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    Similar cardiac remodelling after transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in children and young adults. Santoro G,Pascotto M,Caputo S,Cerrato F,Cappelli Bigazzi M,Palladino M T,Iacono C,Carrozza M,Russo M G,Calabrò R Heart (British Cardiac Society) OBJECTIVE:To study the cardiac geometric changes after transcatheter closure of large atrial septal defects (ASDs) according to patient age at the time of the procedure. DESIGN:Prospective echocardiographic follow-up study. SETTING:Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION:25 asymptomatic patients younger than 16 years (median 8 years; group 1) and 21 asymptomatic adults (median 38 years; group 2) underwent percutaneous closure of large ASD with the Amplatzer septal occluder device (mean 25 (SD 7) mm). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Cardiac remodelling was assessed by M mode and two dimensional echocardiography one and six months after ASD closure. RESULTS:By six months, right atrial volume decreased from 31 (15) to 19 (5) ml/m(2) (p < 0.001) and right ventricular (RV) transverse diameter decreased from 29.8 (8.6) to 23.2 (5.6) mm/m(2) (p < 0.001). Conversely, left atrial volume did not change significantly (from 18 (6) to 20 (6) ml/m(2), NS) and left ventricular (LV) transverse diameter increased from 27.8 (6.4) to 31.8 (7.3) mm/m(2) (p < 0.05). Ventricular remodelling resulted in an RV:LV diameter ratio decrease from 1.1 (0.2) to 0.7 (0.1) (p < 0.001). The magnitude and time course of cardiac remodelling did not differ significantly between the age groups. Indeed, right atrial volume decreased by 33 (26)% versus 37 (23)%, RV diameter decreased by 26 (10)% versus 20 (13)%, LV diameter increased by 17 (15)% versus 15 (10)%, and RV:LV diameter ratio decreased by 36 (8)% versus 27 (15)% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac remodelling after percutaneous ASD closure seems to be independent of the patient's age at the time of the procedure up to early adulthood. Thus, postponing ASD closure for a few years may be a reasonable option for potentially suitable asymptomatic children. 10.1136/hrt.2005.070169
    Left atrial volume change throughout the cardiac cycle in children with congenital heart disease associated with increased pulmonary blood flow: evaluation using a novel left atrium-tracking method. Sakata Miho,Hayabuchi Yasunobu,Inoue Miki,Onishi Tatsuya,Kagami Shoji Pediatric cardiology There is a paucity of data regarding the significance of left atrial (LA) volume and its changes throughout the cardiac cycle in pediatric patients with heart disease. The recently developed LA volume-tracking (LAVT) method can automatically construct the LA volume curve. The study group consisted of 48 pediatric patients with ventricular septal defect (n = 34) or patent ductus arteriosus (n = 14) and age-matched healthy controls. Maximum and minimum LA volumes (LAVmax and LAVmin, respectively) were measured. The total LA emptying volume (LAVtotal) was defined as LAVmax--LAVmin. Volume parameters were standardized by dividing by body surface area (BSA). The total LA emptying fraction (%LAVtotal) was defined as the ratio of LAVtotal to LAVmax. In the patient group, there was a positive correlation between the ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp/Qs) and LAVmax/BSA, LAVmin/BSA, and LAVtotal/BSA (r = 0.42, 0.44, and 0.34, respectively). LAVmin/BSA was positively correlated with the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early mitral annular diastolic tissue Doppler velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32). The %LAVtotal had a negative correlation with left-ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (r = -0.32). There were significant correlations between serum B-type natriuretic peptide level and LAVmax/BSA, LAVmin/BSA, and %LAVtotal (r = 0.38, 0.49, and -0.35, respectively). The LAVT method is useful in the evaluation of LV diastolic function in pediatric patients with chronic LV volume overload. 10.1007/s00246-012-0395-4
    Right ventricular function in adult atrial septal defect. Preoperative and postoperative assessment and clinical implications. Liberthson R R,Boucher C A,Strauss H W,Dinsmore R E,McKusick K A,Pohost G M The American journal of cardiology 10.1016/0002-9149(81)90289-7
    Early and six-month assessment of bi-ventricular functions following surgical closure of atrial septal defect. Vijayvergiya Rajesh,Singh Jiten,Rana Sandeep S,Shetty Ranjan,Mittal Bhagwant R Indian heart journal BACKGROUND:The effect of surgical closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) on biventricular functions is not well studied. We studied effect of surgical closure of ASD on bi-ventricular functions. METHODS:Patients undergoing surgical closure of ASD from December 2007 to June 2009 had 3 sequential echocardiograms examination: pre-procedure, post surgery at 1-month and at 6-month of follow up. Pulse Doppler velocities across mitral and tricuspid valves were measured as peak early diastolic (E wave) and peak late diastolic (A wave). Tissue Doppler velocities across lateral wall of both right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) were measured as peak early diastolic (E'), peak late diastolic (A'), and peak systolic (S') wave. Radionuclide angiography was performed to assess RV and LV ejection fraction at baseline and at 1-month follow up. RESULTS:The mean age of 20 enrolled patients was 21.85 ± 10.9 years; 8 females & 12 males. Trans-tricuspid flow velocities significantly decreased following surgery at one and 6-month (p < 0.005). There was no significant change in trans-mitral flow velocities at one and 6-months. Tricuspid and mitral E/A ratio and E/E' ratio also had an insignificant change following surgery. There was no significant change in LV ejection fraction as assessed by echocardiography (p = 0.132) and radionuclide scan (p = 0.143). Right ventricular ejection fraction had a significant improvement at 1-month of follow up (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:There was a significant improvement in RV systolic function and an insignificant change in RV and LV diastolic functions following surgical closure of ASD. 10.1016/j.ihj.2014.10.411
    Assessment of right ventricular function by isovolumic contraction acceleration before and after percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects: a preliminary study. Akyüz Ali Rıza,Korkmaz Levent,Turan Turhan,Kırış Abdulkadir,Erkan Hakan,Ağaç Mustafa Tarık,Erkuş Muslihittin Emre,Celik Sükrü,Akdemir Ramazan Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi : AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology OBJECTIVE:The main purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) on right ventricular (RV) systolic function assessed by tricuspid annular isovolumic myocardial acceleration (IVA) that is independent of preload and afterload changes. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was designed involving twenty five patients with secundum type ASD whom were successfully closed percutaneously between 2009 and 2011. Standard transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging were performed in all patients 12 to 24 hours before and one month after closure. Paired t test was performed to determine the statistical significance of variables before and after closure. RESULTS:Significant decreases were observed in RV end-diastolic diameter, RV/left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter ratio, right ventricular systolic myocardial velocity (Sm), right ventricular early myocardial velocity (Em) and right ventricular late myocardial velocity (Am) in the control echocardiography in the first month when compared with pre-procedure values. While significant increase was observed after procedure in right ventricular IVA (3.4 ± 1.3 m/sec2 vs. 4.2 ± 1.8 m/sec2, p=0.001), no significant change was observed in right ventricular global performance index, in right ventricular Em/Am ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSION:Percutaneous closure of ASD resulted in recovery of right ventricular function as early as 1 month after closure. 10.5152/akd.2014.4828
    Isovolumic contraction acceleration before and after percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects. Tosu Aydin Rodi,Gürsu Ozgür,Aşker Müntecep,Etli Mustafa,Işcan Sahin,Eker Esra,Köksal Ceren,Polat Vural Postepy w kardiologii interwencyjnej = Advances in interventional cardiology AIM:To compare systemic right ventricular function by isovolumic myocardial acceleration before and 6 months after the percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASD). MATERIAL AND METHODS:Patients admitted to our tertiary center for the percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects between January 2010 and August 2012 constituted the study group. Right ventricular function of patients was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography before and after surgery. Echocardiographic data in patients were compared to age-matched controls without any cardiac pathology and studied in identical fashion mentioned below. RESULTS:A total of 44 patients (24 males, 20 females) and 44 age-matched controls (25 males, 19 females) met the eligibility criteria for the study. Right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, right ventricular end-diastolic diameter measurements on echocardiogram, and pulmonary artery pressures in both pre- and post-ASD groups were significantly higher than in controls. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and isovolumic myocardial acceleration measurements significantly increased after the percutaneous closure of the defect; however, post-ASD measurements were still significantly lower than the controls. CONCLUSIONS:Atrial septal defect device closure resulted in a significant increase of isovolumic myocardial acceleration measurements. Tissue Doppler analysis of regional myocardial function offers new insight into myocardial compensatory mechanisms for acute and chronic volume overload of both ventricles. 10.5114/pwki.2014.41459
    Speed of normalization of right ventricular volume overload after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in children and adults. Du Z D,Cao Q L,Koenig P,Heitschmidt M,Hijazi Z M The American journal of cardiology 10.1016/s0002-9149(01)02135-x
    Evidence of adverse ventricular interdependence in patients with atrial septal defects. Walker Roxanne E,Moran Adrian M,Gauvreau Kimberlee,Colan Steven D The American journal of cardiology Right ventricular (RV) volume overload is associated with left ventricular (LV) distortion and dysfunction. The availability of transcatheter device closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) provides an ideal model for investigating the immediate effects of elimination of RV volume overload and avoiding the confounding effects of surgery on LV function. Echocardiograms before and after device closure of ASD were analyzed for ejection fraction, percent changes in cross-sectional area and circumference, percent changes in free wall and septal endocardial lengths, and eccentricity. We enrolled 34 patients (median age 9 years) who underwent device closure of ASD (pulmonary to systemic shunt 1.6 +/- 0.4). Ejection fraction and LV end-diastolic volume, reflective of chamber preload, were significantly decreased in the presence of RV volume overload and normalized after defect closure with normalization of LV shape. Altered LV geometry secondary to RV volume overload was associated with regional variation in preload,such that diastolic circumference, a surrogate of myofiber preload, increased after closure of ASD secondary to a small increase in LV free wall arc length in conjunction with a much more significant increase in septal length. Thus, LV dysfunction associated with RV volume overload is secondary to altered chamber geometry and decreased myofiber preload. This physiology is immediately reversible and is independent of heart rate and afterload. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.02.033
    Long-term follow up of interventional therapy of secundum atrial septal defect. Yuan Yi-Qiang,Huang Qiong,Yu Li,Wang Rui-Min,Zhao Yu-Jie,Guo Ying-Xian,Sun Jun-Hua,Niu Si-Quan,Sun Yun,Yang Xing-Ming,Mao You-Lin Chinese medical journal BACKGROUND:The percutaneous transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is increasingly a widespread alternative to surgical closure. The aim of this study was to assess long-term results of percutaneous closure of secundum-type atrial septal defect (ASDII). METHODS:Between January 2001 and December 2005, 61 patients underwent a successful percutaneous closure of ASDII; including 25 male and 36 female. All were included in the patient study and were followed up to monitor by electrocardiogram and echocardiography, at intervals of 3 days, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years after operation. RESULTS:Three days after percutaneous transcatheter septal closure (PTSC), the right atrium diameter, right ventricular end-diastolic left-right diameter and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Right ventricular end-diastolic anteroposterior diameter (RVEDD), right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) also decreased (P < 0.01). During the period from 3 to 6 months, the size of the right atrium and right ventricle returned to normal range. Three days after PTSC, the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), left ventricular-systolic volume (LVSV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). At 1 year, the size of the left atrium, left ventricle and left cardiac function returned to normal range (P < 0.01). There were no deaths or significant complications during the study. At five year follow-up, all defects were completely closed and remained closed thereafter. CONCLUSION:Transcatheter closure of ASDII effectively eliminated the abnormal shunt and, subsequently improved the dimensions of each chamber and cardiac function.
    Early electrical and geometric changes after percutaneous closure of large atrial septal defect. Santoro Giuseppe,Pascotto Marco,Sarubbi Berardo,Cappelli Bigazzi Maurizio,Calvanese Raimondo,Iacono Carola,Pisacane Carlo,Palladino Maria Teresa,Pacileo Giuseppe,Russo Maria Giovanna,Calabrò Raffaele The American journal of cardiology Cardiac arrhythmias and right chamber enlargement are well known long-term sequelae of atrial septal defect (ASD). Surgical ASD closure relieves patient symptoms but often fails to revert cardiac volume overload findings. Transcatheter ASD closure might be an attractive alternative to surgery, also because of the possibility to study the amount and time-course of the electro-geometric modifications following shunt disappearance. Between March 2000 and December 2002, 24 patients (age 22.7 +16.8 years) underwent percutaneous closure of large ASD (stretched diameter >20 mm and/or QP/QS ratio >1.5:1). ASD closure was performed with the Amplatzer Septal Occluder device (mean 25 +/- 7 mm), achieving a complete occlusion in all patients at 1 month. In 6 patients, right ventricular (RV) monophasic action potential was recorded during the procedure. All patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography before and at 24 hours and 1 month after ASD closure. After the procedure, monophasic action potential length increased from 359 +/- 27 to 372 +/- 27 ms (p <0.0001). At 1 month, QT dispersion decreased from 54 +/- 25 to 41 +/- 17 ms (p <0.05), RV diastolic diameter decreased from 42 +/- 6 to 34 +/- 5 mm (p <0.00001), and left ventricular (LV) diastolic diameter increased from 39 +/- 5 to 44 +/- 5 mm (p <0.0001), resulting in a decrease in the RV/LV ratio from 1.11 +/- 0.22 to 0.79 +/- 0.11 (-28.8%, p <0.00001). Electrocardiographic changes, as well as the amount and time-course of RV overload relief, did not significantly differ between pediatric (<16 years of age; n = 11) and adult patients (n = 13). In conclusion, regardless of age at procedure, percutaneous ASD closure results in early striking electrical and geometric cardiac changes that may be beneficial during long-term follow-up. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.12.027
    Comparison of cardiac function in children after surgical and Amplatzer occluder closure of secundum atrial septal defects. Pawelec-Wojtalik Małgorztata,Wojtalik Michal,Mrowczynski Wojciech,Surmacz Rafał,Quereshi Shakeel Ahmed European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery OBJECTIVE:The aim of the retrospective study was to examine the changes in the left and right ventricular size as well as the systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle after surgical and transcatheter treatment of atrial septal defects with Amplatzer atrial septal defect occluder (ASDO). METHODS:Two groups of patients were examined using transthoracic cross-sectional echocardiography before and after the treatment of atrial septal defect: Group A--Amplatzer ASD occluder--38 children and Group S treated surgically--20 children. The following parameters were assessed: left and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter indexes, ejection fraction, mitral E wave to A wave velocity ratio, deceleration time (DCT), isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) and heart rate. RESULTS:There was a significant decrease in right ventricular and an increase in left ventricular size in both groups during the follow-up observation. The long-term ECHO examination revealed smaller right ventricle (RV) (Group A: RVEDI=1.00+/-0.20 vs Group S RVEDI: 1.18+/-0.20 (p=0.001)) and bigger left ventricle (Group A: LVEDI=1.04+/-0.08 vs Group S: LVEDI=0.99+/-0.07 (p=0.022)) in Group A in comparison to Group S. Children undergoing operation had significantly shorter IVRT (Group A: IVRT=50.00+/- 9.65 vs Group S: IVRT=42.5+/- 8.95 (p=0.02)) than patients after ASDO device application. CONCLUSIONS:(1) During the follow-up period, the diastolic function of the left ventricle is better in children with device closure of ASD compared with those patients treated surgically. (2) Postoperative changes of the left and right ventricular size indexes are more favourable in patients after the device closure of ASD compared with children undergoing the surgical procedure. 10.1016/j.ejcts.2005.10.017
    Doppler tissue imaging analysis of ventricular function after surgical and transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Cheung Yiu-fai,Lun Kin-shing,Chau Adolphus K T The American journal of cardiology The long-term ventricular function of children after surgical and transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects was assessed by Doppler tissue imaging and compared with that of age-matched controls. Long-term right ventricular function was impaired in patients after surgical repair, as reflected by decreased systolic and diastolic tricuspid annular velocities and an increased Tei index. In contrast, right ventricular function was preserved after transcatheter device closure. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.10.026
    Closure of atrial septal defect in the adult. Cardiac remodeling is an early event. Thilén U,Persson S International journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:Study aimed to describe the extent and the temporal profile of cardiac remodeling after atrial septal defect closure in the adult. METHODS:Prospective and longitudinal echocardiographic assessment of right and left heart size before and after (1 day-1 week/1/4/12 months) surgical or catheter-based atrial septal closure in 39 adults (age 54+/-15 years). RESULTS:Right ventricular and atrial sizes were markedly reduced, left ventricular size increased and left atrial size remained unchanged after closure. Older age and a history of atrial fibrillation reduced the potential to normalize right and left atrial size after closure. The greater part of the changes occurred very early, in the 1st day/1st week. From then on the speed of change gradually diminished and after 4 months no important changes were observed. The mode of closure did not influence the degree or the pace of the remodeling. CONCLUSION:Cardiac remodeling after atrial septal closure in the adult is a common and early event that seems by and large completed within the first half year after closure. The ventricles seem to have a higher capacity of remodeling than the atria in this setting. The mode of closure does not seem to significantly impact remodeling. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2005.05.042
    Analysis of right ventricular Doppler tissue imaging and load dependence in patients undergoing percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect. Pascotto Marco,Caso Pio,Santoro Giuseppe,Caso Ilaria,Cerrato Fabiana,Pisacane Carlo,D'Andrea Antonello,Severino Sergio,Russo Maria Giovanna,Calabrò Raffaele The American journal of cardiology In patients with volume overload due to atrial septal defect (ASD) and Doppler tissue imaging E'/A' <1 at baseline, right ventricular (RV) myocardial velocities show load independence after closure with a device. Conversely, in patients with ASD with basal E'/A' >1, regional velocities are load-dependent and positively correlate with RV dimension. Because RV Doppler tissue imaging velocities are still in the normal range 1 month after ASD closure, cardiac function does not seem to be affected by the presence of the occluder device. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.07.098
    Effect of patient age at surgical intervention on long-term right ventricular performance in atrial septal defect. Celik Seden,Ozay Batuhan,Dagdeviren BahadIr,Gorgulu Sevket,Yildirim Aydin,Uslu Nevzat,Ketenci Bülent,Eren Mehmet,Akgoz Haldun,Demirtas Murat,Tezel Tuna Japanese heart journal Controversy exists about the influence of patient age on the benefit of surgery in atrial septal defect (ASD). Tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) when applied to atrioventricular annuli provides variables reliably reflecting the performance of the corresponding ventricle. We sought to investigate the effect of timing of surgery on biventricular functions by comparing the conventional echocardiography variables and TDE profiles of right and left atrioventricular annuli in patients treated at various ages. Conventional echocardiography and TDE analysis of mitral and tricuspid annuli were performed in 20 controls and 61 patients who underwent surgical ASD closure 2.8 +/- 2.5 years before the study. Standard parameters included were right and left-sided dimensions, estimated pulmonary artery pressure, ejection fraction, and tricuspid annular motion amplitude. TDE variables were systolic, early and late diastolic peak velocities at tricuspid lateral-and mitral-annulus at lateral and septal corners. Two subsets of patients who underwent surgery before (group 1, n = 20) and after 25 years (group 2, n = 41) formed our subgroups. Peak systolic TDE velocity and tricuspid annular motion amplitude had the lowest value in group 2 (P < 0.01 and <0.02, respectively). Late diastolic TDE velocity was significantly lower in group 2 compared to group 1 (P < 0.05). Increased right ventricular and atrial dimensions (P < 0.001 for both) and the estimated pulmonary artery pressure (P < 0.03) were the conventional measurements discriminating group 2 from group 1. The TDE profile of the mitral annulus was similar between the groups. These results suggest that delayed ASD closure is a relatively less effective procedure to restore secondary right ventricular dysfunction, as demonstrated by significantly different TDE measurements reflecting right ventricular longitudinal contraction and relaxation.
    Time course of the changes in right and left ventricle function and associated factors after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects. Yoo Byung W,Kim Jung O,Eun Lucy Y,Choi Jae Y,Kim Dong S Congenital heart disease OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) function after transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure and to assess the influence of the age and the amount of shunt. DESIGN:Retrospective study PATIENTS: Fifty-three adult patients who underwent transcatheter closure were enrolled, then divided into subgroups according to the age (< 40 years vs ≥ 40 years), and the amount of shunt flow (QpQs < 2.5 vs QpQs ≥ 2.5). OUTCOME MEASURES:Two-dimensional tissue Doppler imaging was performed in a four-chamber view at the basal ventricular septum (VS) and tricuspid valve annulus (TVA) before and at 1 month and 6 months after closure. Myocardial velocities, the myocardial performance index (MPI), and isovolumic acceleration (IVA) were assessed. RESULTS:At the TVA, the MPI decreased slightly and then greatly increased at 6 months after closure (P = .002). The IVA improved in all patients (P < .001), and the E'/A' ratio decreased, especially in the old age group (P = .031) and larger shunt group (P = .035). At the VS, S' and the IVA decreased and had not recovered until 6 months in the old age (P = .02) and larger shunt (P = .02). The Qp/Qs showed a significant reverse correlation with a decrease in the E'/A' at the TVA (r = -0.37, P = .008), and age of patient was correlated with a decrease in the IVA at the VS (r = -0.32, P = .019). The age at closure (β = -0.36, P = .002), the Qp/Qs ratio (β = -0.45, P = .01), and RV MPI changes (β = -7.64, P < .001) were found to be associated factors with IVA decrease at the VS. CONCLUSIONS:After ASD closure, RV global function might be impaired. In elderly patients and patients with a large shunt, impairment of LV contractility developed until 6 months after closure. Close long-term observation is required after closure, especially in old-age patients with a large shunt. 10.1111/chd.12541
    Right Ventricle before and after Atrial Septal Defect Device Closure. Akula Vidya Sagar,Durgaprasad Rajasekhar,Velam Vanajakshamma,Kasala Latheef,Rodda Madhavi,Erathi Harsha Vardhan Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) BACKGROUND:Percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) device closure is a safe and effective means of reducing or eliminating interatrial shunting. The response of the right heart to device closure is incompletely understood. AIM:To evaluate the effects of transcatheter closure of secundum ASD on right ventricle size and function, that is, both systolic and diastolic by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) over a 6-month period. METHODS:Seventy-three patients had 73 device implantations. The patients were assessed with echocardiography before and at 1 and 6 months after procedure. RESULTS:Mean age was 26 ± 17 years. Mean ASD size indexed to body surface area (BSA) was 19.1 ± 8.6 mm/m(2) . The device size ranged from 12 to 42 mm. One month after closure, there were statistically significant decreases in right ventricular (RV) basal diameter (3.5 ± 0.7 cm vs. 4.2 ± 0.8 cm), RV/LV end-diastolic diameter ratio (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2), left ventricular eccentricity index (LVEI) (1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2), right atrial (RA) major dimension (4.4 ± 0.8 cm vs. 4.8 ± 1.0 cm), RA end-systolic area (13.2 ± 4.6 cm(2) vs. 18.5 ± 6.7 cm(2) ), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (2.2 ± 1.8 cm vs. 2.8 ± 0.5 cm), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (TASV or S') (13.1 ± 3.0 cm/sec vs. 16.0 ± 2.8 cm/sec), E/A (1.4 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5), and E/e' (5.9 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 2.0) in comparison with baseline. Six months after closure, there were statistically significant decreases in RV major dimension (5.9 ± 1.1 cm vs. 6.3 ± 1.0 cm), RV/LV end-diastolic diameter ratio (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1), RA major dimension (4.1 ± 0.8 cm vs. 4.4 ± 0.8 cm), and RA end-systolic area (11.4 ± 3.8 cm(2) vs. 13.2 ± 4.6 cm(2) ) in comparison with 1 month post-device closure. After 6 months, there was a statistically insignificant increase in both TASV (13.7 ± 2.8 cm/sec vs. 13.1 ± 3.0 cm/sec) and TAPSE (2.5 ± 1.6 cm/sec vs. 2.2 ± 1.8 cm/sec). There was no significant change in tissue Doppler MPI at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after closure (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.15 vs. 0.38 ± 0.13). There was significant decrease in E/e' from baseline to 1 month and 1 month to 6 months after closure (7.2 ± 2.0 vs. 5.9 ± 5.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.5). CONCLUSION:RV volumes decreased significantly in the first month after ASD device closure and continued up to 6 months. There was no change in global right ventricular systolic function but a high basal RV systolic function decreased after closure. Some patients had impaired diastolic function before closure of defect, which reversed to normal within 6 months after closure. Diastolic dysfunction in older age-group may be a cause for long duration taken by right heart chambers to regress and deserves further investigation. 10.1111/echo.13250
    Assessment of right ventricular function by three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial strain imaging in adult atrial septal defect before and after percutaneous closure. Vitarelli Antonio,Sardella Gennaro,Roma Angelo Di,Capotosto Lidia,De Curtis Guglielmo,D'Orazio Simona,Cicconetti Paolo,Battaglia Daniela,Caranci Fiorella,De Maio Melissa,Bruno Pasqualina,Vitarelli Massimo,De Chiara Stefania,D'Ascanio Michela The international journal of cardiovascular imaging Real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography allows us to measure right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume irrespective of its shape. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle tracking imaging (STI) are new tools to assess myocardial function. We sought to evaluate RV function by 3D echocardiography and myocardial strain imaging in adult patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) before and 6 months after transcatheter closure in order to assess the utility of these new indexes in comparison with standard two-dimensional (2D) and Doppler parameters. Thirty-nine ASD patients and 39 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied using a commercially available cardiovascular ultrasound system. 2D-Doppler parameters of RV function (fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, myocardial performance index) were calculated. 3D RV volumes were also obtained. RV peak-systolic velocities, peak-systolic strain, and peak systolic and diastolic strain-rate were measured in the basal, mid and apical segments of lateral and septal walls in apical 4-chamber view by TDI and STI. In open ASD, RV ejection fraction (3D-RVEF) and global and regional RV longitudinal strain were significantly higher than control group and decreased significantly after closure. By multivariate analysis 3D-RVEF, apical strain and strain rate were independent predictors of functional class. ROC analysis showed 3D-RVEF and apical strain to be more sensitive predictors of unfavorable outcome after defect closure compared to 2D-Doppler indexes. 3D echocardiography and myocardial strain imaging give useful insights in the quantitative assessment of RV function in ASD patients before and after closure. 10.1007/s10554-012-0022-8
    Assessment of right atrial function with speckle tracking echocardiography after percutaneous closure of an atrial septal defect. Ozturk Onder,Ozturk Unal,Ozturk Sengul Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology INTRODUCTION:Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for two-dimensional (2D) strain analysis is a new tool to assess myocardial function. The aim of this study was to assess right atrial (RA) function using STE in patients with an atrial septal defect (ASD) before and one month after percutaneous closure. METHODS:We prospectively examined 32 consecutive patients (nine male, 23 female) who underwent percutaneous transcatheter closure of a secundum ASD between June 2013 and December 2015. Echocardiography was performed on admission, prior to cardiac catheterization and then one month after ASD closure. Peak global RA longitudinal strain was analyzed by 2D-STE. RESULTS:Patients' mean age was 34.6±8.2 years. The mean diameter of the occlusive devices was 18.5±7.5 mm. Right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic diameters were significantly increased but decreased significantly after ASD closure (43±5 vs. 38±4 mm, p<0.05). Left atrial (LA) diameters (40±8 vs. 37±6 mm, p<0.05) decreased significantly after the intervention, whereas left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameters (45±5 vs. 46±4 mm, NS) remained unchanged. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion increased significantly (17.6±5.4 vs. 22.3±8.1 mm, p<0.05). After closure of the defect, a significant increase was observed in longitudinal RA strain (26.5±9.6% vs. 35.3±10.5%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:After percutaneous transcatheter closure of a secundum ASD, there was an increase in RA longitudinal strain. 2D-STE strain analysis appears to be helpful for the assessment of RA function and of response to correction of volume overload after percutaneous transcatheter closure of a secundum ASD. 10.1016/j.repc.2017.06.013
    Evaluation of right ventricular myocardial strains by speckle tracking echocardiography after percutaneous device closure of atrial septal defects in children. Xu Qiuqin,Sun Ling,Zhou Wanping,Tang Yunjia,Ding Yueyue,Huang Jie,Wang Hui,Hou Cui,Lv Haitao Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of the ASD closure by occluder device on right ventricular acute and long-term changes in longitudinal systolic strains, by evaluating right ventricular wall deformation in children using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). METHODS AND MATERIALS:We enrolled 30 children with ASDs and 40 controls in our study. The Amplatzer atrial defect occluder was used to close the ASDs. Transthoracic echocardiographic examinations were performed at 3 points in time: the day before closure, 1 day after closure, and 3 months after closure. The dimensions of the right atrium (RA) and the right ventricle (RV) were measured in apical four-chamber view. RV segmental longitudinal systolic strains (SLSs) and global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) were obtained by two-dimensional STE. RESULTS:Before ASD closure, the RV SLSs and GLS were significantly higher than those of the controls. At 1 day after closure, the diameters of RA and RV decreased. All the RV SLSs and GLS decreased accordingly and were lower than the control values. At 3 months after closure, the apical free wall strain, all segments of septal strains, and GLS increased significantly compared with the values obtained at 1 day after closure. The diameters of the RA and RV decreased further as well. There were no significant differences in the strains compared with the control values, except for the free wall basal strain. CONCLUSIONS:Transcatheter device closure of ASDs improves RV strain indices and RV function recover to normal over 3 months. 10.1111/echo.14006
    Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in the Evaluation of Right Ventricular Global and Regional Systolic Function in Patients with Atrial Septal Defect before and after Percutaneous Closure. Kong Dehong,Cheng Leilei,Dong Lili,Pan Cuizhen,Yao Haohua,Zhou Daxin,Shu Xianhong Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) OBJECTIVE:To evaluate right ventricular (RV) global and regional systolic function in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) before and after percutaneous closure using real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS:RT3DE was performed in 81 patients with ASD within 24 hours before and after percutaneous closure to obtain RV global and regional ejection fraction (EF) in three compartments (inflow, body, and outflow). RV fractional area change (FAC), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), peak tricuspid systolic velocity (S), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were recorded. Forty matched normal adults were included as controls. RESULTS:When compared with controls, RV global and regional EF were decreased in preclosure patients (P < 0.001). FAC was lower while TAPSE and S were higher in preclosure patients than in controls (P < 0.05). After closure, RV systolic function parameters were all reduced (P < 0.001). Regional EF in the body compartment was the lowest among the three compartments in ASD patients (P < 0.05). Procedural percentage changes of RV global EF and regional EF in the inflow compartment were lower than those of two-dimensional systolic function parameters (P < 0.05). RV global and regional EF in the inflow compartment were negatively correlated with PVR in patients after closure (r = -0.601, -0.543, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:RV global and regional systolic functions are impaired in open and closed ASD. RT3DE-derived systolic function parameters are negatively correlated with RV after load. RT3DE has potential value in the evaluation of RV systolic function in patients with ASD. 10.1111/echo.13134
    Influence of the type of congenital heart defects on epithelial lining fluid composition in infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Simonato Manuela,Baritussio Aldo,Carnielli Virgilio P,Vedovelli Luca,Falasco Gianclaudio,Salvagno Michele,Padalino Massimo,Cogo Paola Pediatric research BackgroundIn children with congenital heart disease (CHD), altered pulmonary circulation compromises gas exchange. Moreover, pulmonary dysfunction is a complication of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). No data are available on the effect of different CHDs on lung injury. The aim of this study was to analyze epithelial lining fluid (ELF) surfactant composition in children with CHD.MethodsTracheal aspirates (TAs) from 72 CHD children (age 2.9 (0.4-5.7) months) were obtained before and after CPB. We measured ELF phospholipids, surfactant proteins A and B (SP-A, SP-B), albumin, and myeloperoxidase activity. TAs from 12 infants (age 1.0 (0.9-2.9) months) with normal heart/lung served as controls.ResultsHeart defects were transposition of great arteries (19), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, 20), atrial/ventricular septal defect (ASD/VSD, 22), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (11). Increased levels of ELF SP-B were found in all defects, increased myeloperoxidase activity in all except the TOF, and increased levels of ELF albumin and SP-A only in ASD/VSD patients. Postoperatively, ELF findings remained unchanged except for a further increase in myeloperoxidase activity.ConclusionELF composition has distinctive patterns in different CHD. We speculate that a better knowledge of the ELF biochemical changes may help to prevent respiratory complications. 10.1038/pr.2017.326
    Long-term impact of transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in adults on cardiac function and exercise capacity. Giardini Alessandro,Donti Andrea,Specchia Salvatore,Formigari Roberto,Oppido Guido,Picchio Fernando M International journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:The long-term impact of transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure on right ventricular (RV) remodeling and exercise capacity is unknown. METHODS:We studied with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and transthoracic echocardiography 29 adults (age 42.3+/-16.4 years) with hemodynamically significant ASD just before transcatheter defect closure and after 6 and >36 months from closure. RESULTS:Compared to 6 months after closure, a further improvement of peak oxygen uptake (p<0.001) and of the slope of ventilation/carbon dioxide production (p<0.001) was observed 3 years after the procedure, so that peak oxygen uptake appeared to be within the normal range in 23/29 patients (79%). Right ventricular short-axis (p<0.05) and long-axis (p<0.05) diameters further decreased beyond the 6-month period. The long-term improvement in exercise capacity correlated with pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (R=0.55, p=0.003) and with percentage decrease in RV short-axis diameter (R=0.59, p=0.002), but it did not correlate with age at closure (R=0.25, p=0.46). All patients who did not achieve a normal exercise capacity after 3 years from closure had a severely depressed pre-closure peak oxygen uptake (<50% of predicted). CONCLUSIONS:Adults who undergo transcatheter ASD closure may experience a further improvement in exercise capacity in the long term. The long-term improvement in exercise capacity is associated to an improvement in cardiac form and function and is not influenced by age at closure. Even if the majority of patients may reach a normal exercise capacity after ASD closure, an abnormal exercise capacity may persist in those patients that had a peak oxygen uptake below 50% of predicted value before the procedure. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.12.031
    Atrial function after surgical and percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect: a strain rate imaging study. Di Salvo Giovanni,Drago Manuela,Pacileo Giuseppe,Rea Alessandra,Carrozza Marianna,Santoro Giuseppe,Bigazzi Maurizio Cappelli,Caso Pio,Russo Maria Giovanna,Carminati Mario,Calabro' Raffaele Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography The effect of operation and the effect of the imposition of an occluding device on atrial function for patients with an atrial septal defect (ASD) has never been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time both left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) function of children after transcatheter ASD closure with that of sex- and age-matched patients with surgically treated ASD, and sex- and age-matched control subjects using strain (epsilon) and epsilon rate imaging (SR). In all, 45 participants formed our studied sample: 15 patients after successful ASD device closure (ASD-D [atrial septal defect device closure] group, mean age: 9 +/- 3 years) and 15 age- and sex-matched patients after successful ASD surgical closure (ASD-S [atrial septal defect surgical closure] group, mean age: 9 +/- 3 years). All patients underwent ASD correction at least 6 months before the study. As a control group we selected 15 age- and sex-matched control subjects. In the ASD-S group the peak systolic epsilon and SR values were significantly reduced in both RA and LA when compared with control and ASD-D groups (P < .01). In the ASD-D group there was no significant difference in both LA and RA deformation properties when compared with control subjects. SR imaging indexes could provide new, noninvasive, clinically relevant insight on regional changes in atrial function for patients with ASD. ASD percutaneous closure is useful not only because it is less expensive and invasive than open-heart operation but also for its conservation of both LA and RA regional myocardial properties. 10.1016/j.echo.2005.01.029
    NT-proBNP correlates with right heart haemodynamic parameters and volumes in patients with atrial septal defects. Schoen S P,Zimmermann T,Kittner T,Braun M U,Fuhrmann J,Schmeisser A,Strasser R H European journal of heart failure BACKGROUND:To investigate the role of N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) for the estimation of right heart failure and pulmonary pressure in patients with atrial septal defects (ASD) before and after percutaneous defect closure. METHODS:We performed correlation analysis for NT-proBNP and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) as well as right ventricular enddiastolic and endsystolic volume (RVEDV, RVESV) determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and up to one year following ASD closure. Additionally NT-proBNP concentrations were correlated with right atrial (RA) and RV enddiastolic pressure (RVEDP), ASD size and interatrial left-to-right shunt. RESULTS:Baseline RVSP was 33+/-8 mmHg, which decreased significantly during follow-up. Initially, NT-proBNP levels were 240+/-93 pg/ml. After closure, a reduction to 116+/-62 pg/ml was obvious (p<0.01). Baseline MRI showed enlarged RV volumes in all individuals. At six and twelve months follow-up a significant reduction of RVEDV and RVESV was apparent. A positive correlation was noted between RV volumes and NT-proBNP (r=0.65, p<0.05). Furthermore RA pressure, RVEDP, RVSP and left-to-right shunt significantly correlated to peptide levels. No correlation was seen between ASD size and NT-proBNP. CONCLUSION:NT-proBNP correlates to right ventricular dilatation, pulmonary pressure and left-to-right shunt in volume load of the right heart caused by an underlying ASD. 10.1016/j.ejheart.2007.01.014
    Hemodynamic, biological, and right ventricular functional changes following intraatrial shunt repair in patients with flow-induced pulmonary hypertension. Hsu Chih-Hsin,Roan Jun-Neng,Wang Jieh-Neng,Huang Chien-Chi,Shih Chao-Jung,Chen Jyh-Hong,Wu Jing-Ming,Lam Chen-Fuh Congenital heart disease OBJECTIVES:Atrial septal defects may result in pulmonary hypertension and right heart remodeling. We analyzed improvements in patients with flow-induced pulmonary hypertension and the activation of endothelial progenitor cells after flow reduction. DESIGN:This prospective cohort study included 37 patients who were admitted for an occluder implantation. Blood samples were collected before and after the procedure. We determined the number of endothelial progenitor cells in outgrowth colonies and serum Hsp27 concentrations. Daily performance and cardiothoracic ratio were reevaluated later. RESULTS:Closure of the defect significantly reduced the pulmonary pressure and B-type natriuretic peptide levels. The cardiothoracic ratio and daily performance status also improved. The number of endothelial progenitor cell outgrowth colony-forming units significantly increased and was positively correlated with daily performance. In patients with enhanced colony formation, Hsp27 levels were significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS:The implantation of an occluder successfully improved hemodynamic, right ventricular, and daily performance. Qualitative enhancement of colony formation for endothelial progenitor cells was also noted and positively correlated with daily performance. Closure of defects may serve as a valid, reliable model to obtain a deeper understanding of the modulation of endothelial progenitor cell activity and its relationship with pulmonary hypertension prognosis. 10.1111/chd.12479
    Ultrasonic strain rate and strain imaging of the right ventricle in children before and after percutaneous closure of an atrial septal defect. Eyskens Benedicte,Ganame Javier,Claus Piet,Boshoff Derize,Gewillig Marc,Mertens Luc Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography This study examined the influence of preload alterations on systolic right ventricular (RV) velocities and deformation indices in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). A total of 21 patients with ASD underwent 2-dimensional echocardiography and color Doppler myocardial imaging scan before and 24 hours after transcatheter ASD closure. The data were compared with those obtained from 30 healthy age-matched children. Longitudinal peak systolic velocities, peak systolic strain rate (SR), and end-systolic strain (epsilon) were calculated in the midsegment of the RV free wall and the septum. In patients with ASD, higher RV peak systolic velocities were recorded, which returned to normal values after closure of the defect. In contrast, RV deformation indices in the patients with ASD were not different from normal values. These RV indices did not change significantly after ASD closure. We found a significantly decreased septal function after percutaneous ASD closure. This may be attributed to the device within the atrial septum, affecting deformation of the interventricular septum. In conclusion, RV longitudinal systolic deformation indices were not significantly influenced by chronic ventricular volume overload and sudden abolishment of this volume overload. These findings suggest that SR/epsilon are relatively load-stable measures of contractile function in the clinical setting. In contrast, myocardial velocities are clearly load dependent. 10.1016/j.echo.2006.02.001
    Transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects in patients above age 60. Ströker Erwin,Van De Bruaene Alexander,De Meester Pieter,Van Deyck Kristien,Gewillig Marc,Budts Werner Acta cardiologica BACKGROUND:Closure of an atrial septal defect (ASD) mostly causes reverse remodelling of the right heart, a decrease in pulmonary artery pressures (PASP), and improves functional capacity. However, abolition of the left-to-right shunt may be unfavourable in older patients. This study aimed at evaluating patients older than 60 years who underwent ASD closure. METHODS AND RESULTS:Forty-seven patients (mean age 69 5 years, 19.1% male) with ASD type secundum who underwent transcatheter device closure were included. Echocardiographic data before and after closure were obtained. Follow-up data until the last follow-up visit were retrieved. Age-, gender- and BMI-matched controls were selected. Before closure, ASD patients had a higher right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD), right (RA) and left atrial (LA) dimensions, and PASP when compared to controls. After closure, RVEDD and PASP decreased whereas LVEDD and E/A-ratio increased. RVEDD, PASP, LA dimensions, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and E/A-ratio were higher than controls. NYHA class improved significantly after ASD-closure. During a median follow-up time of 3.3 years, 6 patients died and 16 were hospitalized because of cardiac events. CONCLUSION:Device closure in the elderly improved functional capacity, with a decrease, but not a normalization of RV dimensions and PASP, and an increase in LV dimensions, EF and mitral E/A-ratio. Atrial arrhythmias and coronary ischaemic events are common in this population. 10.1080/ac.68.2.2967268
    Two-dimensional strain and strain rate imaging of the right ventricle in adult patients before and after percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects. Jategaonkar Smita R,Scholtz Werner,Butz Thomas,Bogunovic Nikola,Faber Lothar,Horstkotte Dieter European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology AIMS:Echocardiographic speckle tracking or two-dimensional (2D) strain analysis is a new tool to assess myocardial function. This prospective controlled study evaluates systolic right ventricular (RV) function by 2D strain in adult patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) before and 3 months after percutaneous closure. METHODS AND RESULTS:Assessment of global longitudinal strain (GLS), global longitudinal strain rate (GLSR), and regional peak systolic strain (PSS) of right ventricle was performed in 33 ASD patients. The data were compared with those from 34 age-matched adults with patent foramen ovale. Before percutaneous closure, mean GLS was significantly increased in comparison to control group, and significantly reduced after closure. Analysis of regional PSS showed significant decrease in the lateral apical, lateral mid, and septal apical segments. GLSR was not influenced by ASD closure. CONCLUSION:Two-dimensional strain appears to be helpful also for the assessment of RV function and its response to correction of volume overload. 10.1093/ejechocard/jen315
    Analysis of atrial and ventricular performance by tissue Doppler imaging in patients with atrial septal defects before and after surgical and catheter closure. Abd El Rahman M Y,Hui W,Timme J,Ewert P,Berger F,Dsebissowa F,Hetzer R,Lange P E,Abdul-Khaliq H Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) OBJECTIVE:To compare the effects of surgical and device closure of atrial septal defects on atrial and ventricular performance assessed by the novel tissue Doppler derived strain rate. BACKGROUND:Despite the increasing number of transcatheter closures, there is no information comparing the effect of the transcatheter closure technique on atrial performance with that of conventional surgery. Tissue Doppler derived strain rate can effectively quantify local myocardial function independent of the overall heart motion. DESIGN AND PATIENTS:Twenty-four patients [aged 21.5 (6-70) years] with isolated atrial septal defect of the secondum type before and 1 week after surgical (n = 12) or Amplatzer Septal Occluder closure (n = 12) and 30 healthy controls [aged 26.0 (2-58) years] were studied. Atrial and ventricular strain rate curves were assessed in the middle of their corresponding lateral walls in an apical four-chamber view. The systolic, early diastolic, and late diastolic strain rates peaks were measured. RESULTS:Compared to preclosure condition, the right atrial late diastolic (P < 0.01), right ventricular systolic (P < 0.01), right ventricular early diastolic (P < 0.01), and left atrial late diastolic peak (P < 0.01) strain rates were reduced after surgery but not after Amplatzer Septal Occluder closure. The LV parameters did not significantly differ before and after atrial septal defect closure by either technique. CONCLUSIONS:In contrast to surgery, transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect preserves atrial and right ventricular function. Tissue Doppler derived strain rate can be applied to provide quantitative analysis of regional atrial and ventricular performance. 10.1111/j.1540-8175.2005.40019.x
    Impact of atrial septal defect closure on right ventricular performance. Tanoue Yoshihisa,Morita Shigeki,Ochiai Yoshie,Masuda Munetaka,Tominaga Ryuji Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society BACKGROUND:Atrial septal defect (ASD) closure is one of the most representative cardiac operations, but there have been few assessments of right ventricular (RV) performance during the perioperative period. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using transesophageal echocardiography with automated border detection system, the RV pressure - area (P-A) loops were measured in 6 patients immediately before and after an ASD closure. Multiple RV P-A loops obtained by the inferior vena cava occlusion technique were used to evaluate end-systolic maximal elastance (Ees), preload recruitable stroke work (MEW), external work (EW) and the systolic P-A area (PAA). Ees and MEW are indices of contractility, and PAA represents the total mechanical energy. RV Ees and MEW did not change after the operation (from 3.36 +/- 2.20 to 3.70 +/- 2.04 mmHg/cm2, p = 0.4; and from 10.3 +/- 5.0 to 10.5 +/- 4.5 mmHg, p = 0.8, respectively), whereas EW and PAA were significantly reduced (from 121.4 +/- 77.4 to 48.7 +/- 26.6 mmHg/cm2, p < 0.05; and from 274.8 +/- 212.8 to 92.7 +/- 52.8 mmHg/cm2, p < 0.05, respectively). ASD closure reduced the EW and total mechanical energy of the right ventricle without influencing contractility. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that ASD closure preserved RV function and reduced RV myocardial oxygen consumption. Assessment of the RV P-A relationship in the operating room demonstrates the beneficial effects of ASD closure on RV performance.
    Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect preserves right ventricular function. Dhillon R,Josen M,Henein M,Redington A Heart (British Cardiac Society) OBJECTIVES:To determine the effects of atrial septal defects (ASD) and their closure on systolic and diastolic right and left ventricular function; and by comparing surgical closure with transcatheter device closure, to establish differences attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN:Cross sectionally guided M mode echocardiographic ventricular long axis function was measured prospectively before and within one week after ASD closure by device in 17 patients and by surgery in 12 patients, and compared with 18 normal subjects. RESULTS:All indices of right ventricular function were impaired after surgery: mean total excursion, -1.89 cm (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.18 to -1.59); peak shortening rate, -9.09 cm/s (-10.82 to -7.35); peak lengthening rate, -9.26 cm/s (-11.09 to -7.43). Total excursion and peak lengthening rate were preserved after device closure, at -0.12 cm (-0.28 to 0.05) and 0.01 cm/s (-2.29 to 2.31), respectively. Left ventricular free wall function was unchanged after closure by either method, while all septal measurements were reduced after closure by either method (changes ranging from -3.51 to -0.32; 95% CI ranging from -4.90 to -0.13). CONCLUSIONS:Left ventricular free wall function is unaffected by ASD closure, whereas septal function is impaired, irrespective of the method of closure. Right ventricular function, both systolic and diastolic, is impaired by cardiopulmonary bypass but preserved after device closure. These findings support the transcatheter approach to ASD closure in anatomically suitable defects. 10.1136/heart.87.5.461
    Persistent tricuspid regurgitation and its predictor in adults after percutaneous and isolated surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defect. Toyono Manatomo,Krasuski Richard A,Pettersson Gosta B,Matsumura Yoshiki,Yamano Tetsuhiro,Shiota Takahiro The American journal of cardiology The fate of functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after closure of a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) without any corrective tricuspid valve (TV) surgery remains unclear. We investigated this and the predictors of persistent TR after ASD closure. Thirty-two consecutive patients with moderate or severe TR before ASD closure were examined. Of these, 23 underwent percutaneous ASD closure, and 9 underwent isolated surgical ASD closure. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular end-diastolic area, right ventricular fractional area change, right ventricular spherical index, right atrial area, TV annular diameter, TV tethering height, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and pulmonary/systemic blood flow ratio were determined by echocardiography before and early after ASD closure. The color Doppler maximal jet area was used to assess the severity of TR. After ASD closure, the jet area decreased for all patients (p = 0.009); however, 16 patients (50%) had persistent TR. Multivariate analysis revealed that only pulmonary artery systolic pressure before ASD closure was related to the TR jet area after ASD closure (p = 0.003). A pulmonary artery systolic pressure of >60 mm Hg predicted persistent TR with 100% sensitivity and 63% specificity. In conclusion, functional TR was ameliorated after percutaneous and isolated surgical ASD closure, although persistent TR was common. The presence of pulmonary hypertension before ASD closure predicted persistent TR; therefore, corrective TV surgery should be considered at ASD closure in adult patients with moderate or severe TR and concomitant pulmonary hypertension. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.05.017
    Assesment of Right Ventricle Function with Speckle Tracking Echocardiography after the Percutaneous Closure of Atrial Septal Defect. Ozturk Onder,Ozturk Unal,Zilkif Karahan Mehmet Acta Cardiologica Sinica BACKGROUND:Transthoracic echocardiography is used for assessment of right ventricular (RV) function. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a new tool to assess myocardial function. The aim of this study was to evaluate RV function using STE in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) before and the first month after percutaneous closure. METHODS:We prospectively examined 32 consecutive patients (9 male, 23 female) who underwent percutaneous transcatheter closure (PTC) of secundum ASD from June 2013 to December 2015. Echocardiography was initially performed upon admission, prior to cardiac catheterization and then the first month after PTC of secundum ASD. Thereafter, the peak global RV longitudinal strain (RVLSR) was analyzed by two-dimensional STE. RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 34.6 ± 8.2 years, and the mean diameter of the occlusive devices was 18.5 ± 7.5 mm. RV end diastolic diameters were significantly larger and decreased significantly after ASD closure (43 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 4 mm, p < 0.05). Left atrium diameters (40 ± 8 vs. 37 ± 6 mm, p < 0.05) decreased significantly after the intervention, whereas left ventricle end-diastolic diameters (45 ± 5 vs. 46 ± 4 mm, nonspecific) remain unchanged. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion increased significantly (17.6 ± 5.4 vs. 22.3 ± 8.1 mm, p < 0.05). RV myocardial performance index significantly improved (0.38 ± 0.15 vs. 0.29 ± 0.08, p < 0.05). After interventional closure of the defect, we observed a significant increase of the longitudinal RV strain (28.3 ± 5.6% vs. 22.4 ± 4.3%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Two-dimensional strain appears to facilitate the assessment of RV function and its response to correction of volume overload after PTC of secundum ASD. 10.6515/acs20170106a
    Segmental Analysis of Right Ventricular Longitudinal Deformation in Children before and after Percutaneous Closure of Atrial Septal Defect. Ko Hong Ki,Yu Jeong Jin,Cho Eun Kyung,Kang So Yeon,Seo Chang Deok,Baek Jae Suk,Kim Young-Hwue,Ko Jae-Kon Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound BACKGROUND:The aim of study is to identify the dependence of right ventricular (RV) free wall longitudinal deformation on ventricular loading through segmental approach in relatively large number of patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). METHODS:Patients with ASD (n = 114) and age matched healthy children (n = 60) were echocardiographically examined the day before percutaneous device closure and within 24 hours afterwards. RV free wall deformation parameters, strain (є) and strain rate (SR), were analyzed in the apical (єA, SRA) and basal (єB, SRB) segments. Measured deformation parameters were adjusted for RV size (єAL, SRAL, єBL, SRBL) by multiplying by body surface area indexed RV longitudinal dimension. Regression analyses determined the relationships of these deformation parameters with RV loading parameters that were measured by catheterization. RESULTS:єBL and SRBL were not different between pre-closure patients and controls (p = 0.245, p = 0.866), and were decreased post-closure (p = 0.001, p = 0.018). Post-closure єBL was lower than in controls (p = 0.001). Pre-closure єAL and SRAL were higher than in controls (p = 0.001, p < 0.001), but decreased after closure (all p < 0.001). The pulmonary to systemic flow ratio was related to procedural differences of єBL (p = 0.017) and of SRBL (p = 0.019). RV end diastolic pressure was negatively related to post-closure єBL (p = 0.020) and post-closure SRBL (p = 0.012), and the procedural SRBL difference (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION:The longitudinal deformation of the RV basal segment is dependent and its remodeling is also dependent on volume loading in children with ASD. 10.4250/jcu.2014.22.4.182
    Long-term effects of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect on cardiac remodeling and exercise capacity in patients older than 40 years with a reduction in cardiopulmonary function. Takaya Yoichi,Taniguchi Manabu,Akagi Teiji,Nobusada Saori,Kusano Kengo,Ito Hiroshi,Sano Shunji Journal of interventional cardiology BACKGROUND:Although it has been demonstrated that cardiac remodeling and exercise capacity improve after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD), little is known about long-term benefits in middle-aged and elderly patients with a reduction in cardiopulmonary function. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate long-term extent and time course of improvements in cardiac remodeling and exercise capacity in those patients. METHODS:Twenty ASD patients ≥ 40 years of age with a reduction in cardiopulmonary function (predicted peak oxygen uptake [VO(2)] < 65%) were enrolled. Transthoracic echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed at baseline and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and >12 months after the procedure. RESULTS:At 1 month after the procedure, significant decreases in right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic diameter (38.2 ± 4.4 to 31.9 ± 4.4 mm; P < 0.001) and RV/left ventricular end-diastolic diameter ratio (0.95 ± 0.17 to 0.71 ± 0.13; P < 0.001) occurred, and they were maintained during the follow-up period. Normal RV size was achieved in 11 of 18 patients with RV enlargement. Predicted peak VO(2) did not change at 1 month and 3 months, but it improved significantly after 6 months (53.6 ± 6.5 to 62.1 ± 12.6%; P < 0.01). Sixteen of the 20 patients showed improved predicted peak VO(2). CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac remodeling and exercise capacity could be improved over the long-term period after transcatheter closure of ASD in middle-aged and elderly patients with a reduction in cardiopulmonary function. There were differences in the time course of improvement between cardiac remodeling and exercise capacity in those patients. 10.1111/joic.12002
    The impact of transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in the older population: a prospective study. Khan Arif Anis,Tan Ju-Le,Li W,Dimopoulos Kostas,Spence Mark S,Chow Pak,Mullen Michael J JACC. Cardiovascular interventions OBJECTIVES:We sought to prove that device closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) in older patients not only improves cardiac function but also results in symptomatic relief by improving functional class. BACKGROUND:Atrial septal defect accounts for approximately 10% of all congenital cardiac defects. It is possible that ASD closure in older patients may derive benefits, though this is not well established. We therefore aim to prospectively assess the clinical status and functional class of older patients after transcatheter ASD closure. METHODS:This was a prospective study of all patients age 40 years or more who underwent device closure of a secundum ASD between April 2004 and August 2006. Investigations including atrial and brain natriuretic peptide levels, electrocardiography, chest X-ray, transthoracic echocardiogram, 6-min walk test, and quality of life questionnaire were performed before and at 6 weeks and 1 year after the procedure. RESULTS:Twenty-three patients (median age 70 years, 13 women) had transcatheter device closure of ASD. Median ASD size was 18 mm (range 9 to 30 mm). Median pulmonary artery pressure was 22 mm Hg (range 12 to 27 mm Hg). At 1 year, New York Heart Association functional class improved (p = 0.004) in 16 patients with significant improvement in 6-min walk-test distance (p = 0.004) and physical (p = 0.002) as well as mental health score (p = 0.03). There were no major complications. One year following closure there was a significant change in left ventricular end-diastolic (p = 0.001) and end-systolic dimensions (p = 0.001) and also significant reduction in right ventricular end-diastolic dimension (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrated that ASD closure at advanced age results in favorable cardiac remodeling and improvement of functional class. 10.1016/j.jcin.2009.12.011
    Differences in right and left ventricular remodeling after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect among adults. Wu En-Ting,Akagi Teiji,Taniguchi Manabu,Maruo Takeshi,Sakuragi Satoru,Otsuki Shinichi,Okamoto Yoshio,Sano Shunji Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions OBJECTIVES:To evaluate acute cardiac remodeling after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) in adult patients. BACKGROUND:In adult patients with ASD, longer periods of cardiac adaptation should be expected after the procedure due to long-standing RV volume overload and subsequent changes in the pulmonary vasculature. There are limited reports about this remodeling in adult patients. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled 17 adults (mean age 58.4 +/- 17.3 years) who underwent successful transcatheter closure of their ASDs from August 2005 to July 2006. We performed routine transthoracic echocardiographic studies, including LV and RV myocardial performance indices, or Tei indices, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) sampling before closure of the ASD, and 1 day, 1 month, and 3 months after closure. RESULTS:We found (1) LV end diastolic diameter increased, and RVEDD decreased markedly after the closure; (2) differences existed in LV and RV adaptation. While LV Tei index improved soon after the procedure, RV Tei index worsened until 1 month after the procedure, then recovered by the 3 month follow-up visit; and (3) BNP elevated 1 day after closure of the ASD and declined by the 1-month follow-up visit. CONCLUSION:"Shrinkage" of the RV and "expansion" of the LV occurred soon after the procedure, even in elderly patients. Device closure of ASDs caused rapid improvement of LV function, but RV function underwent transient deterioration, probably due to delayed changes in RV ventricular mass in the face of acute volume reduction in this aged cohort. 10.1002/ccd.21075
    Left ventricular function in adult patients with atrial septal defect: implication for development of heart failure after transcatheter closure. Masutani Satoshi,Senzaki Hideaki Journal of cardiac failure Despite advances in device closure for atrial septal defect (ASD), post-closure heart failure observed in adult patients remains a clinical problem. Although right heart volume overload is the fundamental pathophysiology in ASD, the post-closure heart failure characterized by acute pulmonary congestion is likely because of age-related left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, which is manifested by acute volume loading with ASD closure. Aging also appears to play important roles in the pathophysiology of heart failure through several mechanisms other than diastolic dysfunction, including ventricular systolic and vascular stiffening and increased incidence of comorbidities that significantly affect cardiovascular function. Recent studies suggested that accurate assessment of preclosure diastolic function, such as test ASD occlusion, may help identify high-risk patients for post-closure heart failure. Anti-heart failure therapy before device closure or the use of fenestrated device appears to be effective in preventing post-closure heart failure in the high-risk patients. However, the long-term outcome of such patients remains to be elucidated. Future studies are warranted to construct an algorithm to identify and treat patients at high risk for heart failure after device closure of ASD. 10.1016/j.cardfail.2011.07.003
    Hemodynamic complications during transcatheter MitraClip repair in presence of congenital atrial septal defect. Cammalleri Valeria,Romeo Francesco,Ussia Gian Paolo Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip System (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) needs a trans-septal access for positioning the 22-Fr guiding catheter in the left atrium. To the best of our knowledge no data are currently available about the hemodynamic consequences of a congenital atrial septal defect (ASD) after MitraClip repair. We report a case of MitraClip repair in a patient with ostium secundum ASD and ischemic cardiomyopathy, who needed intraprocedural closure of the defect for serious hemodynamic complications, secondary to worsening of the right ventricular function, increased pulmonary pressure and inversion of the interatrial shunt in right-to-left direction. These events, which were exacerbated by high blood levels of PaCO2 for the anesthesiological protocol used, led to left-side low-output syndrome and cardiorespiratory arrest. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/ccd.26223
    Predictors of residual tricuspid regurgitation after percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect. Nassif Martina,van der Kley Frank,Abdelghani Mohammad,Kalkman Deborah N,de Bruin-Bon Rianne H A C M,Bouma Berto J,Schalij Martin J,Koolbergen David R,Tijssen Jan G P,Mulder Barbara J M,de Winter Robbert J European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging Aims:Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) associated with atrial septal defects (ASDs) is frequently present due to right-sided volume-overload. Tricuspid valve (TV) repair is often considered in candidates for surgical ASD closure, and percutaneous TV repair is currently under clinical investigation. In this study, we develop a prediction model to identify patients with residual moderate/severe TR after percutaneous ASD closure. Methods and results:In this observational study, 172 adult patients (26% male, age 49 ± 17 years) with successful percutaneous ASD closure had pre- and post-procedural echocardiography. Right heart dimensions/function were measured. TR was assessed semi-quantitatively. A prediction model for 6-month post-procedural moderate/severe TR was derived from uni-and multi-variable logistic regression. Clinical follow-up (FU) was updated and adverse events were defined as cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. Pre-procedural TR was present in 130 (76%) patients (moderate/severe: n = 64) of which 72 (55%) had ≥1 grade reduction post-closure. Independent predictors of post-procedural moderate/severe TR (n = 36) were age ≥60 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.57; P = 0.095], right atrial end-diastolic area ≥10cm2/m2 (OR 3.36; P = 0.032), right ventricular systolic pressure ≥44 mmHg (OR 6.44; P = 0.001), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion ≤2.3 cm (OR 3.29; P = 0.037), producing a model with optimism-corrected C-index = 0.82 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis excluding baseline none/mild TR yielded similar results. Patients with moderate/severe TR at 6-month FU had higher adverse event rates [hazard ratio = 6.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5-26); log-rank P = 0.004] across a median of 45 (30-76) months clinical FU. Conclusion:This study shows that parallel to reduction of volume-overload and reverse remodelling after percutaneous ASD closure, TR improved substantially despite significant TR at baseline. Our proposed risk model helps identify ASD patients in whom TR regression is unlikely after successful percutaneous closure. 10.1093/ehjci/jey080
    Right ventricular remodeling after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Ding Jiandong,Ma Genshan,Huang Yaoyao,Wang Chen,Zhang Xiaoli,Zhu Jian,Lu Fengxiang Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) BACKGROUND:Right ventricular (RV) volume overload is a well-known cardiac consequence of atrial septal defect (ASD) shunt, accounting for most of its long-term complications. Thus cardiac volumetric unloading is a major aim of transcatheter ASD closure. We set to study the right ventricular remodeling after transcatheter ASD closure in patients with secundum ASD. METHODS:We enrolled 46 patients who underwent successful transcatheter closure of ASD. We performed routine transthoracic echocardiographic studies, including three-dimensional echocardiography and right ventricular myocardial performance index (RVMPI), before transcatheter ASD closure, and 3 days, 1 month after transcatheter ASD closure. RESULTS:We found that: (1) the right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) and right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) (respectively 106.54+/-25.97 vs 69.78+/-10.46 mL, P < 0.05; 59.73+/-17.59 vs 33.84+/-7.18 mL, P < 0.05) were enlarged in patients with ASD compared with those in control subjects, resulting in a marked decrease of the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (44.82%+/-4.51% vs 54.11%+/-5.89%, P < 0.05) from normal values; (2) the isovolumic relaxation and isovolumic contraction times (respectively [77.61+/-16.49] ms vs (64.09+/-11.82) ms, P < 0.05; [28.04+/-9.57] ms vs [20.45+/-6.53] ms, P < 0.05) were prolonged and ejection time ([250.02+/-24.21] ms vs [272.73+/-20.51] ms, P < 0.05) was shortened in patients with ASD compared with that in control subjects, resulting in a marked increase of the MPI (0.41+/-0.07 vs 0.31+/-0.05, P < 0.05) from normal values; and (3) after transcatheter closure, the RVEDV and RVESV decreased and the RVEF increased markedly and RVMPI decreased markedly. CONCLUSIONS:Transcatheter closure of ASD results in rapid normalization of RV volume overload and improvement of RV function. 10.1111/j.1540-8175.2009.00941.x
    Current concept of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in adults. Akagi Teiji Journal of cardiology After the introduction of catheter intervention for atrial septal defect (ASD) in the pediatric population, therapeutic advantages of this less invasive procedure were focused on adult through geriatric populations. The most valuable clinical benefits of this procedure are the significant improvement of symptoms and daily activities, which result from the closure of left to right shunt without thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. These benefits contribute to increase the number of adult patients of this condition who have hesitated over surgical closure. In terms of technical point of view for catheter closure of ASD, the difficulties still exist in some morphological features of defect, or hemodynamic features in the adult population. Morphological features of difficult ASD closure are (1) large (≥30 mm) ASD, (2) wide rim deficiency, and (3) multiple defects. Hemodynamic features of difficult ASD are (1) severe pulmonary hypertension, (2) ventricular dysfunction, and (3) restrictive left ventricular compliance (diastolic dysfunction) after ASD closure. To complete the catheter ASD closure under these difficult conditions, various procedural techniques have been introduced. These are new imaging modalities such as real-time three-dimensional imaging, new technical modifications, and new concepts for hemodynamic evaluation. Especially, real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can provide the high quality imaging for anatomical evaluation including maximum defect size, surrounding rim morphology, and the relationship between device and septal rim. In adult patients, optimal management for their comorbidities is an important issue, which includes cardiac function, atrial arrhythmias, respiratory function, and renal function. Management of atrial arrhythmias is a key issue for the long-term outcome in adult patients. Because the interventional procedures are not complication-free techniques, the establishment of a surgical back-up system is essential for the safe achievement of the procedure. Finally, the establishment of a team approach including pediatric and adult cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and anesthesiologists is the most important factor for a good therapeutic outcome. 10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.09.002
    Both Systemic and Pulmonary Artery Stiffness Predict Ventricular Functional Recovery after Successful Percutaneous Closure of Atrial Septal Defects in Adults. Baykan Ahmet Oytun,Gür Mustafa,Acele Armağan,Şeker Taner,Yüksel Kalkan Gülhan,Şahin Durmuş Yıldıray,Koc Mevlüt,Bulut Atilla,Harbalıoğlu Hazar,Caylı Murat Congenital heart disease BACKGROUND:Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) has become the preferred method in treatment of the majority of cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the echocardiographic effects of percutaneous closure of secundum ASD in adults and assess which parameters predict good response to closure. DESIGN:We prospectively included 42 patients with secundum ASD treated successfully with percutaneous device closure. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography examination with tissue Doppler imaging before, 24 hours after and within 3 months of intervention. Measurements of arterial stiffness were carried out using a Mobil-O-Graph arteriography system. RESULTS:Remodeling of heart chambers occurred immediately and persisted at 3 months after ASD closure. Significant decreases were observed in right ventricle (RV) end-diastolic diameter, right atrium volume index, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion both after the procedure and at 3 months (P < .01 for all). The RV and left ventricle (LV) tissue Doppler-myocardial performance index demonstrated to decline during follow up (P = .0001). Significant correlations were found between pulse-wave velocity, augmentation index, pulmonary artery stiffness, and LV-RV tissue Doppler-myocardial performance index at third month. Linear regression analyses showed that pulse-wave velocity is the most effective parameter of LV and pulmonary artery stiffness is the most effective parameter of RV functional recovery, respectively, assessed by tissue Doppler-myocardial performance index. CONCLUSIONS:Percutaneous closure of secundum ASD in adults has various sustained benefits on multiple echocardiographic parameters within 3 months. The changes in RV and LV function after device closure were significantly correlated with the degree of pulmonary artery stiffness and pulse-wave velocity, respectively. 10.1111/chd.12302
    [Evaluation of right ventricular function of patients with intraoperative device closure of atrial septal defect by ultrasonic Doppler tissue imaging]. Zhang Liu-hua,Xu Wei-hong,Wang Yan,Liu Ai-qin,Lin Chang-yan,Li Zhi-an,Zhang Chun Zhonghua yi xue za zhi OBJECTIVE:To study the application of Doppler tissue imaging (TDI) in the assessment of right ventricular function of patients with intraoperative device closure of atrial septal defect (ASD). METHODS:A total of 48 ASD patients, 18 males and 30 females, were selected for intraoperative device closure. The mean age was 31 +/- 16 years old. Color Doppler echocardiographic instrument (Sonos 4500) was employed to perform the Doppler tissue imaging before and at 3-5 days after operation. The parameters included: (1) Time and peak speed of systolic motion of anterior tricuspid valve annulus (TDI-TS, TDI-PVS), early diastole motion time (TDI-TE) and late diastolic motion time (TDI-TA) and peak speed of early and late diastolic motion (TDI-PVE, TDI-PVA), interval between the early diastolic motion and late diastolic motion (TDI-TE-A); (2) Peak speed of systolic, early diastolic and late diastolic motions of the middle lateral and basic lateral walls of right ventricle. RESULTS:The TDI-PVS (0.16 +/- 0.05) m/s in post-operation was decreased than TDI-PVS (0.20 +/- 0.04) m/s in pre-operation and TDI-PVA (0.12 +/- 0.03) m/s in post-operation was decreased than TDI-PVA (0.16 +/- 0.02) m/s in pre-operation apparently (P < 0.01). The TDI-TS (231 +/- 36) msec in post-operation were shorter than TDI-TS (265 +/- 24) msec in pre-operation (P < 0.01). Peak spead of Systolic, early diastolic and late diastolic motions of middle lateral and basic lateral walls of right ventricle declined post-operatively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION:TDI is an effective method to evaluate the function of right ventricle quantitatively in patients with intraoperative device closure of ASD.
    Late Electrical and Mechanical Remodeling After Atrial Septal Defect Closure in Children: Surgical Versus Percutaneous Approach. Castaldi Biagio,Vida Vladimiro L,Argiolas Anna,Maschietto Nicola,Cerutti Alessia,Gregori Dario,Stellin Giovanni,Milanesi Ornella The Annals of thoracic surgery BACKGROUND:Conflicting data were reported about normalization of sizes of right chambers, systolic and diastolic function and prevalence of arrhythmias after ostium secundum atrial septal defect closure. We sought to compare surgical and percutaneous approaches in terms of arrhythmias, right chamber volumes, and function at long-term follow-up. METHODS:In all, 107 patients were enrolled, all corrected at pediatric age. Forty-four of them were treated surgically with a right thoracotomy approach and 63 were treated percutaneously. All patients underwent a standard echocardiogram and electrocardiographic Holter examinations. RESULTS:No difference was detected between the two groups regarding right atrial or ventricular volumes. The global right ventricular function assessed by fractional area change was similar between the two groups. However, the longitudinal function and the diastolic function were significantly impaired in the surgical group (tricuspid annulus peak systolic excursion 23.7 ± 4.5 mm versus 18.7 ± 3.5 mm, p < 0.001; S' wave 13.7 ± 3.1 cm/s versus 9.8 ± 2.4 cm/s, p < 0.001; E/E' 4.7 ± 1.7 versus 7.1 ± 2.9, p < 0.001). There was a low incidence of supraventricular couples or runs, but slightly higher in the surgical group (6.8% versus 1.6%), although not statistically significant. No echocardiographic variable related to ventricular or supraventricular arrhythmic events. CONCLUSIONS:Either surgical or percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect have a similar efficacy on the volume normalization of the right chamber. Modern surgical techniques have a limited impact on the systolic and diastolic function as well as on the arrhythmic risk; however, the right ventricular longitudinal and diastolic function seems to be better preserved in the percutaneous group. 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.03.017
    Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in adults: time-course of atrial and ventricular remodeling and effects on exercise capacity. Stephensen Sigurdur S,Ostenfeld Ellen,Kutty Shelby,Steding-Ehrenborg Katarina,Arheden Hakan,Thilén Ulf,Carlsson Marcus The international journal of cardiovascular imaging Investigate ventricular and atrial remodeling following atrial septal defect (ASD) closure and examine if pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) and right ventricular (RV) volume predict improvement, determined as percentage of predicted oxygen uptake (VO%). Long-term cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data on atrial and ventricular remodeling after ASD-closure is limited and treatment effect on exercise capacity is debated. Sixteen patients undergoing transcatheter ASD closure and 16 age and sexmatched controls were studied. CMR was performed before treatment, the day after and 3 and 12 months later. Exercise test with gas analysis was performed before and 12 months after treatment. QP/QS decreased from 2.1 ± 0.5 to 1.4 ± 0.3 at day 1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 at 3 and 12 months. Left ventricular (LV) volumes increased and normalized on day 1 whereas left atrial volumes were unchanged. RV and right atrial volumes decreased the first 3 months. LV and RV volumes had not equalized at 12 months (RV/LV ratio 1.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.01) and RV ejection fraction remained decreased compared to controls. Improvement of VO% after ASD closure (P < 0.01) was inversely related to QP/QS at rest (r = - 0.56, P < 0.05) but unrelated to RV end-diastolic volume (P = 0.16). Following transcatheter ASD closure, LV adaptation is rapid and RV adaptation is prolonged, with decreased systolic RV function. Patients with smaller shunts had larger improvement in VO% suggesting patients with defects of borderline hemodynamic significance might benefit from closure. This may be due to impaired LV diastolic function influencing shunt size and exercise capacity following ASD closure. 10.1007/s10554-019-01647-0
    Predictors of mid-term functional tricuspid regurgitation after device closure of atrial septal defect in adults: Impact of pre-operative tricuspid valve remodeling. Fang Fang,Wang Jing,Yip Gabriel Wai-Kwok,Lam Yat-Yin International journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:Functional TR occurs in adults with congenital atrial septal defect (ASD) due to left-to-right inter-atrial shunting and enlarged right heart. The prevalence and the predictors of TR following ASD closure in adults remain unknown. Moreover, whether preoperative anatomical parameters of tricuspid valve related to TR after ASD closure is understudied. METHODS:Comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 64 consecutive secundum ASD patients before and at 3 months after device closure. Tricuspid valve parameters [annulus diameter (TAD), tenting area, tenting height, distal tricuspid septal leaflet angle (TSLA)], right ventricular (RV) function, pulmonary arterial pressures and severity of TR were recorded. Post-closure TR was defined as PISA radius ≥ 6 mm at 3 months. RESULTS:The TR severity was reduced after ASD closure with post-closure TR in 31 patients (48%) at follow-up. TR patients had larger ventricles, more TR, greater TAD, and larger tenting area/height and TSLA but similar RV long-axis function and pulmonary pressures at baseline. Pre-closure TAD [odds ratio (OR): 6.076, p=0.032] and TSLA (OR: 1.218, p=0.001) were the independent predictors for TR. A TAD >3.5 cm and a TSLA >30° had sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of 97%, 76%, and 0.82 and 100%, 78%, and 0.84, respectively. Assessment of TSLA showed an incremental value over TAD for predicting TR after closure (χ(2)=21.3 vs. 9.9, p<0.001). CONCLUSION:Nearly half of adults had TR following device closure of ASD. It was related to the excessive pre-operative structural remodeling in tricuspid valve rather than changes in RV. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.03.332
    Influence of percutaneous atrial septal defect closure on inter- and intra-ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in adults: evaluation of strain pattern. Cai Qi-Zhe,Liang Yu,Zhu Zhen-Hui,Lu Xiu-Zhang The international journal of cardiovascular imaging Previous studies using speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) for quantifying the functions of the right and left ventricles (RV and LV, respectively) in the presence of percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure have focused on the peak systolic strain (PSS). This study investigated changes in the mechanical dyssynchrony of ventricular contraction before and after ASD closure, issues that have been little addressed in the literature. Thirty-one adults with ASD were studied using two-dimensional STE before and 24 h after ASD closure. Thirty-one healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were recruited as controls. Global and segmental PSS values from the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial directions were analyzed. The time to peak systolic strain (PSST) and the standard deviation of the time to peak strain (SDT) among segments in each direction were calculated, to investigate the inter- and intra-ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in these patients and improvements after closure. Compared to the control group, patients with ASD had higher RV free-wall longitudinal systolic strain, with increased PSST and SDT. The SDT values of the LV longitudinal and circumferential strains were also increased. By 24 h after ASD closure, the RV free-wall longitudinal strain and its PSST and SDT had reverted to normal levels. The LV circumferential strain was increased, and its SDT was decreased. The contraction period of the RV and myocardial contraction dyssynchrony in the RV and LV were increased in ASD patients. The inter- and intra-ventricular mechanical utilities were improved after percutaneous closure of the ASD. 10.1007/s10554-014-0385-0
    Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation After Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect in Adult Patients: Long-Term Follow-Up. Takaya Yoichi,Akagi Teiji,Kijima Yasufumi,Nakagawa Koji,Ito Hiroshi JACC. Cardiovascular interventions OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to assess the fate of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. BACKGROUND:Although TR frequently occurs in patients with ASD, the change in TR during long-term follow-up after ASD closure remains unknown. METHODS:A total of 419 adult patients who underwent transcatheter ASD closure were enrolled. TR severity was graded by TR jet area on echocardiography. RESULTS:At baseline, 113 patients had severe/moderate TR and 306 patients had mild TR. Among the 113 patients with severe/moderate TR, the TR jet area significantly decreased during a median follow-up of 30 months after the procedure; this decrease was related to the improvement in right ventricular morphology. The severity of TR decreased to mild in 79 (70%) patients. Persistent TR, defined as severe or moderate TR after the procedure, was independently associated with the prevalence of permanent atrial fibrillation. Regarding clinical outcomes, 7 patients with severe/moderate TR and 2 with mild TR were hospitalized because of heart failure. Patients with severe/moderate TR had the worse event-free survival rate than those with mild TR, but more than 90% of them had no cardiovascular events. New York Heart Association functional class and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels improved in patients with severe/moderate TR, similar to those with mild TR. CONCLUSIONS:Significant TR decreased during the long-term follow-up period after transcatheter ASD closure. Heart failure symptoms improved in patients with severe/moderate TR. Our findings suggest that transcatheter closure alone can be valuable in patients with ASD complicated with TR. 10.1016/j.jcin.2017.06.022