acting together can disrupt the fragile balance between pro- and anti-coagulant processes, heightening liver thrombogenesis, and possibly providing a niche for circulating tumor cells to adhere to-thus promoting both liver metastasis and cancer-cell survival following treatment (that is, with minimal residual disease in the liver).
Association of Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio With Survival in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor.
Frontiers in oncology
BACKGROUND:Optimal prognostic biomarkers for patients with gastric cancer who received immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) are lacking. Inflammatory markers including lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic inflammation index (SII) are easily available. However, its correlation with ICI is unknown in gastric cancer. Here, we evaluated the potential association between LMR, PLR, and SII with clinical outcomes in gastric cancer patients undergoing ICI therapy. METHODS:We examined LMR, PLR, SII at baseline, and 6 (± 2) weeks later in 139 patients received ICI therapy between August 2015 and April 2019 at Peking University Cancer Hospital (Beijing, China). Landmark analysis at 6 weeks was conducted to explore the prognostic value of LMR, PLR, and SII on progress-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for LMR, adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, ECOG, tumor location, tumor differentiation, tumor stage, line of therapy, and type of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. RESULTS:Among 139 patients, 103 (74.1%) were male, median age was 60 years. Median duration of therapy was 6 cycles. We observed that both LMR at baseline and week 6 were independent prognostic factors. Patients with a higher LMR (≥ 3.5) at baseline or week 6 had superior PFS [baseline: HR 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.91; week 6: HR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.78] and OS (baseline: HR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.24-0.62; week 6: HR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) compared with patients with a lower LMR (< 3.5). Furthermore, for patients with both LMR ≥ 3.5 at baseline and LMR ≥ 3.5 at week 6 were estimated to have much better PFS (HR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23-0.72) and OS (HR 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18-0.64) than patients with both LMR < 3.5 at baseline and LMR < 3.5 at week 6. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline and early changes in LMR were strongly associated with survival in gastric cancer patients who received ICI therapy, and may serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from ICI.
Lymphocyte-to-C-Reactive Protein Ratio Is the Most Sensitive Inflammation-Based Prognostic Score in Patients With Unresectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Nakamura Yuya,Shida Dai,Boku Narikazu,Yoshida Takefumi,Tanabe Taro,Takamizawa Yasuyuki,Takashima Atsuo,Kanemitsu Yukihide
Diseases of the colon and rectum
BACKGROUND:Systemic inflammation contributes to the progression of malignancies. The preoperative lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio has recently been shown to predict survival of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo surgery, but its prognostic value remains unclear in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine the prognostic values of inflammation-based prognostic scores in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, focusing on the lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio. DESIGN:This is a retrospective study from a prospectively collected database. SETTINGS:This study was conducted at a high-volume multidisciplinary tertiary cancer center in Japan. PATIENTS:The subjects were 756 consecutive patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who received systemic chemotherapy from 2000 to 2015. The prognostic value of the lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio was evaluated by univariable and multivariable analyses. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was conducted to compare the prognostic impact of the lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio with the impact of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, or the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcomes measured were the correlations of prognostic scores with overall survival. RESULTS:Median survival times of patients with high, intermediate, and low lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratios were 29.4, 19.3, and 13.1 months (p < 0.001). In all subgroups according to key prognostic factors (performance status, use of targeted agents, pretreatment CEA levels, tumor sidedness, M category, and primary tumor resection), patient prognosis could be clearly stratified into 3 groups by the lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio. Multivariable analysis revealed that decreased lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio was independently associated with reduced survival (low vs high: HR 1.96, p < 0.001; intermediate vs high: HR 1.44, p < 0.001). The time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio was the most sensitive predictor of survival among all inflammation-based prognostic scores on a continuous basis. LIMITATIONS:This study was retrospective in nature. CONCLUSIONS:The lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio is a useful prognostic biomarker for unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer and could contribute to accurate prognostication and therapeutic decision making. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B600. RELACIN ENTRE LINFOCITOS Y PROTENA C ES EL SCORE PRONOSTICO INFLAMATORIO MAS SENSIBLE EN PACIENTES CON CNCER COLORRECTAL METASTSICO IRRESECABLE:ANTECEDENTES:La inflamación sistémica contribuye en la progresión de neoplasias malignas. Recientemente se ha demostrado que la proporción preoperatoria de linfocitos -proteína C reactiva predice la supervivencia de los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal que se sometieron a cirugía, pero su valor pronóstico sigue sin estar claro en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico irresecable.OBJETIVO:Evaluar el valor pronostico de los scores inflamtorios centrandose en linfocito- proteina c reactiva en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico.DISEÑO:Estudio retrospective evaluando una base de datos.AJUSTE:Este estudio se llevó a cabo en un centro oncológico terciario multidisciplinario de gran volumen en Japón.PACIENTES:Se incluyeron 756 pacientes consecutivos todos con cáncer colorrectal metastásico irresecable que recibieron quimioterapia sistémica de 2000 a 2015. El valor pronóstico de la proteína C reactiva se evaluó mediante análisis univariables y multivariables. Se realizó análisis de la curva de características operativas del receptor dependiente del tiempo para comparar el impacto pronóstico de la proteína linfocito-C-reactiva con el de la proporción de neutrófilos a linfocitos, la proporción de plaquetas a linfocitos, la proporción de linfocitos a monocitos o la proporción de puntuación pronóstica segun escala de Glasgow modificada.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE RESULTADO:Correlacion de las puntuaciones pronósticas con la supervivencia global.RESULTADOS:La mediana de supervivencia de los pacientes con niveles altos, intermedios y bajos de proteína C reactiva de linfocitos fue de 29,4, 19,3 y 13,1 meses, respectivamente (p <0,001). En todos los subgrupos de acuerdo con los factores pronósticos clave (estado funcional, uso de agentes dirigidos, niveles de antígeno carcinoembrionario antes del tratamiento, lado del tumor, categoría M y resección del tumor primario), el pronóstico del paciente podría estratificarse claramente en tres grupos por linfocito a C- proteína reactiva. El análisis multivariable reveló que la disminución de linfocitos a proteína C reactiva se asoció de forma independiente con una supervivencia reducida (baja frente a alta: cociente de riesgo 1,96, p <0,001; intermedio frente a alto: cociente de riesgo 1,44, p <0,001). El análisis de la curva de características operativas del receptor dependiente del tiempo reveló que de linfocito a proteína C reactiva era el predictor de supervivencia más sensible entre todas las puntuaciones de pronóstico basadas en inflamación de forma continua.LIMITACIONES:Este estudio fue de naturaleza retrospectiva.CONCLUSIONES:La proteína C reactiva de linfocitos a C es un biomarcador pronóstico útil para el cáncer colorrectal metastásico irresecable y podría contribuir a un pronóstico preciso y a la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B600.
Systemic Inflammation Status Relates to Anti-inflammatory Drug Benefit and Survival in Rectal Cancer.
Cao Xue,Wang Xiaolin,Wang Heng,Xu Gaopo,Yu Huichuan
The Journal of surgical research
BACKGROUND:Systemic inflammation status has been recognized as a sensitive marker associated with survival in cancers and anti-inflammatory treatment outcomes in inflammation-derived diseases. This study aimed to investigate the role of systemic inflammation status as a predictive marker for survival and anti-inflammatory treatment benefit in rectal cancer patients. METHODS:A total of 475 patients with stage I-III rectal cancer receiving curative resection were prospectively enrolled. The platelet-neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (PNLR) that integrates neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios was applied to enable a comprehensive evaluation of systemic inflammation status and investigate its association with survival and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) benefit. Patients were grouped according to baseline PNLR and perioperative use of NSAIDs. RESULTS:The high-PNLR group had worse 5-y disease-free survival (DFS) compared with the low-PNLR group (61.2% versus 70.9%, P = 0.014). Multivariate analyses confirmed that PNLR was an independent predictor for DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42, 95% CI: 1.03-1.97, P = 0.031). A nomogram including PNLR and other independent prognostic factors was developed and validated to predict DFS. In the high-PNLR subset, NSAIDs group had a 21.3% lower risk of recurrence than non-NSAIDs group (P = 0.009), and multivariate analysis confirmed the independently significant association of perioperative NSAIDs use with better DFS (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.78, P = 0.010). However, this association was not significant in the low-PLR subset. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline PNLR could be used to predict DFS and NSAIDs benefit in rectal cancer patients. This study highlights the potential survival benefit from the anti-inflammatory treatment in the patients with elevated systemic inflammation status in cancer patients.
Preoperative Leucocyte-Based Inflammatory Scores in Patients with Colorectal Liver Metastases: Can We Count on Them?
Dupré Aurélien,Jones Robert P,Diaz-Nieto Rafael,Fenwick Stephen W,Poston Graeme J,Malik Hassan Z
World journal of surgery
BACKGROUND:Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) have been identified as potential prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in primary colorectal cancer, and there is a growing interest in their use in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs). However, optimal cut-off values for these ratios have not been defined by making comparison between series difficult. This study aimed to confirm the prognostic value of inflammatory scores in patients undergoing resection for CLM. METHODS:We retrospectively analysed data from 376 consecutive patients who underwent liver surgery for CLM between June 2010 and August 2015. We assessed the reproducibility of previously published ratios and determined new cut-off values using the Cut-off Finder web-based tool. Relations between cut-off values and OS were analysed with Kaplan-Meier log-rank survival analysis and multivariate Cox models. RESULTS:Three hundred and forty-three patients had full preoperative blood tests for calculation of NLR, PLR and LMR. The number of cut-off values which showed a significant discrimination for OS was 49/249 (19.7%) for NLR, 28/316 (8.9%) for PLR and 22/214 (10.3%) for LMR, all with a scattered nonlinear distribution. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed that inflammatory scores expressed as ratios do not seem to be consistently reliable prognostic markers in patients with resectable CLM.
Systemic inflammation markers and cancer incidence in the UK Biobank.
Nøst Therese Haugdahl,Alcala Karine,Urbarova Ilona,Byrne Karl Smith,Guida Florence,Sandanger Torkjel Manning,Johansson Mattias
European journal of epidemiology
Systemic inflammation markers have been linked to increased cancer risk and mortality in a number of studies. However, few studies have estimated pre-diagnostic associations of systemic inflammation markers and cancer risk. Such markers could serve as biomarkers of cancer risk and aid in earlier identification of the disease. This study estimated associations between pre-diagnostic systemic inflammation markers and cancer risk in the prospective UK Biobank cohort of approximately 440,000 participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. We assessed associations between four immune-related markers based on blood cell counts: systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and risk for 17 cancer sites by estimating hazard ratios (HR) using flexible parametric survival models. We observed positive associations with risk for seven out of 17 cancers with SII, NLR, PLR, and negative associations with LMR. The strongest associations were observed for SII for colorectal and lung cancer risk, with associations increasing in magnitude for cases diagnosed within one year of recruitment. For instance, the HR for colorectal cancer per standard deviation increment in SII was estimated at 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.16) in blood drawn five years prior to diagnosis and 1.50 (95% CI 1.24-1.80) in blood drawn one month prior to diagnosis. We observed associations between systemic inflammation markers and risk for several cancers. The increase in risk the last year prior to diagnosis may reflect a systemic immune response to an already present, yet clinically undetected cancer. Blood cell ratios could serve as biomarkers of cancer incidence risk with potential for early identification of disease in the last year prior to clinical diagnosis.
Associations between lifestyles and neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios in colorectal cancer.
Hong Chuyuan,Wei Yisheng,Jiang Jianxin,Zhao Chuxiong,Liang Guojian,Wang Guoqiang,Yang Hui
Asia-Pacific journal of clinical oncology
AIMS:To explore the etiology of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) abnormalities in colorectal cancer. METHODS:In total, 230 patients with histopathologically confirmed colorectal cancer from August 2009 to August 2011 were recruited to our study. The associations between lifestyles (smoking, alcohol and pickled food consumption) and pretreatment NLR and PLR were estimated using the Kruskal-Wallis tests and linear regression model. RESULTS:The Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant association between pickled food intake and pretreatment NLR but not PLR (P = 0.002, 0.057, respectively). Pairwise comparisons showed that, compared with those with a moderately frequent (2-3 times/week) and an infrequent (≤ once a week) intake of pickled food, high frequency (≥ four times/week) consumption of pickled food had a higher pretreatment NLR (P = 0.01, 0.007, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed pretreatment NLR increased significantly in high frequency (≥ four times/week) consumption of pickled food (P < 0.0001). No association between other lifestyle factors and pretreatment PLR was found. CONCLUSIONS:A higher frequency intake of pickled food possibly contributes to higher NLR, which may reflect a systemic inflammatory response in colorectal cancer.
Application of platelet/lymphocyte and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios in early diagnosis and prognostic prediction in patients with resectable gastric cancer.
Lian Lian,Xia You-You,Zhou Chong,Shen Xiao-Ming,Li Xiang-Li,Han Shu-Guang,Zheng Yan,Mao Zhong-Qi,Gong Fei-Ran,Wu Meng-Yao,Chen Kai,Tao Min,Li Wei
Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer and the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. China has a high incidence of gastric cancer. Inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression. It has been widely accepted that gastric cancer is an inflammation-driven cancer. In this study, we investigated the application value of systemic inflammatory response (SIR) markers, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), in early diagnosis and prognostic prediction in patients with resectable gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and sixty-two patients with resectable gastric cancer were included and separated into groups according to median pre-operative PLR or NLR values (PLR low: < 208 or PLR high: ≥ 208, and NLR low: < 4.02 or NLR high: ≥ 4.02, respectively). To evaluate the changes in PLR or NLR values after operation, we introduced the concept of postpre-operative PLR or NLR ratios (< 1 indicated PLR or NLR values were decreased after operation, while ≥ 1 suggested not decreased PLR or NLR values). RESULTS:Pre-operative PLR and NLR levels were significantly higher in gastric cancer patients compared with the healthy subjects. Low pre-operative PLR and NLR levels correlated with better clinicopathological features, including decreased depth of invasion, less lymph node metastasis and early tumor stage. Kaplan-Meier plots illustrated that higher pre-operative NLR and PLR had decreased overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Surgical tumor resection resulted in a significant CONCLUSIONS:PLR and NLR measurements can provide important diagnostic and prognostic results in patients with resectable gastric cancer.
The Predictive Value of Inflammation-Related Peripheral Blood Measurements in Cancer Staging and Prognosis.
Sylman Joanna L,Mitrugno Annachiara,Atallah Michelle,Tormoen Garth W,Shatzel Joseph J,Tassi Yunga Samuel,Wagner Todd H,Leppert John T,Mallick Parag,McCarty Owen J T
Frontiers in oncology
In this review, we discuss the interaction between cancer and markers of inflammation (such as levels of inflammatory cells and proteins) in the circulation, and the potential benefits of routinely monitoring these markers in peripheral blood measurement assays. Next, we discuss the prognostic value and limitations of using inflammatory markers such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios and C-reactive protein measurements. Furthermore, the review discusses the benefits of combining multiple types of measurements and longitudinal tracking to improve staging and prognosis prediction of patients with cancer, and the ability of novel frameworks to leverage this high-dimensional data.
Predictive Performances of Blood Parameter Ratios for Liver Inflammation and Advanced Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.
Ding Rongrong,Zhou Xinlan,Huang Dan,Wang Yanbing,Li Xiufen,Yan Li,Lu Wei,Yang Zongguo,Zhang Zhanqing
BioMed research international
Objective:Blood parameter ratios, including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), have been reported that they are correlated to the progression of liver disease. This study is aimed at evaluating the predictive value of PLR, NLR, and MLR for liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods:We recruited 457 patients with CHB who underwent a liver biopsy and routine laboratory tests. Liver histology was assessed according to the Scheuer scoring system. The predictive accuracy for liver inflammation and fibrosis was assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results:PLR and NLR presented significantly reverse correlation to liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, these correlations were not observed for MLR and liver histology. The AUROCs of PLR for assessing G2-3 and G3 were 0.676 and 0.705 with cutoffs 74.27 and 68.75, respectively. The AUROCs of NLR in predicting inflammatory scores G2-3 and G3 were 0.616 and 0.569 with cutoffs 1.36 and 1.85, respectively. The AUROCs of PLR for evaluating fibrosis stages S3-4 and S4 were 0.723 and 0.757 with cutoffs 79.67 and 74.27, respectively. The AUROCs of NLR for evaluating fibrosis stages S3-4 and S4 were 0.590 with cutoff 1.14. Conclusion:Although PLR has similar predictive power of progressive liver fibrosis compared with APRI, FIB-4, and GPR in CHB patients, it has the advantage of less cost and easy application with the potential to be widely used in clinical practice.
Prognostic Roles of Blood Inflammatory Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Taking Sorafenib. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Liu Lixing,Gong Yang,Zhang Qinglin,Cai Panpan,Feng Li
Frontiers in oncology
The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the effectiveness of the prognostic roles of blood inflammatory markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients receiving sorafenib. We carried out a comprehensive literature search in four databases. Study endpoints, hazard ratios (HRs) and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for clinical outcomes, which were to assess therapeutic efficacy, were extracted. This meta-analysis was conducted by Review Manager 5.3. We summarized the available evidence from 18 studies with a total of 2,745 cases. The pooled results showed that the synthesized HR favored patients with low pretreatment NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio), which also indicated that HCC patients with a lower baseline NLR may have a better response to sorafenib than those with higher NLR (HR = 1.76, 95% CI [1.44, 2.15], < 0.00001, = 68%). Significance was also observed for the prognostic function of the PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio) of HCC patients treated with sorafenib (HR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.16, 1.93], = 0.002, = 0%, = 0.65). The subgroup analysis revealed that different gene backgrounds play a prominent role in the source of heterogeneity. Interestingly, the predictive effect on OS (overall survival) was more pronounced as the NLR cutoff value increased. Notably, a significant predictive effect of NLR on the clinical outcome was detected in HCC patients treated with sorafenib compared to those treated with tivantinib. In conclusion, the present study reported promising predictive biomarkers for HCC patients and notably indicated that HCC patients with a lower baseline NLR and PLR may have a better response to sorafenib than those with higher ones. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to determine the optimal NLR and PLR cutoff values, which are important for identifying the dominant populations for sorafenib treatment.
Predictive significance of cancer related-inflammatory markers in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Timudom Kitinat,Akaraviputh Thawatchai,Chinswangwatanakul Vitoon,Pongpaibul Ananya,Korpraphong Pornpim,Petsuksiri Janjira,Ithimakin Suthinee,Trakarnsanga Atthaphorn
World journal of gastrointestinal surgery
BACKGROUND:Locally advanced rectal cancer is treated using neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT), followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Tumor regression and pathological post-treatment stage are prognostic for oncological outcomes. There is a significant correlation between markers representing cancer-related inflammation, including high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte (MLR) and unfavorable oncological outcomes. However, the predictive role of these markers on the effect of chemoradiation is unknown. AIM:To evaluate the predictive roles of NLR, MLR, and PLR in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation. METHODS:Patients ( = 111) with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent nCRT followed by TME at the Minimally Invasive Surgery Unit, Siriraj Hospital between 2012 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The associations between post-treatment pathological stages, neoadjuvant rectal (NAR) score and the pretreatment ratios of markers of inflammation (NLR, MLR, and PLR) were analyzed. RESULTS:Clinical stages determined using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both were T4 ( = 16), T3 ( = 94), and T2 ( = 1). The NAR scores were categorized as high (score > 16) in 23.4%, intermediate (score 8-16) in 41.4%, and low (score < 8) in 35.2%. The mean values of the NLR, PLR, and MLR correlated with pathological tumor staging (ypT) and the NAR score. The values of NLR, PLR and MLR were higher in patients with advanced pathological stage and high NAR scores, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSION:In patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, pretreatment NLR, MLR and PLR are higher in those with advanced pathological stage but the differences are not significantly different.
Platelet and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios predict survival in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases.
Erstad Derek J,Taylor Martin S,Qadan Motaz,Axtell Andrea L,Fuchs Bryan C,Berger David L,Clancy Thomas E,Tanabe Kenneth K,Chang David C,Ferrone Cristina R
American journal of surgery
BACKGROUND:The prognostic significance of the platelet (PLR) and neutrophil (NLR) to lymphocyte ratios for patients with resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM) was evaluated. METHODS:Clinicopathologic data from patients who underwent hepatectomy for CLM at two tertiary care hospitals between 1995 and 2017 were collected. Blood counts were evaluated for prognostic significance. RESULTS:151 patients met inclusion criteria. The median age was 58 years, 44% were female, and 58% had synchronous metastases. Median number of liver metastases was 2, and 59% of patients underwent lobectomy or extended lobectomy. On multivariable analysis, NLR ≥5 (HR 2.46 [1.08-5.60 CI], p = 0.032), PLR ≥ 220 (HR 2.10 [1.04-4.23 CI], p = 0.037), and greater than 2 liver metastases (HR 2.41 [1.06-5.45 CI], p = 0.035) were associated with reduced overall survival. CONCLUSIONS:PLR ≥ 220 and NLR ≥ 5 may have utility as preoperative prognostic markers for overall survival in patients with resectable CLM.
The Pattern of Calculated Inflammation Ratios as Prognostic Values in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.
Ciocan Andra,Bolboacă Sorana D,Drugan Cristina,Ciocan Răzvan A,Graur Florin,Al Hajjar Nadim
Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening
AIM:In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of four calculated inflammatory ratios in patients with colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A six-year retrospective study was conducted on subjects admitted for colorectal cancer at "Prof. Dr. Octavian Fodor" Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Cluj-Napoca, Romania, from January 2014 until September 2019. The medical charts of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were used as the source of raw data and for the calculation of four ratios (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio-NLR, derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio-dNLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio-PLR, and systemic immune-inflammation index-SII), considered as prognostic markers related to mortality in colorectal cancer. RESULTS:One thousand six hundred and eighty-eight patients, with ages ranging from 17 to 98 years, were evaluated. NLR and dNLR displayed significantly higher values among patients who died (NLR: 4.2 for deceased vs. 3.4 for alive, P-value=0.0224; dNLR: 2.7 for deceased vs. 2.3 for alive, P-value=0.0566). Ischemic cardiomyopathy (odds ratio (OR)=2.70), liver cirrhosis (OR=7.84), post-operative complications (OR=2.39), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (OR=1.08) proved to be significant prognostic factors for the primary outcome, independent of age and gender. CONCLUSION:Patients with high NLR, post-operative complications, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and/or liver cirrhosis are the candidates to a less favorable outcome among subjects with colorectal cancer regardless the age and gender.
Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio as Prognostic Predictors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Various Treatments: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.
Zheng Jun,Cai Jianye,Li Hui,Zeng Kaining,He Liying,Fu Hongyuan,Zhang Jiebin,Chen Liang,Yao Jia,Zhang Yingcai,Yang Yang
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
BACKGROUND/AIMS:Systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is widely considered as a preoperative risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), two of the prognostic indices, have been investigated in post-therapeutic recurrence and survival of HCC. Here, we quantify the prognostic value of these two biomarkers and evaluate their consistency in different HCC therapies. METHODS:A systematic review of electronic database of the Web of Science, Embase, PubMed and the Cochrane Library was conducted to search for associations between the NLR and PLR in the blood and clinical outcomes of HCC. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were the primary outcomes, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were explored as effect measures. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the heterogeneity of different therapies. RESULTS:A total of 24 articles comprising 6318 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled outcomes revealed that a high NLR before treatment predicted a poor OS (HR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.76, p<0.001) and poor RFS (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.82, p=0.001). Moreover, an increased PLR predicted a poor OS (HR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.98, p<0.001) and earlier HCC recurrence (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.91, p<0.001). In addition, both the NLR and PLR were identified as independent risk factors for predicting OS and RFS in HCC patients in a subgroup analysis of different treatment types, including curative or palliative therapy; however, these results were not found in the sorafenib subgroup due to limited clinical research. CONCLUSION:An increased NLR or PLR indicated poor outcomes for patients with HCC. The NLR and PLR may be considered as reliable and inexpensive biomarkers for making clinical decisions regarding HCC treatment.
Prognostic role of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in pancreatic cancers: A meta-analysis including 3028 patients.
Li Wendi,Tao Lianyuan,Lu Meng,Xiu Dianrong
BACKGROUND:Platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) was recently reported being associated with the prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC), but the prognostic value of PLR in pancreatic cancer remains inconsistent. We conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of PLR in patients with PC. METHODS:PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched for eligible studies which investigated the relationship between PLR and clinical outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the prognostic role of PLR in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS)/time to progression (TTP). RESULTS:A total of 16 studies comprising 3028 patients with PC were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Pooled analysis demonstrated that elevated PLR predicted a poor OS (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09-1.36, P < .001). Prognostic role of PLR on OS were significant in subgroup of Asians (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.11-1.34, P < .001), patients treated with chemotherapy (HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04-1.35, P = .01) and mixed methods (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07-1.57, P = .009), American joint committee on cancer (AJCC) stage of III-IV (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09-1.36, P < .001), pathological subtype of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.08-1.36, P = .001), and cut-off value of PLR ≥160 (HR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.25-1.75, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:An elevated PLR is associated with unfavorable overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Predictive value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy.
Dharmapuri Sirish,Özbek Umut,Lin Jung-Yi,Sung Max,Schwartz Myron,Branch Andrea D,Ang Celina
BACKGROUND:Currently, there are no recognized or validated biomarkers to identify hepatocellular carcinoma patients (HCC) likely to benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy. We evaluated the relationship between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and survival outcomes, pretreatment and after three doses (posttreatment) of nivolumab in HCC patients. METHODS:Medical records of HCC patients treated with nivolumab between June 2016 and July 2018 were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to calculate and compare overall survival between NLR < 5 Vs ≥ 5 and among PLR tertiles. RESULTS:A total of 103 patients were identified. Median age was 66 (29-89) years. Median treatment duration was 26 (2-149) weeks. Sixty-four (62%) patients had Child-Pugh class A (CP-A) liver function. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage was B in 20 (19%) and C in 83 (81%) patients. CP-A patients who achieved a partial or complete response had significantly lower posttreatment NLR and PLR (P < .001 for both) compared to patients who had stable disease or progression of disease. No relationship was observed between response and pretreatment NLR and PLR. NLR < 5 was associated with improved OS compared to NLR ≥ 5 both pretreatment (23 Vs10 months, P = .004) and posttreatment (35 Vs 9 months, P < .0001). Survival also differed significantly among PLR tertiles both pre- (P = .05) and posttreatment (P = .013). In a multivariable model, posttreatment NLR (HR = 1.10, P < .001) and PLR (HR = 1.002, P < .001) were strongly associated with survival. In a composite model of posttreatment NLR and PLR, a combination of high NLR and PLR was associated with an eightfold increased risk of death (HR = 8.3, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests a strong predictive role of these inflammatory cell ratios in the posttreatment setting in HCC patients treated with anti anti-PD-1 therapy and should be evaluated in a larger cohort.
Abilities of Pre-Treatment Inflammation Ratios as Classification or Prediction Models for Patients with Colorectal Cancer.
Ciocan Andra,Ciocan Răzvan A,Al Hajjar Nadim,Gherman Claudia D,Bolboacă Sorana D
Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)
BACKGROUND:Systemic inflammatory status is known as an important factor of colorectal cancer prognosis. Our study aimed to evaluate the performances of inflammation biomarker ratios as classification models of seven outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted on subjects with colorectal cancer over five years at a single center in Transylvania, Romania. Seven derived ratios were calculated based on laboratory data: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte (LMR) and albumin-to-globulin (AGR) ratios, Systemic Immune Inflammation Index (SII) and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI). The utility of these ratios as predictors for seven outcomes was further evaluated in multivariable regression models. RESULTS:Our study shows that the evaluated ratios exhibit specific performances for individual outcomes, proving a fair ability as screening tools (NLR and dNLR for survival, T stage and M stage; NLR and SII for T stage; and PLR for M stage). A dNLR over 3.1 (OR = 2.48, 95% CI (1.421 to 4.331)) shows predictive value for survival. A value of NLR over 3.10 (OR = 1.389, 95% CI (1.061 to 1.817)) is positively associated with an advanced T stage, while LMR is negatively related to the T stage (OR = 0.919, 95% CI (0.867 to 0.975)). NLR over 4.25 (OR = 2.647, 95% CI (2.128 to 3.360)) is positively associated with, while PNI is negatively related (OR = 0.970, 95% CI (0.947 to 0.993)) to, the M stage. CONCLUSION:Each of the evaluated ratios possesses prognostic value for certain outcomes considered, but the reported models need external validation to recommend their clinical practice utilization.
Predictive Value of Leukocyte- and Platelet-Derived Ratios in Rectal Adenocarcinoma.
Ward William H,Goel Neha,Ruth Karen J,Esposito Andrew C,Lambreton Fernando,Sigurdson Elin R,Meyer Joshua E,Farma Jeffrey M
The Journal of surgical research
BACKGROUND:Advances in treatment of rectal cancer have improved survival, but there is variability in response to therapy. Recent data suggest the utility of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in predicting survival. Our aim was to examine these ratios in rectal cancer patients and determine whether any association exists with overall survival (OS). METHODS:Using prospectively maintained institutional data, a query was completed for clinical stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma patients treated from 2002 to 2016. We included patients who had a complete blood count collected before neoadjuvant chemoradiation (pre-CRT) and again before surgery (post-CRT). The LMR, NLR, and PLR were calculated for the pre-CRT and post-CRT time points. Potential cutpoints associated with OS differences were determined using maximally selected rank statistics. Survival curves were compared using log-rank tests and were adjusted for age and stage using Cox regression. RESULTS:A total of 146 patients were included. Cutpoints were significantly associated with OS for pre-CRT ratios but not for post-CRT ratios. Within the pretreatment group, a "low" (<2.86) LMR was associated with decreased OS (log-rank P = 0.004). In the same group, a "high" (>4.47) NLR and "high" PLR (>203.6) were associated with decreased OS (log-rank P < 0.001). With covariate adjustment for age, and separately for final pathologic stage, the associations between OS and LMR, NLR, and PLR each retained statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS:If obtained before the start of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, LMR, NLR, and PLR values are accurate predictors of 5-y OS in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.
Platelet to lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancer: Review and meta-analysis.
Zhou Lin-Hua,Luo Xiao-Feng
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
BACKGROUND:The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been found to predict clinical outcomes in multiple malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment PLR in biliary tract cancer (BTC). METHODS:We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to identify studies evaluating the prognostic significance of pretreatment PLR in BTC. The end points were overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS). Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effects/random-effects models. RESULTS:A total of eleven studies comprising 2392 patients were included in the study. Pooled results showed that elevated PLR was significantly associated with decreased overall survival (HR: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-1.78, p<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00, p=0.002). Subgroup analyses suggested that a high PLR predicted decreased OS in patient with BTC, regardless of sample size (<200 or ≥200), treatment methods (surgery, mixed, or chemotherapy), tumor stage (mixed or metastatic), analysis methods (univariate or multivariate), cut-off values (<150 or ≥150), and NOS score (<7 or ≥7). CONCLUSIONS:Elevated pretreatment PLR may be an unfavorable prognostic factor for clinical outcomes in patients with biliary tract cancer.
Preoperative Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio as a Prognostic Factor for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Riauka Romualdas,Ignatavicius Povilas,Barauskas Giedrius
INTRODUCTION:Various inflammatory markers have been investigated for a prognostic role in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. However, the value of preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of PLR as a preoperative prognostic factor for resectable pancreatic cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Systematic literature search was conducted for studies assessing PLR influence as a preoperative prognostic factor in resectable pancreatic cancer patients. Random-effects model was applied for pooling hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals related to overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS:Fourteen articles with 2,743 patients were included in the study. According to the analysis, high PLR had no correlation with decreased OS. Due to high heterogeneity among studies, subgroup analysis was performed. Better OS was associated with low PLR in Asian patients, patients with mixed type of operation performed, and patients with preoperative PLR ≤150. Low PLR was associated with significantly better DFS. CONCLUSIONS:PLR is a predictive factor of better DFS in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. However, available evidence does not support PLR as a reliable prognostic factor for OS.
Assessment of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet count as predictors of long-term outcome after R0 resection for colorectal cancer.
Pedrazzani Corrado,Mantovani Guido,Fernandes Eduardo,Bagante Fabio,Luca Salvagno Gian,Surci Niccolò,Campagnaro Tommaso,Ruzzenente Andrea,Danese Elisa,Lippi Giuseppe,Guglielmi Alfredo
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and platelet count (PC) were shown to be prognostic in several solid malignancies. We analysed 603 R0 resected patients to assess whether NLR, PLR and PC correlate with other well-known prognostic factors and survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to define cut-off values for high and low ratios of these indices. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the prognostic value of NLR, PLR and PC for overall and cancer-related survival. The distribution of NLR, PLR and PC in CRC patients was compared with 5270 healthy blood donors. The distribution of NLR, PLR and PC was significantly different between CRC patients and controls (all p < 0.05). A significant but heterogeneous association was found between the main CRC prognostic factors and high values of NLR, PLR and PC. Survival appeared to be worse in patients with high NLR with cancers in AJCC/UICC TNM Stages I-IV; nonetheless its prognostic value was not confirmed for cancer-related survival in multivariate analysis. After stratification of patients according to AJCC/UICC TNM stages, high PC value was significantly correlated with overall and cancer-related survival in TNM stage IV patients.
An Elevated Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Poor Prognosis and Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
Huang Xuan-Zhang,Chen Wen-Jun,Zhang Xi,Wu Cong-Cong,Zhang Chao-Ying,Sun Shuang-Shuang,Wu Jian
The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathological and prognostic values of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in colorectal cancer (CRC). The PubMed and Embase databases and the references of relevant studies were systematically searched. This study was performed with hazard ratios (HRs) and odd ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as effect measures. Our results indicated that elevated PLR was associated with poor overall survival (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.23-1.73), disease-free survival (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.17-2.30), cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.12-1.51), and recurrence-free survival (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09-1.74) in CRC. For the clinicopathological characteristics, our results indicated that there were differences in the rate of elevated PLR between stages III/IV and I/II groups (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01-1.88), pT3/T4 and pT1/T2 groups (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.03-3.20), and poor differentiation and moderate/well differentiation (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.38-4.84). Our results indicated that elevated PLR predicted poor prognosis and clinicopathological characteristics in CRC and PLR is a convenient and low-cost blood-derived prognostic marker for CRC.
Prognostic Significance of Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Cholangiocarcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.
Hu Gang,Liu Qin,Ma Jian-Ying,Liu Cheng-Yuan
BioMed research international
INTRODUCTION:Pretreatment platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been considered a prognostic factor in various cancers. However, the application of PLR in the assessment of patients with cholangiocarcinoma remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment PLR in cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS:A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to identify studies assessing the prognostic significance of the pretreatment PLR in cholangiocarcinoma. Three databases were searched from inception to August 5, 2018. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and the secondary outcomes were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS:A total of 9 studies including 2395 patients were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of the included studies were retrospective observational cohorts. Elevated PLR predicted poor OS (HR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.19-1.62, P < 0.001) and RFS or PFS (HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.27-1.88; P < 0.001). Moreover, elevated PLR was highly associated with male sex (male versus female OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.44-0.80, P < 0.001) and R1 resection margin (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.54, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION:The present meta-analysis demonstrated that pretreatment PLR might serve as a useful prognostic biomarker in cholangiocarcinoma.
Association between platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and overall survival (OS) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): A meta-analysis.
Hu D-H,Yu S-M
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
Some studies investigated the association between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the results remained inconclusive. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis. Published studies were searched in PubMed and EMBASE. The strength of association was assessed by calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 6 studies with 1446 HCC patients were included in this meta-analysis. HCC with higher PLR showed an increased death risk (OR = 1.59; 95%CI, 1.15-2.20; P < 0.0001). However, the heterogeneity was high (I2=89.2%). When the study by Li et al. was excluded, the heterogeneity decreased (I2=20%). Further, the result was still positive (OR = 1.70; 95%CI, 1.42-2.04; P < 0.00001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that PLR was significantly associated with the OS of HCC.
Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio could be a promising prognostic biomarker for survival of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Peng Hong-Xin,Lin Kang,He Bang-Shun,Pan Yu-Qin,Ying Hou-Qun,Hu Xiu-Xiu,Xu Tao,Wang Shu-Kui
FEBS open bio
Inflammation is one of the most important causes leading to colorectal carcinogenesis, and inflammatory biomarkers such as the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) might predict survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of PLR in CRC patients remains controversial. The prognostic value of PLR was comprehensively analyzed in 12 articles including 3541 CRC patients (10 for overall survival (OS), seven for disease-free survival (DFS), three for recurrence-free survival (RFS), and three for cancer-specific survival (CSS)) in this study. The overall pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of PLR for OS, DFS, and CSS were significant at 1.29 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.13-1.47, P H = 0.149), 1.43 (95% CI = 1.03-1.97, P H = 0.025), and 1.26 (95% CI = 1.04-1.52, P H = 0.223), respectively. However, there was no evidence of significance for RFS (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.98-1.70, P H = 0.231) in our study. Stratified analyses indicated elevated PLR was a predictor of poor OS (metastatic patients) and DFS (Caucasian population) and was also significantly associated with OS in univariate analysis (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.60, P H = 0.532) and those only treated surgically (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.10-1.70, P H = 1.080). However, our findings indicated that elevated PLR is a promising prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer, especially in metastatic Caucasian CRC patients.
Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to lymphocyte ratio in older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Cruz-Ramos Marlid,Del Puerto-Nevado Laura,Zheng Binbin,López-Bajo Rafael,Cebrian Arancha,Rodríguez-Remirez María,García-García Laura,Solanes-Casado Sonia,García-Foncillas Jesús
Journal of geriatric oncology
Aging is associated with a higher risk of cancer, >70% of cancer-related deaths occur in aged patients; however, this population is underrepresented in clinical trials, therefore, clinical information regarding this age group is rather limited. OBJECTIVES:Neutrophil-to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been described as biomarkers in cancer, thus, we have assessed their impact in an aged cohort of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:110 patients with a mean age of 72.2 years at diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed; NLR and PLR were calculated and dichotomized using a cutoff point estimated by a ROC curve. Survival curves and Cox regression analysis were performed to assess the prognostic potential of ratios in terms of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:High NLR was associated to worse outcome in terms of PFS (ten vs sixteen months; Log rank <0.001) (HR 2.00 95%CI 1. 29-3.11; p = .002) and OS (20 vs 26 months; Log rank 0.002) (HR 2.28 95%CI 1.40-3.71; p = .001). Similarly it occurs with high PLR and PFS (nine vs fifteen months; Log rank 0.04) (HR 1.55 95%CI 1.01-2.40; p = .04) and OS (nineteen vs 25 months; Log rank <0.001) (HR 2.35 95%CI 1.45-3.80; p < .001). CONCLUSION:This study confirms the role of NLR and PLR as accessible and noninvasive biomarkers that could be use as a routine tool in the clinical practice in geriatric patients with mCRC.
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios predict chemotherapy outcomes and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastasis.
Wu Yuchen,Li Cong,Zhao Jiang,Yang Li,Liu Fangqi,Zheng Hongtu,Wang Zhimin,Xu Ye
World journal of surgical oncology
BACKGROUND:Recent evidence indicates that inflammatory parameters could be useful to predict metastasis from colorectal cancer. However, their roles in predicting chemotherapy response and prognosis in patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) are unknown. METHODS:The clinical data and baseline laboratory parameters of 55 patients with synchronous CLM were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent palliative resection of the primary tumor and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Two indices of systemic inflammation were reviewed-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)-preoperatively and before the second cycle of chemotherapy. Associations between prognostic variables and tumor response, progression, and survival were investigated. RESULTS:NLR < 4 and PLR < 150 were correlated with better disease control (p = 0.024 and 0.026, respectively). In univariate analysis, elevated NLR and PLR were significant prognostic factors for poor overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In multivariate analysis, PLR (p = 0.027), age (p = 0.018), resection of liver metastases (p = 0.017), and lactate dehydrogenase level (p = 0.011) were independent predictors of PFS, while resection of liver metastases was the only independent predictor of OS (p = 0.002). In addition, when patients were divided into groups according to changes in NLR and/or PLR, reduced NLR and PLR were associated with improved disease control (p = 0.038 and 0.025, respectively). Normalization of NLR also was associated with improved PFS. CONCLUSIONS:NLR and PLR are potentially useful clinical biomarkers to predict chemotherapy response in patients with synchronous CLM. PLR also may be useful to predict PFS in these patients.
Prognostic Value of the Albumin-to-Alkaline Phosphatase Ratio before Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Nonmetastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Yang Liping,Gao Jing,Zhou Yan,Tao Zhenchao,He Jian,Yang Jing,Wang Ru,Zhang Yangyang,Huang Yifan,Zhou Lingran,Sun Bin
INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the albumin-to-alkaline phosphatase ratio (AAPR) in patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS:Patients with nonmetastatic NPC who underwent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) were retrospectively analyzed. The AAPR was calculated using the last value of albumin to alkaline phosphatase that was measured within 1 week before CRT. The optimal cutoff value for the AAPR value was determined by an X-tile plot. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance the differences of the baseline characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to calculate the survival. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was conducted for the multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Totally, 87 patients with nonmetastatic NPC who underwent CRT were included in the analysis. The optimal cutoff level for the AAPR was 0.46. The group with an AAPR ≤0.46 was more likely to have poorer overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (p = 0.023, p = 0.031 and p = 0.027, for OS, PFS, and DMFS, respectively). In Cox proportional hazards analysis, high AAPR was a better prognostic predictor. CONCLUSION:AAPR may be a reliable prognostic index for nonmetastatic NPC patients.
Circulating CEA-dNLR score predicts clinical outcome of metastatic gallbladder cancer patient.
Du Jing-Hui,Lu Jun
Journal of clinical laboratory analysis
BACKGROUND:Cancer-related inflammation promotes gallbladder tumorigenesis and metastasis of gallbladder cancer (mGBC). The levels of circulating inflammatory-related cell and protein as well as the ratios of them may imply the severity of chronic inflammation in GBC patients, and all of them are candidate prognostic biomarkers for mGBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In our study, pre-treatment circulating immune cell, fibrinogen (Fib), albumin (Alb), and pre-albumin (pAlb) were detected in 220 mGBC patients, and we calculated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), Alb-to-Fib ratio (AFR), and Fib-to-pAlb ratio (FPR) replying on the detection. Three years' follow-up was carried out in those patients, and we investigated the possible associations between those biomarkers and three years' overall survival (OS) of these patients using X-tile software, Kaplan-Meier curve, Cox regression, and time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC). RESULTS:Our results showed that OS of the patients with high pAlb and LMR was significantly superior to the cases with the low biomarkers, respectively. However, survival of the cases with high CEA, dNLR, and FPR was significantly inferior to the patients with low levels of those biomarkers. Area under the curve (AUC) of time-dependent ROC of CEA and dNLR was higher than pAlb, LMR, and FPR, respectively. Additionally, higher CEA-dNLR score (adjusted HR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.01-4.51 for the score one; adjusted HR = 4.99, 95% CI = 2.32-7.21 for the score two) was significantly associated with reduced survival of the patients, and AUC of the score for predicting clinical outcome of mGBC patients was 0.756, and it was significantly higher than the single CEA and dNLR, respectively. CONCLUSION:Our findings implied that pretreatment CEA-dNLR score was superior to the other biomarkers to predict OS of mGBC patients, and it was an independent prognostic factor for the disease.
The early prognostic value of inflammatory markers in patients with acute pancreatitis.
Liu Gaoli,Tao Jing,Zhu Zhongchao,Wang Weixing
Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology
OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic markers with the more mature scoring system BISAP in patients with AP and identify the best predictors. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analysed the data of patients with AP who were treated in our hospital from January 2017 to March 2018 and compared the prognostic value of these inflammation-based prognostic markers with the BISAP score in patients with AP. RESULTS:Higher BISAP score, NLR, PLR, ACC, and BUN gradually increased (all P < 0.05), and lower LMR and TC (P < 0.001) were associated with severity of AP. Compared with the patients without persistent organ failure, the patients with POF were older (P = 0.049) and had a higher BISAP score (P < 0.001), NLR (P = 0.003), PLR (P < 0.001) and ACC (P = 0.047), BUN (P = 0.011), and creatinine (P = 0.023), RDW (P = 0.021), but lower LMR (P = 0.003) and TC (P < 0.001) at baseline. The BISAP score (OR = 2.117, 95% CI 1.487 to 3.016, P < 0.001), NLR (OR = 1.053, 95% CI: 1.009 to 1.101, P = 0.019) and TC (OR = 0.088, 95% CI: 0.024 to 1.030, P < 0.001) were independent factors for predicting SAP. For predicting the occurrence of POF, TC and PLR had an area under the ROC curve (TC AUC = 0.784, P < 0.001, with a 2.18 cut-off value, PLR AUC = 0.731, P < 0.001, with a 173.13 cut-off value) that was not inferior to the BISAP score (AUC = 0.708), and PLR had the best sensitivity (95.8%), BUN had the best specificity (44.71%), respectively. There is no difference in their predictive value for POF. CONCLUSIONS:NLR and TC are the most powerful markers in this patient series, they have a prognostic value which is not weaker than BISAP, and are equally simple, rapid.
Predictive Significance Of Preoperative Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Determination In Postoperative Liver Metastasis Of Colorectal Cancer.
OncoTargets and therapy
PURPOSE:Systemic inflammation and immune dysfunction have been proved to be significantly associated with cancer progression and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the association between preoperative systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and postoperative liver metastasis in CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This retrospective study evaluated 182 patients with CRC who underwent surgical resection. The inflammation-based prognostic factors, including SII, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), were calculated based on preoperative laboratory data. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors correlated with postoperative liver metastasis in CRC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and decision curve analysis (DCA) were respectively used to assess the predictive ability and clinical usefulness of SII for postoperative liver metastasis in CRC. RESULTS:The univariate and multivariable analysis confirmed SII was independently correlated with postoperative liver metastasis in CRC (<0.001), and the ROC and DCA analysis demonstrated SII was superior to other inflammation-based factors in terms of predictive ability. CONCLUSION:SII is an independent predictive indicator of postoperative liver metastasis for patients with colorectal cancer.
A Novel Inflammation-Based Prognostic Score: The Fibrinogen/Albumin Ratio Predicts Prognoses of Patients after Curative Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Xu Qiaodong,Yan Yongcong,Gu Songgang,Mao Kai,Zhang Jianlong,Huang Pinbo,Zhou Zhenyu,Chen Zheng,Zheng Shaodong,Liang Jiahong,Lin Zhihua,Wang Jie,Yan Jiang,Xiao Zhiyu
Journal of immunology research
BACKGROUND:Inflammation is an important hallmark of cancer. Fibrinogen and albumin are both vital factors in systemic inflammation. This study investigated the prognostic value of the fibrinogen/albumin ratio in HCC patients who underwent curative resection. METHODS:HCC patients ( = 151) who underwent curative resection were evaluated retrospectively. The optimal cutoff value for the fibrinogen/albumin ratio was selected by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Correlations between preoperative fibrinogen/albumin ratios and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed by test. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to compare the prognostic value of the fibrinogen/albumin ratio with other prognostic scores (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score). The overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) were assessed by the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS:An optimal cutoff value of the preoperative fibrinogen/albumin ratio (0.062) was determined for 151 patients who underwent curative resection for HCC via a ROC curve analysis. Fibrinogen/albumin ratio > 0.062 was significantly associated with microvascular invasion, an advanced BCLC stage, and ALBI grade. Multivariate analyses revealed that fibrinogen/albumin ratio was an independent predictor for OS ( = 0.003) and TTR ( = 0.035). The prognostic ability of fibrinogen/albumin ratio was comparable to other prognostic scores (NLR, PLR, and ALBI score) by AUC analysis. Patients with a fibrinogen/albumin ratio > 0.062 had lower 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates (66.0%, 41.8%, and 28.2% versus 81.9%, 69.3%, and 56.1%, resp., < 0.001) and higher 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence rates (60.9%, 79.2%, and 90.5% versus 49.5%, 69.1%, and 77.1%, resp., = 0.008) compared with patients with fibrinogen/albumin ratio ≤ 0.062. CONCLUSION:The preoperative fibrinogen/albumin ratio is an effective prognostic factor for HCC patients who underwent curative resection. An elevated fibrinogen/albumin ratio significantly correlates with poorer survival and a higher risk of recurrence in HCC patients.
Pretreatment albumin globulin ratio has a superior prognostic value in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients: a comparison study.
Zhou Tao,Yu Shi-Tong,Chen Wan-Zhi,Xie Rong,Yu Ji-Chun
Journal of Cancer
Many inflammation-based markers have been reported their prognostic significance. Current study was designed to explore the prognostic value of albumin/globulin ratio (AGR), along with other inflammation-based markers, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients. This study was a retrospective analysis of the data related to 232 newly diagnosed LSCC patients. The potential prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The correlation between AGR and other prognostic factors were analyzed, and the area under the curve (AUC) were compared. AGR, NLR, PLR and LMR were found to be associated with several aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. In multivariate analysis, AGR, NLR, PLR, LMR were independent prognostic markers of the shorter OS. However, NLR, PLR, and LMR showed no significance with the shorter DFS. AGR remained an independent prognostic marker for the shorter DFS. Furthermore, AGR was a superior prognosis factor than NLR, PLR, LMR in LSCC patients. AGR might be a promising marker to better predicting prognosis of LSCC patients. Future studies are warranted to validate our finding.
Preoperative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio represents a superior predictor compared with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for colorectal liver-only metastases survival.
Peng Jianhong,Li Hui,Ou Qingjian,Lin Junzhong,Wu Xiaojun,Lu Zhenhai,Yuan Yunfei,Wan Desen,Fang Yujing,Pan Zhizhong
OncoTargets and therapy
Systemic inflammation was recognized as an essential factor contributing to the development of malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of pre-operative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with colorectal liver-only metastases (CLOM) undergoing hepatectomy. We retrospectively enrolled 150 consecutive patients with CLOM between 2000 and 2012. The optimal cutoff values of continuous LMR, NLR, and PLR were determined using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) related to the LMR, NLR, and PLR were analyzed using both Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression methods. Elevated LMR (≥2.82) and lower NLR (<4.63) were significantly associated with better RFS and OS in patients with CLOM after hepatectomy, instead of lower PLR (<150.17). Multivariate Cox analysis identified elevated LMR as the only independent inflammatory factor for better RFS (hazard ratio, 0.591; 95% CI, 0.32-0.844; =0.008) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.426; 95% CI, 0.254-0.716; =0.001). In the subgroup analysis, elevated LMR was a significant favorable factor in both 5-year RFS and OS of patients with male gender, lymph node metastases, colon cancer, liver tumor with the largest diameter <5 cm, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level <200 ng/mL, negative hepatitis B virus infection, non-anatomic liver resection, postoperative chemotherapy, and non-preoperative chemotherapy. This study demonstrated that the preoperative LMR was an independent predictor of RFS and OS in patients with CLOM undergoing hepatic resection, and it appeared to be superior to the NLR and PLR.
Clinical implications of six inflammatory biomarkers as prognostic indicators in Ewing sarcoma.
Li Yong-Jiang,Yang Xi,Zhang Wen-Biao,Yi Cheng,Wang Feng,Li Ping
Cancer management and research
Cancer-related systemic inflammation responses have been correlated with cancer development and progression. The prognostic significance of several inflammatory indicators, including neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CRP/Alb ratio), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), and neutrophil-platelet score (NPS), were found to be correlated with prognosis in several cancers. However, the prognostic role of these inflammatory biomarkers in Ewing sarcoma has not been evaluated. This study enrolled 122 Ewing patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was generated to determine optimal cutoff values; areas under the curves (AUCs) were assessed to show the discriminatory ability of the biomarkers; Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to plot the survival curves; and Cox multivariate survival analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. The optimal cutoff values of CRP/Alb ratio, NLR, PLR, and LMR were 0.225, 2.38, 131, and 4.41, respectively. CRP/Alb ratio had a significantly larger AUC than NLR, PLR, LMR, and NPS. Higher levels of CRP/Alb ratio (hazard ratio [HR] 2.41, =0.005), GPS (HR 2.27, =0.006), NLR (HR 2.07, =0.013), and PLR (HR 1.85, =0.032) were significantly correlated with poor prognosis. As the biomarkers had internal correlations, only the CRP/Alb ratio was involved in the multivariate Cox analysis and remained an independent prognostic indicator. The study demonstrated that CRP/Alb ratio, GPS, and NLR were effective prognostic indicators for patients with Ewing sarcoma, and the CRP/Alb ratio was the most robust prognostic indicator with a discriminatory ability superior to that of the other indicators; however, PLR, LMR, and NPS may not be suitable as prognostic indicators in Ewing sarcoma.
The predictive effect of initial complete blood count of intensive care unit patients on mortality, length of hospitalization, and nosocomial infections.
Kutlucan L,Kutlucan A,Basaran B,Dagli M,Basturk A,Kozanhan B,Gur M,Senocak E,Kos M
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
OBJECTIVE:The mean platelet volume (MPV) can be used as an indicator of platelet activation. However, it has been shown that the platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can provide useful predictive information about inflammation and aggregation pathways. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may also be helpful as a marker of systemic or local inflammation. The main objective of this study evaluated to unselected critically ill patients the relationship of initial MPV, NLR, and PLR with mortality, length of hospitalization, and the risk of developing nosocomial infections in ICU patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this retrospective study, we evaluated consecutive patients at our tertiary nine-bed ICU. One hundred seventy-three patients who were followed up during a 1-year period were included. RESULTS:MPV levels were found to be higher in patients who died in the hospital (p = 0.05). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between expected mortality rate and MPV among non-survivors (p = 0.009). NLR levels were higher among non-survivors, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.435). PLR levels were similar between non-survivors and survivors (p = 0.173). The initial NLR and PLR were significantly higher in patients with nosocomial infections. NLR and PLR had a significant positive correlation with length of hospitalization (p = 0.006 and p = 0.027, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In our study, we found that high PLR and NLR may be indicators for the development of nosocomial infections. Moreover, the length of hospitalization may be prolonged in patients with high PLR and NLR.
Prognostic significance of preoperative aspartate aminotransferase to neutrophil ratio index in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatic resection.
Ji Fei,Fu Shunjun,Guo Zhiyong,Pang Hui,Chen Dubo,Wang Xiaoping,Ju Weiqiang,Wang Dongping,He Xiaoshun,Hua Yunpeng,Peng Baogang
OBJECTIVES:Various inflammation-based prognostic scores have been associated with poor survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and neutrophils display important roles. However, few studies have illuminated the relationship between preoperative aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to neutrophil ratio index (ANRI) and poor prognosis of HCC. We aimed to clarify the prognostic value of ANRI and evaluate the ability of different inflammation-based prognostic scores such as ANRI, AST to lymphocyte ratio index (ALRI) ,AST to platelet count ratio index (APRI), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio index (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio index (PLR). METHODS:Data were collected retrospectively from 303 patients who underwent curative resection for HCC. Preoperative ANRI, ALRI, APRI,NLR, PLR and clinico-pathological variables were analyzed. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to identify the predictive value of the above factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:ANRI was correlated with presence of HBsAg, AST, presence of cirrhosis, tumor size, PVTT, cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP) score ,recurrence. Univariate analysis showed ANRI, ALRI, APRI, NLR, PLR were significantly associated with DFS and OS in HCC patients with curative resection. After multivariate analysis, ANRI was demonstrated to be superior to ALRI, APRI, NLR, PLR, which were independently correlated with DFS and OS. Survival analysis showed that preoperative ANRI > 7.8 predicted poor prognosis of patients with HCC after hepatectomy. preoperative ANRI also showed different prognostic value in various subgroups of HCC. Furthermore, the predictive range was expanded by the combination of ANRI and NLR. CONCLUSIONS:preoperative ANRI is an independent effective predictor of prognosis for patients with HCC, higher levels of ANRI predict poorer outcomes and the combining ANRI and NLR increases the prognostic accuracy of testing.
Pre-treatment inflammatory indexes as predictors of survival and cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with wild-type RAS.
Yang Jing,Guo Xinli,Wang Manni,Ma Xuelei,Ye Xiaoyang,Lin Panpan
This study aims at evaluating the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and systemic immune-inflammation indexes (SII) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with cetuximab. Ninety-five patients receiving cetuximab for mCRC were categorized into the high or low NLR, PLR, LMR, and SII groups based on their median index values. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were performed to identify the indexes' correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In the univariate analysis, ECOG performance status, neutrphil counts, lymphocyte counts, monocyte counts, NLR, PLR, and LDH were associated with survival. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance status of 0 (hazard ratio [HR] 3.608, p < 0.001; HR 5.030, p < 0.001, respectively), high absolute neutrophil counts (HR 2.837, p < 0.001; HR 1.922, p = 0.026, respectively), low lymphocyte counts (HR 0.352, p < 0.001; HR 0.440, p = 0.001, respectively), elevated NLR (HR 3.837, p < 0.001; HR 2.467, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of shorter PFS and OS. In conclusion, pre-treatment inflammatory indexes, especially NLR were potential biomarkers to predict the survival of mCRC patients with cetuximab therapy.
A novel prognostic score model based on combining systemic and hepatic inflammation markers in the prognosis of HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Zhang Tingting,Liu Zhe,Zhao Xiangqian,Mao Zhiyuan,Bai Li
Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology
The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of systemic inflammation markers [neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI)] and hepatic inflammation markers [aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and further to develop a novel prognostic score model. A total of 401 cases with HBV-associated HCC who underwent hepatectomy as initial therapy were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier was performed to construct survival curves and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to detect the optimal cut-off value of markers. The prognostic score model was constructed using significant inflammation markers in the Cox model. Each factor was given a score of 1 and patients were stratified according to the scores. In the Cox model, α-fetoprotein (AFP), ALT, tumour differentiation, maximum size of tumours, TNM stage, PNI and γ-GT/ALT were independently prognostic factors. We established a preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scoring model combining PNI and γ-GT/ALT. The novel preoperative inflammation-based prognostic score was superior (area under the curve [AUC], 0.659) to 7 tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (AUC, 0.600) despite no statistical significance ( = .1036). PNI and γ-GT/ALT are independent predictors for prognosis. The novel prognostic score model based on systemic and hepatic inflammation markers is suitable for the prognosis evaluation in patients with HBV-associated HCC.
Clinical Value of Inflammation-Based Prognostic Scores to Predict the Resectability of Hyperbilirubinemia Patients with Potentially Resectable Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.
Hu Hai-Jie,Jin Yan-Wen,Zhou Rong-Xing,Ma Wen-Jie,Yang Qin,Wang Jun-Ke,Liu Fei,Cheng Nan-Sheng,Li Fu-Yu
Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
BACKGROUND:We aimed to examine whether inflammation-based prognostic scores could predict tumor resectability in a cohort of hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients with preoperative hyperbilirubinemia. We also sought to investigate the prognostic factors associated with overall survival in the subgroup of patients with an R0 resection. METHODS:A total of 173 patients with potentially resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma, as judged by radiological examinations, were included. The potential relationship of the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), modified GPS, platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and prognostic index (PI) with tumor resectability were investigated using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Among the 173 patients, 134 had R0 resection margins. Univariate analysis identified that patients with PLR ≥ 150, NLR ≥ 3, PNI ≥ 45, GPS (0.1/2), modified GPS (0.1/2), preoperative CA 125 > 35 U/mL, and a tumor size ≥ 3 cm were more likely to have unresectable tumors. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size ≥ 3 cm (OR = 2.422, 95% CI: 1.053-5.573; P = 0.037), PLR ≥ 150 (OR = 3.324, 95% CI: 1.143-9.667; P = 0.027), preoperative CA 125 > 35 U/mL (OR = 3.184, 95% CI: 1.316-7.704; P = 0.010), and GPS (0.1/2) (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.450-4.107; P = 0.001) were independent factors associated with tumor resectability. In selected patients with an R0 resection in this cohort, nodal status (P = 0.010) and tumor differentiation (P = 0.025) were predictive of poor survival outcome. CONCLUSION:Patients with higher GPS, CA 125, and PLR levels, and a larger tumor size, tend to have unresectable tumors even if they were judged as potentially resectable using preoperative radiological examinations.
Inflammatory markers in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Effects of advanced liver disease.
Sellers Cortlandt M,Uhlig Johannes,Ludwig Johannes M,Stein Stacey M,Kim Hyun S
BACKGROUND:To investigate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) as prognostic biomarkers in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) with a focus on viral hepatitis and liver status. METHODS:In this retrospective cohort study, patients from the institutional cancer registry with ICC from 2005 to 2016 were stratified by treatment group. Baseline inflammatory markers were dichotomized at the median. Overall survival (OS) was assessed via Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models. Multiple patient, liver, and tumor factors were included in the multivariable analysis (MVA). RESULTS:About 131 patients (median age 65 years, 52% male, 76% Caucasian) had a median OS of 13.0 months. Resection/interventional oncology with/without systemic therapy had improved survival vs systemic therapy alone in Child-Pugh A patients (P < 0.01). In Child-Pugh B/C patients, this survival difference became nonsignificant (P = 0.22). Increased NLR and SII were associated with decreased survival (P < 0.01), while dichotomized PLR was not (P = 0.3). On MVA, increased NLR remained an independent prognostic factor (HR 1.6, P < 0.05). In Child-Pugh class A (n = 94), low-NLR had higher OS vs high-NLR (25.4 vs 12.2 months, P < 0.01). In Child-Pugh class B/C (n = 28), NLR did not have a significant effect on median OS (low- vs high-NLR: 6.7 vs 2.9 months, P = 0.2). Child-Pugh class acted as an effect modifier on MVA for NLR (P = 0.0124). CONCLUSIONS:The NLR has a stronger impact as a prognostic marker in ICC over the PLR and SII. This survival effect is decreased in advanced liver disease.
Exploring the value of new preoperative inflammation prognostic score: white blood cell to hemoglobin for gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
Zheng Hua-Long,Lu Jun,Xie Jian-Wei,Wang Jia-Bin,Lin Jian-Xian,Chen Qi-Yue,Cao Long-Long,Lin Mi,Tu Ru-Hong,Huang Ze-Ning,Lin Ju-Li,Li Ping,Zheng Chao-Hui,Huang Chang-Ming
BACKGROUND:The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) reflect the systematic inflammatory response, with some evidence revealing that they are associated with poorer survival in patients with gastric cancer. However, the effect of the white blood cell to hemoglobin ratio (WHR) on the long-term prognosis of patients with gastric cancer has not been reported. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effect of WHR on long-term survival after radical gastrectomy and compare its value with that of other preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scores (PIPS). METHODS:Data from 924 patients with a diagnosis of nonmetastatic gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection between December 2009 and May 2013 were included in this study. RESULTS:The optimal cutoff values for the WHR, PLR, LMR, and NLR were 2.855, 133.03, 3.405, and 2.61, respectively. Patients with an increased WHR (53% vs. 88.1%, p < 0.001), PLR (60.9% vs 75.6%, p < 0.001) and NLR (56.7% vs 72.8%, p < 0.001) and a decreased LMR (54% vs 74.5%, p < 0.001) had a significantly decreased 5-year OS. However, the stratified analysis showed that only the WHR predicted a significant 5-year survival rate difference at each stage as follows: stage I (82.7% vs 94.3%, p = 0.005), stage II (71.3% vs 90.2%, p = 0.001) and stage III (38.2% vs 58.1%, p < 0.001). The time-ROC curve showed that the predictive value of the WHR was superior to that of the PLR, LMR, and NLR during follow-up. The WHR (0.624) C-index was significantly greater than the PLR (0.569), LMR (0.584), and NLR C-indexes (0.56) (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Compared with other PIPS, the WHR had the most powerful predictive ability when used for the prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.
Role of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio or Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio in Prediction of Bone Metastasis of Prostate Cancer.
Zhang Jing-Ya,Ge Peng,Zhang Peng-Yu,Zhao Meng,Ren Li
BACKGROUND:Accumulating evidence has revealed that inflammation might play an important role in the genesis and development of cancer. High levels of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ration (PLR) are parameters of systemic inflammation which have been identified to be associated with poor prognosis in PCa. Bone is one of the most common sites of metastasis from prostate cancer; however, there are few studies concerning the correlation of NLR, PLR, and bone metastases in PCa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) in diagnosis of bone metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS:Data of 74 PCa patients without metastases, 51 PCa patients with bone metastases, and 43 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) were retrospectively reviewed. The difference of patients' clinical and laboratory characteristics of the three groups was comparatively studied. ROC analysis was used to evaluate the benefit of adding NLR or PLR to prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prediction of bone metastases. Depending on this cutoff value, patients were divided into high-NLR or low-NLR group, high-PLR or low-PLR group. RESULTS:There were significant differences in NLR and PLR between groups with bone metastases and without bone metastases (p = 0.044; p = 0.030), while there was no significant difference between NLR and PLR of the patients with localized prostate cancer and BPH (p = 0.462; p = 0.102). NLR and PLR were correlated with PSA level in the patients with prostate cancer (p = 0.006, r = 0.247; p = 0.025, r = 0.200). The distribution of PSA showed significant differences between the high-NLR and low-NLR group, as well as between the high-PLR and low-PLR group. By applying the ROC curve method, the AUC values of PSA with NLR or PLR were 0.725 and 0.838 (0.763 - 0.913), respectively. Although PSA + PLR had the largest area, there was no statistical significance between PSA + PLR and PSA (p = 0.6992). CONCLUSIONS:NLR and PLR significantly increase in PCa patients with bone metastases and are valuable in the diagnosis of bone metastases in PCa patients.
Evaluation of prognostic values of inflammation-based makers in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.
Systemic inflammatory responses are associated with the development and progression of liver failure. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), red cell distribution width (RDW), RDW-to platelet ratio (RPR), mean platelet volume (MPV), and MPV-to platelet ratio (MPR) are markers of systemic inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic values of these inflammatory markers in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF).203 HBV-ACLF patients, 79 cirrhosis patients (LC), 63 chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 81 healthy subjects (HS) participated in this cohort study. Complete blood counts and biochemical examinations were obtained after overnight fasting. Multivariate analyses of 90-day outcome predictors were analyzed by Cox regression models. Survival probability curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method.The levels of NLR, MLR, RDW, MPV, RPR, and MPR were significantly higher and PNI was lower in patients with liver failure at presentation compared to those in LC, CHB, and HS (P <.001). In acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients, NLR and MLR were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (P <.001), while other inflammatory markers showed no difference. ROC curve analyses showed that NLR combined with MLR had the highest AUC for identified poor outcome, followed by NLR, chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA), MLR, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and TBIL. Multivariate analyses showed that TBIL, NLR, CTP, MELD, and CLIF-SOFA were independent predictors for 90-day mortality.Combination of NLR and MLR are more accurate prognostic markers for predicting poor outcome than either marker alone in ACLF patients. And this combination is superior to the CLIF-SOFA, MELD, CTP score, and TBIL in terms of prognostic ability.
A novel and accurate predictor of survival for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after surgical resection: the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) combined with the aspartate aminotransferase/platelet count ratio index (APRI).
Ji Fei,Liang Yao,Fu Shun-Jun,Guo Zhi-Yong,Shu Man,Shen Shun-Li,Li Shao-Qiang,Peng Bao-Gang,Liang Li-Jian,Hua Yun-Peng
BACKGROUND:The occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends largely on such non-tumor factors as inflammatory condition, immune state, viral infection and liver fibrosis. Various inflammation-based prognostic scores have been associated with survival in patients with HCC, such as the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI). The aspartate aminotransferase/platelet count ratio index (APRI) is thought to be a biomarker of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study aims to evaluate the ability of these indices to predict survival in HCC patients after curative hepatectomy, and probe the increased prognostic accuracy of APRI combined with established inflammation-based prognostic scores. METHODS:Data were collected retrospectively from 321 patients who underwent curative resection for HCC. Preoperative NLR, PLR, PNI, APRI and clinico-pathological variables were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive value of the above factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Univariate analysis showed that NLR, PLR, PNI and APRI were significantly associated with DFS and OS in HCC patients with curative resection. Multivariate analysis showed that NLR and APRI were superior to PLR and PNI, and both were independently correlated with DFS and OS. Preoperative NLR >2 or APRI >1.68 predicted poor prognosis of patients with HCC after hepatectomy. Furthermore, the predictive range of NLR combined with APRI was more sensitive than that of either measure alone. CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative NLR and APRI are independent predictors of DFS and OS in patients with HCC after surgical resection. Higher levels of NLR or APRI predict poorer outcomes in HCC patients. Intriguingly, combining NLR and APRI increases the prognostic accuracy of testing.
Can the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio be beneficial in predicting lymph node metastasis and promising prognostic markers of gastric cancer patients? Tumor maker retrospective study.
Zhang Li-Xiang,Wei Zhi-Jian,Xu A-Man,Zang Jian Hua
International journal of surgery (London, England)
BACKGROUD:Inflammation can promote tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and even metastasis. Inflammatory markers have prognostic value in some malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine whether neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) served as sensitive serum markers for predicting lymph node metastasis and prognostic factors in gastric cancer (GC) patients. METHODS:904 consecutive patients who underwent radical total or subtotal gastrectomy between 2010 and 2011, were included in this study. The clinical utility of the NLR and PLR was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves,Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses were used to calculate the overall survival (OS) characteristics. RESULTS:We determined the cutoff values of NLR and PLR was 2.0 and 160 respectively according to the ROC curve. Both the NLR and PLR were significantly associated with LN (lymph node) metastasis, and high NLR and PLR groups were significantly associated with poor overall survival. Additionally, NLR and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, however, PLR had limited value. CONCLUSIONS:NLR and PLR levels may be valuable indexes for lymph node metastasis. Although both the PLR and NLR may have prognostic value of gastric cancer patients, NLR is better to predict overall survival than PLR.
Normal Reference Intervals of Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet-To-Lymphocyte Ratio, Lymphocyte-To-Monocyte Ratio, and Systemic Immune Inflammation Index in Healthy Adults: a Large Multi-Center Study from Western China.
Luo Huaichao,He Linbo,Zhang Guangjie,Yu Jianhong,Chen Yaping,Yin Hailin,Goyal Hemant,Zhang Guo-Ming,Xiao Yaxiong,Gu Changguo,Yin Minggang,Jiang Xuchuan,Song Xiaoyu,Zhang Li
BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have shown that the hematological components of the systemic inflammatory response, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and the systemic immune inflammation index (SII) are efficient prognostic indicators in patients with cancers. Most of the studies did not investigate the reference intervals (RIs) of these parameters in healthy controls. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was performed on healthy ethnic Han population aged between 18 and 79 years of age by retrieving the data from a healthy routine examination center database and laboratory infor-mation system of four participating centers in western China. By following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), RIs of each parameter was established and validated. RESULTS:The analysis included 5,969 healthy subjects. We found that the individual's gender can significantly influence PLR, LMR, and SII (all p < 0.05), but not NLR (p > 0.05). Surprisingly, we also found that with an increase in age, the PLR, LMR, and SII tend to decrease, while NLR remained stable. PLR, LMR, and SII values were significantly higher in the young adults (18 - 64 years) than in old adults (65 - 79 years) (p < 0.001). The RIs of NLR, PLR (adults), PLR (old adults), LMR and SII were 0.88 - 4.0, 49 - 198, 42 - 187, 2.63 - 9.9, 142 x 109/L - 804 x 109/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our study addresses possible variations and establishes consensus for the NLR, PLR, LMR, and SII RIs for healthy Han Chinese adults in western China. Further, established RIs can standardize clinical applications and promote the use of these indicators into the routine complete blood count report.