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    Effectiveness of a Ward level target accountability strategy for hand hygiene. Pada Surinder M S Kaur,Chee Poh Ling,Rathenam Sarathemani,Ng Kim Sim,Alenton Lilibeth Silagan,Poh Lishi,Tambyah Paul Anatharajah Antimicrobial resistance and infection control Background:Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution in prevention of Multi Drug Resistant Organisms. Hand Hygiene campaigns have mostly taken the form of a generalised hospital approach with visual reminders and rewards for improvement in compliance. We describe a hand hygiene programme that sets an individualised ward target to increase accountability and drive improvement. Methods:We undertook to develop a "Hand Hygiene Accountability" model, where the mean compliance rate, using the WHO hand hygiene assessment tool, for each ward over the past 6 months plus 10% was used as a target for that particular ward.Rewards were given to wards with the most percentage improvement over the year. A graded escalation was used for wards that did not meet targets based on 1,2 or 3 months of non-compliance. The most extreme action, setting up a task force directed by the Chairman of our Medical Board, would be required if 3 continuous months of non-compliance was observed. Hand Hygiene audits were performed by staff trained using the WHO audit tools. The same strategy was repeated at our community hospital.Active surveillance testing for Methicillin Resistant (MRSA) using nasal, groin and axilla swabs established before the project continued to be in operation, as did surveillance for hospital acquired MRSA bacteraemia (using NHSN criteria), hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile (HO-CD), and multi-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Results:Data from July 2015 to December 2017 was analysed. In the acute and community hospitals, 21,582 and 5770 hand hygiene (HH) observations were undertaken respectively.In the acute care hospital, HH compliance rates went from 65 to 78% (-value < 0.00001). There was a reduction in MRSA bacteraemia from 5 episodes at the start of the study to 0 in 2017.In the community hospital, HH compliance improved from a mean of 64 to 75% (-value 0.00005). MRSA transmission rate decreased from 5.72 per 1000 patient days, to 2.79 per 1000 patient days (-value 0.00035) with an admission prevalence of 13.1% for 2016 and 20.6% in 2017. Conclusions:Using a ward level accountability for hand hygiene is possible and can be successful in improving hand hygiene rates, possibly reducing transmission of MDROs. Realistic targets need to be set and adequate rewards and incentives provided to ensure continuous improvement. 10.1186/s13756-019-0641-0
    Standard work for room entry: Linking lean, hand hygiene, and patient-centeredness. O'Reilly Kristin,Ruokis Samantha,Russell Kristin,Teves Tim,DiLibero Justin,Yassa David,Berry Hannah,Howell Michael D Healthcare (Amsterdam, Netherlands) BACKGROUND:Healthcare-associated infections are costly and fatal. Substantial front-line, administrative, regulatory, and research efforts have focused on improving hand hygiene. PROBLEM:While broad agreement exists that hand hygiene is the most important single approach to infection prevention, compliance with hand hygiene is typically only about 40%(1). GOALS:Our aim was to develop a standard process for room entry in the intensive care unit that improved compliance with hand hygiene and allowed for maximum efficiency. STRATEGY:We recognized that hand hygiene is a single step in a substantially more complicated process of room entry. We applied Lean engineering techniques to develop a standard process that included both physical steps and also standard communication elements from provider to patients and families and created a physical environment to support this. RESULTS:We observed meaningful improvement in the performance of the new standard as well as time savings for clinical providers with each room entry. We also observed an increase in room entries that included verbal communication and an explanation of what the clinician was entering the room to do. IMPLICATIONS:The design and implementation of a standardized room entry process and the creation of an environment that supports that new process has resulted in measurable positive outcomes on the medical intensive care unit, including quality, patient experience, efficiency, and staff satisfaction. Designing a process, rather than viewing tasks that need to happen in close proximity in time (either serially or in parallel) as unrelated, simplifies work for staff and results in higher compliance to individual tasks. 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2015.12.008
    Impact of an educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance and infection rate in a developing country neonatal intensive care unit. Chhapola Viswas,Brar Rekha International journal of nursing practice Nosocomial infections are a significant problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and hand hygiene (HH) has been stated as an effective mean to prevent spread of infections. The aim of study was to assess the baseline compliance HH practices and to evaluate the impact of hand washing educational programme on infection rate in a NICU. Continuous surveillance of nosocomial infections was done. A total of 15,797 and 12 ,29 opportunities for HH were observed in pre-intervention and postintervention phases, respectively. Compliance of health-care workers for all HH opportunities combined was 46% before intervention and improved significantly to 69% in postintervention (RR 1.49, CI 1.46-1.52, P < 0.0001). Compliance for nurses and doctors was similar. Nosocomial sepsis rate showed a significant decline from 96 per 1000 patient-days in pre-intervention to 47 per 1000 patient-days in postintervention phase (RR 0.44, CI 0.33-0.58, P < 0.0001). We conclude that effective HH practices can serve as an economical and effective nosocomial infection control approach especially important in developing nations. 10.1111/ijn.12283
    Four multifaceted countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011: impact on compliance to hand hygiene. Costers M,Viseur N,Catry B,Simon A Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin Four consecutive one-month campaigns were organised to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011. The campaigns included a combination of reminders in wards, educational sessions for healthcare workers, promotion of alcohol-based hand rub use, increasing patient awareness, and audits with performance feedback. Prior and after each one month intervention period, the infection control teams measured hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation using a standardised observation roster. A total of 738,367 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed over the four campaigns. Compliance with hand hygiene significantly increased from 49.6% before to 68.6% after the intervention period for the first, from 53.2% to 69.5% for the second, from 58.0% to 69.1% for the third, and from 62.3% to 72.9% for the fourth campaign. The highest compliance rates were consistently observed in paediatric units. Compliance rates were always markedly lower among physicians than nurses. After patient contact and body fluid exposure risk, compliance rates were noticeably higher than before patient contact and performing aseptic procedures. We conclude that repeated countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene result in positive long-term outcomes. However, lower compliance rates among physicians compared with nurses, before patient contact, and before performing aseptic procedures remain challenges for future campaigns. 10.2807/ese.17.18.20161-en
    A multimodal intervention to improve hand hygiene in ICUs in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a stepped wedge trial. Rodriguez Viviana,Giuffre Carolina,Villa Silvia,Almada Griselda,Prasopa-Plaizier Nittita,Gogna Monica,Gibbons Luz,García Elorrio Ezequiel, International journal for quality in health care : journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care ISSUE:Hand hygiene is a cost-effective measure to reduce microbial transmission (Teare EL, Cookson B, French GL, et al. UK handwashing initiative. J Hosp Infect. 1999;43:1-3.) and is considered to be the most important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections (Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Sax H, Evidence-based model for hand transmission during patient care and the role of improved practices. Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:641-52). Unfortunately, the compliance rate of healthcare workers (HCWs) with recommended hand hygiene procedures is less than expected. INITIAL ASSESSMENT:In order to estimate the effect of a multimodal intervention on improving healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene in eleven intensive care units (ICUs) from 11 hospitals of Buenos Aires, a randomized cluster-stepped wedge trial was designed. CHOICE OF SOLUTION AND IMPLEMENTATION:A multimodal intervention was designed based on practices characterized by being evidence-based, low cost and suggested by qualitative research: (i) leadership commitment, (ii) surveillance of materials needed to comply with hand hygiene and alcohol consumption, (iii) utilization of reminders, (iv) a storyboard of the project and (v) feedback (hand hygiene compliance rate). EVALUATION:The study enrolled 705 participants, comprising nurses (66.4%), physicians (25.8%) and other HCW (7.8%) along 9 months of observation. Compliance with hand hygiene in the control group was 66.0% (2354/3565) vs. 75.6% (5190/6864) in the intervention group. Univariate analysis showed an association between the intervention and hand hygiene compliance (odds ratio, OR 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.22). The effect was still present after adjustment by calendar's time and providers' characteristics-age, gender and profession (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). LESSONS LEARNED:His study supports that a multimodal intervention was effective to improve compliance with hand hygiene in ICUs. 10.1093/intqhc/mzv065
    [Introduction of a Hand-hygiene Automated Monitoring System: Accuracy in Monitoring Hand Hygiene Compliance and Its Effect in Promoting Hand Hygiene Behaviour]. Hayashi Michio,Fujiwara Hiroko,Koufuku Tomomi,Nakai Isako Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases Hand hygiene is important in the prevention of healthcare-associated infection in hospitals, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers for hand hygiene is lower than expected. Hand hygiene compliance is usually monitored employing visual methods that are open to the Hawthorne effect and limited in terms of time and place. An automated monitoring system may provide the hand-hygiene compliance rate automatically and continuously, without suffering from the Hawthorne effect. An automated monitoring system may also improve hand hygiene by providing feedback data and real-time reminders. We report herein on an automated monitoring system that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of healthcare workers. The aim is to establish the accuracy of the system in monitoring hand hygiene compliance and to estimate the effect of the system in promoting hand hygiene behaviour. Two studies were conducted. First, to evaluate the accuracy of hand hygiene compliance recorded by the automated monitoring system, we compared the hand hygiene compliance rate recorded by the automated monitoring system with that recorded by direct visual observation for 3 days during the same period in the same ward. For the overall period of simultaneous automated and human observations, the hand hygiene compliance rate was automatically observed to be 78% and visually observed to be 75.4%. Second, to estimate the effect of the automated monitoring system in improving health workers' compliance with hand hygiene, we installed monitoring equipment in one ward and measured the compliance rate via the automated monitoring system for 13 weeks. This study included Phase 1 with a reminder only, Phase 2 with a reminder and feedback, and Phase 3 again with a reminder only. A significant increase in hand hygiene performance was observed during phase 2, and a high rate was sustained over phase 3. In phase 1, however, there was no increase in the hand hygiene compliance rate. We found the automated monitoring system to be a useful tool for not only monitoring hand hygiene but also for improving hand hygiene compliance.
    Electronic monitoring in combination with direct observation as a means to significantly improve hand hygiene compliance. Boyce John M American journal of infection control Monitoring hand hygiene compliance among health care personnel (HCP) is an essential element of hand hygiene promotion programs. Observation by trained auditors is considered the gold standard method for establishing hand hygiene compliance rates. Advantages of observational surveys include the unique ability to establish compliance with all of the World Health Organization "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" initiative Moments and to provide just-in-time coaching. Disadvantages include the resources required for observational surveys, insufficient sample sizes, and nonstandardized methods of conducting observations. Electronic and camera-based systems can monitor hand hygiene performance on all work shifts without a Hawthorne effect and provide significantly more data regarding hand hygiene performance. Disadvantages include the cost of installation, variable accuracy in estimating compliance rates, issues related to acceptance by HCP, insufficient data regarding their cost-effectiveness and influence on health care-related infection rates, and the ability of most systems to monitor only surrogates for Moments 1, 4, and 5. Increasing evidence suggests that monitoring only Moments 1, 4, and 5 provides reasonable estimates of compliance with all 5 Moments. With continued improvement of electronic monitoring systems, combining electronic monitoring with observational methods may provide the best information as part of a multimodal strategy to improve and sustain hand hygiene compliance rates among HCP. 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.11.029
    Continued direct observation and feedback of hand hygiene adherence can result in long-term improvement. Arise Kazumi,Nishizaki Sayaka,Morita Tamae,Yagi Yusuke,Takeuchi Seisho American journal of infection control BACKGROUND:Hospital-wide multifaceted approaches can improve hand hygiene compliance in health care workers. However, the true effects of monitoring and feedback interventions are not clear. METHODS:Hand hygiene compliance was evaluated by applying direct observation techniques over 5 years (2005-2009) in a tertiary care general hospital in Japan. The observed results were periodically reported as feedback to the health care workers. RESULTS:The overall hand hygiene compliance rate increased from 50.8% in 2005 to 61.0% in 2006 (P = .004) and was sustained at approximately 60% through the completion of the study. The compliance rate for the indication before entering the room increased from 2005 to 2009 (P = .005). The compliance rates for 4 before patient contact indications increased from 2005 to 2009 (P = .002). The combined compliance rate for the 6 indications with the lowest compliance rates in 2005 increased from 2005 to 2009 (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS:Direct observation and feedback methods are effective strategies that resulted in a long-lasting improvement in hand hygiene compliance that was sustained over 5 years through the completion of the study. Focusing on the procedures with high baseline noncompliance rates can be an effective way to improve the overall compliance. 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.07.011
    Do WiFi-based hand hygiene dispenser systems increase hand hygiene compliance? Scheithauer Simone,Bickenbach Johannes,Heisel Hans,Fehling Patrick,Marx Gernot,Lemmen Sebastian American journal of infection control Innovative methods to ensure better compliance in hand hygiene are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to determine if WiFi-based hand hygiene dispenser-driven self-assessment systems (Wireless Fidelity, WiFi-dispenser) can support the work of infection control teams. Our results suggest that the continuous monitoring of dispenser usage can be a valuable addition to infection prevention and control programs, when used in a bundle in combination with conventional hand hygiene training. 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.03.026
    Improvement of hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in intensive care units. Anwar M M,Elareed H R Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene Aim:Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component in preventing healthcare associated infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate HH compliance among health care workers (HCWs) in intensive care units at Beni-Suef university hospital, Egypt before and after an intervention educational program. Methods:Data were collected by using the standardized WHO method for direct observation ''Five moments for HH'' approach. Observations were conducted in six ICUs before intervention (March to April 2017) and after the intervention (July to August 2017). The study included 608 opportunities (observations) among 177 HCWs collected before and 673 opportunities among 163 HCWs collected after the intervention. Results:Overall HH compliance increased significantly from 30.9 (95% CI: 27.2-34.6%) before intervention to 69.5 (95% CI: 65.2-72.6%) post intervention; with the highest HH compliance rate among nurses compared to physicians and workers (P = 0.001). Significantly higher HH compliance rates were observed after body fluid exposure, before aseptic procedures, and after patient contact compared to before patient contact and after patient surrounding contact (P = 0.001). In binary logistic regression analyses a statistically significant difference was shown (P = 0.047) for HH compliance among events before and after patient contact (OR = 1.399, 95% CI: 1.004-1.948). Conclusions:The interventional educational program improved the HH compliance among ICUs-HCWs at Beni-Suef university hospital. The hospital should conduct monthly observational monitoring for the ICUs units sharing the findings to spread best practices. Provision of sustained training programs to help efficient and effective HH for care delivery is mandatory. 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2019.60.1.918
    Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance. Anderson Maureen E C,Sargeant Jan M,Weese J Scott BMC veterinary research BACKGROUND:Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. RESULTS:Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. CONCLUSIONS:Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Improving the infection control culture in veterinary medicine would facilitate future campaigns and studies in this area, as well as overall patient and staff safety. 10.1186/1746-6148-10-106
    Determinants of success and sustainability of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene promotion campaign, Italy, 2007-2008 and 2014. Moro Maria Luisa,Morsillo Filomena,Nascetti Simona,Parenti Mita,Allegranzi Benedetta,Pompa Maria Grazia,Pittet Didier Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin A national hand hygiene promotion campaign based on the World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal, Clean Care is Safer Care campaign was launched in Italy in 2007. One hundred seventy-five hospitals from 14 of 20 Italian regions participated. Data were collected using methods and tools provided by the WHO campaign, translated into Italian. Hand hygiene compliance, ward infrastructure, and healthcare workers' knowledge and perception of healthcare-associated infections and hand hygiene were evaluated before and after campaign implementation. Compliance data from the 65 hospitals returning complete data for all implementation tools were analysed using a multilevel approach. Overall, hand hygiene compliance increased in the 65 hospitals from 40% to 63% (absolute increase: 23%, 95% confidence interval: 22-24%). A wide variation in hand hygiene compliance among wards was observed; inter-ward variability significantly decreased after campaign implementation and the level of perception was the only item associated with this. Long-term sustainability in 48 of these 65 hospitals was assessed in 2014 using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework tool. Of the 48 hospitals, 44 scored in the advanced/intermediate categories of hand hygiene implementation progress. The median hand hygiene compliance achieved at the end of the 2007-2008 campaign appeared to be sustained in 2014. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.23.30546
    Utilizing improvement science methods to improve physician compliance with proper hand hygiene. White Christine M,Statile Angela M,Conway Patrick H,Schoettker Pamela J,Solan Lauren G,Unaka Ndidi I,Vidwan Navjyot,Warrick Stephen D,Yau Connie,Connelly Beverly L Pediatrics OBJECTIVE:In 2009, The Joint Commission challenged hospitals to reduce the risk of health care-associated infections through hand hygiene compliance. At our hospital, physicians had lower compliance rates than other health care workers, just 68% on general pediatric units. We used improvement methods and reliability science to increase compliance with proper hand hygiene to >95% by inpatient general pediatric teams. METHODS:Strategies to improve hand hygiene were tested through multiple plan-do-study-act cycles, first by 1 general inpatient medical team and then spread to 4 additional teams. At the start of each rotation, residents completed an educational module and posttest about proper hand hygiene. Team compliance data were displayed daily in the resident conference room. Real-time identification and mitigation of failures by a hand-washing champion encouraged shared accountability. Organizational support ensured access to adequate hand hygiene supplies. The main outcome measure was percent compliance with acceptable hand hygiene, defined as use of an alcohol-based product or hand-washing with soap and turning off the faucet without using fingers or palm. Compliance was defined as acceptable hand hygiene before and after contact with the patient or care environment. Covert bedside observers recorded at least 8 observations of physicians' compliance per day. RESULTS:Physician compliance with proper hand hygiene improved to >95% within 6 months and was sustained for 11 months. CONCLUSIONS:Instituting a hand-washing champion for immediate identification and mitigation of failures was key in sustaining results. Improving physician compliance with proper hand hygiene is achievable and a first step in decreasing health care-associated infections. 10.1542/peds.2011-1864
    Hand Hygiene Improvement and Sustainability: Assessing a Breakthrough Collaborative in Western Switzerland. Staines Anthony,Amherdt Isabelle,Lécureux Estelle,Petignat Christiane,Eggimann Philippe,Schwab Marcos,Pittet Didier Infection control and hospital epidemiology OBJECTIVE To assess hand hygiene improvement and sustainability associated with a Breakthrough Collaborative. DESIGN Multicenter analysis of hand hygiene compliance through direct observation by trained observers. SETTING A total of 5 publicly funded hospitals in 14 locations, with a total of 1,152 beds, in the County of Vaud, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Clinical staff. INTERVENTIONS In total, 59,272 opportunities for hand hygiene were monitored for the duration of the study, for an average of 5,921 per audit (range, 5,449-6,852). An 18-month Hand Hygiene Breakthrough Collaborative was conducted to implement the WHO multimodal promotional strategy including improved access to alcohol-based hand rub, education, performance measurement and feedback, reminders and communication, leadership engagement, and safety culture. RESULTS Overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 61.9% to 88.3% (P<.001) over 18 months and was sustained at 88.9% (P=.248) 12 months after the intervention. Hand hygiene compliance among physicians increased from 62% to 85% (P<.001) and finally 86% at follow-up (P=.492); for nursing staff, compliance improved from 64% to 90% (P<.001) and finally 90% at follow-up (P=.464); for physiotherapists compliance improved from 50% to 90% (P<.001) and finally 91% at follow-up (P=.619); for X-ray technicians compliance improved from 45% to 80% (P<.001) and finally 81% at follow-up (P=.686). Hand hygiene compliance also significantly increased with sustained improvement across all hand hygiene indications and all hospitals. CONCLUSIONS A rigorously conducted multicenter project combining the Breakthrough Collaborative method for its structure and the WHO multimodal strategy for content and measurement was associated with significant and substantial improvement in compliance across all professions, all hand hygiene indications, and all participating hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1420-1427. 10.1017/ice.2017.180
    Using targeted solution tools as an initiative to improve hand hygiene: challenges and lessons learned. Al-Tawfiq J A,Treble M,Abdrabalnabi R,Okeahialam C,Khazindar S,Myers S Epidemiology and infection The Joint Commission Centre for Transforming Healthcare's Web-based Targeted Solutions Tool (TST) for improving hand hygiene was implemented to elucidate contributing factors to low compliance rates of hand hygiene. Monitoring of compliance was done by trained unknown and known observers and rates of hospital-acquired infections were tracked and correlated against the changes in hand hygiene compliance. In total, 5669 of hand hygiene observations were recorded by the secret observers. The compliance rate increased from 75·4% at baseline (May-August 2014) to 88·6% during the intervention (13 months) and the control periods (P < 0·0001). Reductions in healthcare-associated infection rates were recorded for Clostridium difficle infections from 7·95 (CI 0·8937-28·72) to 1·84 (CI 0·02411-10·26) infections per 10 000 patient-days (P = 0·23), central line-associated blood-stream infections from 5·9 (CI 1·194-17·36) to 2·9 (0·7856-7·475) per 1000 device days (P = 0·37) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections from 5·941 (CI 1·194-17·36) to 0 per 1000 device days (P = 0·42). The top contributing factors for non-compliance were: improper use of gloves, hands full of supplies or medications and frequent entry or exit in isolation areas. We conclude that the application of TST allows healthcare organisations to improve hand hygiene compliance and to identify the factors contributing to non-compliance. 10.1017/S0950268817002758
    Improved hand hygiene compliance after eliminating mandatory glove use from contact precautions-Is less more? Cusini Alexia,Nydegger Doris,Kaspar Tanja,Schweiger Alexander,Kuhn Rolf,Marschall Jonas American journal of infection control BACKGROUND:Guidelines recommend that health care personnel (HCP) wear gloves for all interactions with patients on contact precautions. We aimed to assess hand hygiene (HH) compliance during contact precautions before and after eliminating mandatory glove use. METHODS:We assessed HH compliance of HCP in the care of patients on contact precautions in 50 series before (2009) and 6 months after (2012) eliminating mandatory glove use and compared these results with the hospital-wide HH compliance. RESULTS:We assessed 426 HH indications before and 492 indications after the policy change. Compared with 2009, we observed a significantly higher HH compliance in patients on contact precautions in 2012 (52%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 47-57) vs 85%; 95% CI, 82-88; P < .001). During the same period, hospital-wide HH compliance also increased from 63% (95% CI, 61-65) to 81% (95% CI 80-83) (P < .001). However, the relative improvement (RI) of HH compliance during contact precautions was significantly higher than the hospital-wide relative improvement (RI, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.49-1.81 vs 1.29; 95% CI, 1.25-1.34), with a relative improvement ratio of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15-1.41). CONCLUSION:Eliminating mandatory glove use in the care of patients on contact precautions increased HH compliance in our institution, particularly before invasive procedures and before patient contacts. Further studies on the effect on pathogen transmission are needed before revisiting the current official guidelines on the topic. 10.1016/j.ajic.2015.05.019
    "Priming" hand hygiene compliance in clinical environments. King Dominic,Vlaev Ivo,Everett-Thomas Ruth,Fitzpatrick Maureen,Darzi Ara,Birnbach David J Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association INTRODUCTION:Effective hand hygiene is the single most important procedure in preventing hospital-acquired infections. Traditional information/education-based interventions have shown only modest benefits on compliance. This study set out to investigate whether priming via olfactory and visual cues influences hand hygiene compliance. METHOD:Randomized controlled trial set in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. The primary outcome data involved observations-a mix of health professionals and service users were observed entering the SICU by 2 trained observers and their hand hygiene compliance was independently verified. Interventions included either an olfactory prime (clean, citrus smell) or visual prime (male or female eyes). The primary outcome measure was hand hygiene compliance (HHC) measured by the visitor using the hand gel dispenser. RESULTS:At a 5% level there was significant evidence that a clean, citrus smell significantly improves HHC (46.9% vs. 15.0%, p = .0001). Compared to the control group, a significant improvement in HHC was seen when a picture of "male eyes" was placed over the hand gel dispenser (33.3% vs. 15.0%, p < .038). No significant improvement in HHC was seen when a picture of female eyes was placed over the same hand gel dispenser (10.0% vs. 15.0%, p = .626). CONCLUSIONS:This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that priming can influence HHC in a clinical setting. The findings suggest that priming interventions could be used to change other behaviors relevant to public health. 10.1037/hea0000239
    Magnified Bacteria Powerful Motivator for Hand Hygiene Compliance. Gregory Ashley ED management : the monthly update on emergency department management Infection prevention specialists at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit have found that showing healthcare workers magnified pictures of bacteria found ontheir hands and in their surrounding units can be a powerful motivator for improved hand hygiene compliance. When tested in four units during a one-month period, the intervention boosted hand hygiene compliance by an average of 24%. Investigators note that to be successful, the intervention must be paired with an effective compliance monitoring program. For the study, investigators visited each unit twice per week, during which they would swab various items as well as employees' hands using and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter, a hand-held device that measures living organisms. During each unit visit, infection prevention specialists would show unit personnel pictures from a compilation of 12 magnified images of bacteria that had been lifted from the unit. This was to demonstrate what the bacteria would look like under a microscope. The unsavory pictures produced immediate increases in had hygiene compliance, and prompted healthcare workers to see who could produce the best ATP meter readings on subsequent infection prevention specialist visits.
    Factors associated with hand hygiene compliance at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Kowitt Benjamin,Jefferson Julie,Mermel Leonard A Infection control and hospital epidemiology OBJECTIVE:To identify factors associated with hand hygiene compliance during a multiyear period of intervention. DESIGN:Observational study. SETTING:A 719-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS:Nursing, physician, technical, and support staff. METHODS:Light-duty staff performed hand hygiene observations during the period July 2008-December 2012. Infection control implemented hospital-wide hand hygiene initiatives, including education modules; posters and table tents; feedback to units, medical directors and the executive board; and an increased number of automated alcohol hand hygiene product dispensers. RESULTS:There were 161,526 unique observations; overall compliance was 83%. Significant differences in compliance were observed between physician staff (78%) and support staff (69%) compared with nursing staff (84%). Pediatric units (84%) and intensive care units (84%) had higher compliance than did medical (82%) and surgical units (81%). These findings persisted in the controlled multivariate model for noncompliance. Additional factors found to be significant in the model included greater compliance when healthcare workers were leaving patient rooms, when the patient was under contact precautions, and during the evening shift. The overall rate of compliance increased from 60% in the first year of observation to a peak of 96% in the fourth year, and it decreased to 89% in the final year, with significant improvements occurring in each of the 4 professional categories. CONCLUSIONS:A multipronged hand hygiene initiative is effective in increasing compliance rates among all categories of hospital workers. We identified a variety of factors associated with increased compliance. Additionally, we note the importance of continuous interventions in maintaining high compliance rates. 10.1086/673465
    An educational intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Vietnam. Phan Hang Thi,Tran Hang Thi Thuy,Tran Hanh Thi My,Dinh Anh Pham Phuong,Ngo Ha Thanh,Theorell-Haglow Jenny,Gordon Christopher J BMC infectious diseases BACKGROUND:Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this study was to determine hand hygiene compliance following an educational program in an obstetric and gynecological hospital in Vietnam. METHODS:Health care workers from neonatal intensive care, delivery suite and a surgical ward from Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam undertook a 4-h educational program targeting hand hygiene. Compliance was monitored monthly for six months following the intervention. Hand hygiene knowledge was assessed at baseline and after six months of the study. RESULTS:There were 7124 opportunities over 370 hand hygiene recording sessions with 1531 opportunities at baseline and 1620 at 6 months following the intervention. Hand hygiene compliance increased significantly from baseline across all sites (43.6% [95% Confidence interval CI: 41.1-46.1] to 63% [95% CI: 60.6-65.3]; p < 0.0001). Health care worker hand hygiene compliance increased significantly after intervention (p < 0.0001). There were significant improvements in knowledge scores from baseline to 2 months post educational intervention with mean difference standard deviations (SD): 1.5 (2.5); p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:A simple educational model was implemented in a Vietnamese hospital that revealed good hand hygiene compliance for an extended period of time. Hand hygiene knowledge increased during the intervention. This hand hygiene model could be used in developing countries were resources are limited. 10.1186/s12879-018-3029-5
    [Intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Catalonia, Spain]. Sobrequés Jordi,Espuñes Jordi,Bañeres Joaquim Medicina clinica Hand hygiene (HM) is the single most important measure and effective in reducing the risk of Healthcare acquired infections (IRAS). Although HM is an effective, simple and cheap measure, it is usual to find results of low compliance among health professionals. The main objective of this strategy has been to give new force to the promotion of HM in hospitals and educate professionals about the importance of this single action. The strategy was planned as a multicenter intervention study to promote HM in health centers of Catalonia in 2009-2010. The intervention is based on 4 main areas: a survey of barriers and facilitators, distribution of graphic material, training at different levels and measure of quality indicators. With this strategy a total of 57% of the number of acute beds in the concerted public and private network of hospitals were reached. The survey revealed that training was perceived as the main facilitator of the HM action. 15,376 professionals registered to the on-line training. The overall compliance with HM indications (based on "five moments for HM") was 56.45% in the acute areas. The campaigns and programs to promote HM carried out in the last four years in Catalonia has helped to achieve an increasing number of hospitals associated to the strategy of the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia. The on-line curse acceptance was very high and seems a powerful tool to improve hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among health professionals. The compliance of HM seems to increase in the hospitals of Catalonia evaluated. 10.1016/j.medcli.2014.07.009
    Implementing a multi-faceted framework for proprietorship of hand hygiene compliance in a network of South African hospitals: leveraging the Ubuntu philosophy. Brink A J,Messina A P,Maslo C,Swart K,Chunnilall D,van den Bergh D, The Journal of hospital infection BACKGROUND:Given the lack of hospital-wide ownership and shortage of nurses, the ideal model for large-scale implementation of hand hygiene (HH) behaviour change in low- and middle-income countries is unknown. AIM:The aim of the multi-modal strategy was to engender hospital accountability for HH compliance. METHODS:The quasi-experimental study was conducted in 50 South African hospitals (November 2015 to July 2017) and involved five overlapping phases: executive governance and corporate behaviour change; group-wide systematic situational analysis; development of an electronic-assisted direct-observed data collection and analysis application; launch and implementation; and accountable governance. Measurement of intra- and inter-hospital variance to six HH opportunities was calculated and data compliance dashboards were e-mailed weekly to hospital leadership teams to provide feedback of recorded HH compliance and behaviour to frontline teams. Baseline comparison (July 2016) of compliance was compared versus post-implementation (July 2017). FINDINGS:Baseline HH compliance of ≤60% was documented for 16% (8/50) of hospitals, whereas overall, 48% (24/50) of hospitals demonstrated a significant improvement (P < 0.01). Over the 13-month observation period, 523,422 observations were recorded with a mean rate of 277 ± 223 observations per 1000 patient-days. The group mean composite compliance improved by 7.8% (P < 0.01) from 77.4% ± 12.8 to 85.2% ± 8.8 between July 2016 and July 2017, respectively. CONCLUSION:Implementation of a multi-faceted HH model in a large, diverse group of South African hospitals translated into changes in the organizational systems and accountability, standardized HH compliance management and feedback that led to HH proprietorship. 10.1016/j.jhin.2019.11.004
    Improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers: an intervention study in a Hospital in Guizhou Province, China. Mu Xia,Xu Yan,Yang Tingxiu,Zhang Ji,Wang Chong,Liu Wei,Chen Jing,Tang Luyu,Yang Huai The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases OBJECTIVE:Hand hygiene (HH) is a critical component for controlling hospital-acquired infection (HAI). The present study was designed to develop an intervention approach to improve compliance with HH among healthcare workers in a hospital setting. METHODS:The HH intervention study was conducted in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, China and organized by its Department of HAI Management. It was an observational, prospective, quasiexperimental (before-after intervention) study. The study was divided into two phases: the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The investigative team included clinical monitoring staff and infection control practitioners who received a series of instructions on HH compliance, monitoring skills, and measurement of the use of HH products. RESULTS:Based on 27,852 observations in a 17-month period, the rate of compliance with HH improved from 37.78% at baseline to 75.90% after intervention. Significant improvement in compliance and an increase in consumption of HH products was observed after intervention. The per patient-day consumption of alcohol-based hand rub products and handwash agents increased by 4.75mL and 4.55mL, respectively. The consumption of paper towels increased 3.41 sheets per patient-day. During the same period, the prevalence rate of HAI decreased 0.83%. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that a significant improvement in compliance with HH can be achieved through a systemic, multidimensional intervention approach involving all categories of healthcare workers in a hospital setting, which may result in a decrease of the HAI rate. 10.1016/j.bjid.2016.04.009
    Effects of the Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative after 8 years on infection control practices, health-care worker education, and clinical outcomes: a longitudinal study. Grayson M Lindsay,Stewardson Andrew J,Russo Philip L,Ryan Kate E,Olsen Karen L,Havers Sally M,Greig Susan,Cruickshank Marilyn, The Lancet. Infectious diseases BACKGROUND:The National Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) is a standardised culture-change programme based on the WHO My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among Australian health-care workers and reduce the risk of health-care-associated infections. We analysed its effectiveness. METHODS:In this longitudinal study, we assessed outcomes of the NHHI for the 8 years after implementation (between Jan 1, 2009, and June 30, 2017), including hospital participation, hand hygiene compliance (measured as the proportion of observed Moments) three times per year, educational engagement, cost, and association with the incidence of health-care-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB). FINDINGS:Between 2009 and 2017, increases were observed in national health-care facility participation (105 hospitals [103 public and two private] in 2009 vs 937 hospitals [598 public and 339 private] in 2017) and overall hand hygiene compliance (36 213 [63·6%] of 56 978 Moments [95% CI 63·2-63·9] in 2009 vs 494 673 [84·3%] of 586 559 Moments [84·2-84·4] in 2017; p<0·0001). Compliance also increased for each Moment type and for each health-care worker occupational group, including for medical staff (4377 [50·5%] of 8669 Moments [95% CI 49·4-51·5] in 2009 vs 53 620 [71·7%] of 74 788 Moments [71·4-72·0]; p<0·0001). 1 989 713 NHHI online learning credential programmes were completed. The 2016 NHHI budget was equivalent to AUD$0·06 per inpatient admission nationally. Among Australia's major public hospitals (n=132), improved hand hygiene compliance was associated with declines in the incidence of HA-SAB (incidence rate ratio 0·85; 95% CI 0·79-0·93; p≤0·0001): for every 10% increase in hand hygiene compliance, the incidence of HA-SAB decreased by 15%. INTERPRETATION:The NHHI has been associated with significant sustained improvement in hand hygiene compliance and a decline in the incidence of HA-SAB. Key features include sustained central coordination of a standardised approach and incorporation into hospital accreditation standards. The NHHI could be emulated in other national culture-change programmes. FUNDING:Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30491-2
    Changes in hand hygiene compliance after a multimodal intervention among health-care workers from intensive care units in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Mahfouz Ahmed A,Al-Zaydani Ibrahim A,Abdelaziz Ali O,El-Gamal Mohammad N,Assiri Abdullah M Journal of epidemiology and global health The aim of this study is to measure the degree of compliance with hand hygiene practices among health-care workers (HCWs) in intensive care facilities in Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia, before and after a multimodal intervention program based on WHO strategies. Data were collected by direct observation of HCWs while delivering routine care using standardized WHO method: "Five moments for hand hygiene approach". Observations were conducted before (February-April 2011) and after (February-April 2013) the intervention by well-trained, infection-control practitioners during their routine visits. The study included 1182 opportunities (observations) collected before and 2212 opportunities collected after the intervention. The overall, hand hygiene compliance increased significantly from 60.8% (95% CI: 57.9-63.6%) before the intervention to reach 86.4% (95% CI: 84.9-97.8%) post-intervention (P=0.001). The same trend was observed in different intensive care facilities. In logistic regression analyses, HCWs were significantly more compliant (aOR=3.2, 95% CI: 2.6-3.8) after the intervention. Similarly, being a nurse and events after patient contact were significant determinants of compliance. It is important to provide sustained intensified training programs to help embed efficient and effective hand hygiene into all elements of care delivery. New approaches like accountability, motivation and sanctions are needed. 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.05.002
    Effectiveness of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system on healthcare workers' compliance to guidelines. Al Salman J M,Hani S,de Marcellis-Warin N,Isa Sister Fatima Journal of infection and public health Hand hygiene is a growing concern among populations and is a crucial element in ensuring patient safety in a healthcare environment. Numerous management efforts have been conducted in that regard, including education, awareness and observations. To better evaluate the possible impact of technology on a healthcare setting, we observed the impact of a particular niche technology developed as an answer to the growing hand hygiene concerns. A study was conducted at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC) in Bahrain on a total of 16 Coronary Care Unit (CCU) beds where the system was installed, and the hand hygiene activity of healthcare workers (HCWs) in this area was monitored for a total period of 28 days. Comments, remarks and suggestions were noted, and improvements were made to the technology during the course of the trial. While resistance to change was significant, overall results were satisfactory. Compliance with hand hygiene techniques went from 38-42% to 60% at the beginning of the trial and then increased to an average of 75% at the end of the 28-day trial. In some cases, compliance peaked at 85% or even at 100%. Our case study demonstrates that technology can be used effectively in promoting and improving hand hygiene compliance in hospitals, which is one way to prevent cross-infections, especially in critical care areas. 10.1016/j.jiph.2014.07.019
    The Feedback Intervention Trial (FIT)--improving hand-hygiene compliance in UK healthcare workers: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial. Fuller Christopher,Michie Susan,Savage Joanne,McAteer John,Besser Sarah,Charlett Andre,Hayward Andrew,Cookson Barry D,Cooper Ben S,Duckworth Georgia,Jeanes Annette,Roberts Jenny,Teare Louise,Stone Sheldon PloS one INTRODUCTION:Achieving a sustained improvement in hand-hygiene compliance is the WHO's first global patient safety challenge. There is no RCT evidence showing how to do this. Systematic reviews suggest feedback is most effective and call for long term well designed RCTs, applying behavioural theory to intervention design to optimise effectiveness. METHODS:Three year stepped wedge cluster RCT of a feedback intervention testing hypothesis that the intervention was more effective than routine practice in 16 English/Welsh Hospitals (16 Intensive Therapy Units [ITU]; 44 Acute Care of the Elderly [ACE] wards) routinely implementing a national cleanyourhands campaign). Intervention-based on Goal & Control theories. Repeating 4 week cycle (20 mins/week) of observation, feedback and personalised action planning, recorded on forms. Computer-generated stepwise entry of all hospitals to intervention. Hospitals aware only of own allocation. PRIMARY OUTCOME:direct blinded hand hygiene compliance (%). RESULTS:All 16 trusts (60 wards) randomised, 33 wards implemented intervention (11 ITU, 22 ACE). Mixed effects regression analysis (all wards) accounting for confounders, temporal trends, ward type and fidelity to intervention (forms/month used). INTENTION TO TREAT ANALYSIS: Estimated odds ratio (OR) for hand hygiene compliance rose post randomisation (1.44; 95% CI 1.18, 1.76;p<0.001) in ITUs but not ACE wards, equivalent to 7-9% absolute increase in compliance. PER-PROTOCOL ANALYSIS FOR IMPLEMENTING WARDS: OR for compliance rose for both ACE (1.67 [1.28-2.22]; p<0.001) & ITUs (2.09 [1.55-2.81]; p<0.001) equating to absolute increases of 10-13% and 13-18% respectively. Fidelity to intervention closely related to compliance on ITUs (OR 1.12 [1.04, 1.20]; p = 0.003 per completed form) but not ACE wards. CONCLUSION:Despite difficulties in implementation, intention-to-treat, per-protocol and fidelity to intervention, analyses showed an intervention coupling feedback to personalised action planning produced moderate but significant sustained improvements in hand-hygiene compliance, in wards implementing a national hand-hygiene campaign. Further implementation studies are needed to maximise the intervention's effect in different settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN65246961. 10.1371/journal.pone.0041617
    Effect of a contact monitoring system with immediate visual feedback on hand hygiene compliance. Storey S J,FitzGerald G,Moore G,Knights E,Atkinson S,Smith S,Freeman O,Cryer P,Wilson A P R The Journal of hospital infection BACKGROUND:Hand hygiene compliance is traditionally monitored by visual methods that are open to bias and strictly limited in time and place. Automatic monitoring may be more effective for infection control as well as performance management. AIM:To establish accuracy and acceptability of an automatic contact monitoring system for hand hygiene. METHODS:Monitoring equipment was installed across 55 beds in three wards, and included modified identity badges, bedside furniture, sinks and alcohol gel dispensers. Badges were in near-skin contact (through uniform) and could detect alcohol vapour. All devices were linked by wi-fi. A traffic light system on the badge provided immediate feedback to staff and patients on the hand hygiene status of a member of staff on approach to a patient. Compliance was logged automatically. Following a period of immediate feedback, no visual feedback was given for two weeks. Subsequently, feedback was given using red/green lights for 10 days, followed by retrospective feedback to the ward. Hand hygiene was verified independently by an observer. FINDINGS:Hand hygiene compliance increased from 21% of 97 opportunities to 66% of 197 opportunities during active immediate feedback. Compliance decreased when feedback was provided to wards retrospectively. Six staff (26%) avoided wearing a badge, saying that it was too heavy or they were not on the ward all day. Only three of 30 patients stated that they would challenge staff who had not performed hand hygiene. CONCLUSIONS:Automatic contact monitoring with immediate feedback was effective in increasing hand hygiene compliance, but feedback given retrospectively did not prevent a decrease in compliance. 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.06.014
    A multimodal regional intervention strategy framed as friendly competition to improve hand hygiene compliance. van Dijk Manon D,Mulder Sanne A,Erasmus Vicki,van Beeck A H Elise,Vermeeren Joke M J J,Liu Xiaona,Beeck Ed F van,Vos Margreet C Infection control and hospital epidemiology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of friendly competition on hand hygiene compliance as part of a multimodal intervention program. DESIGN:Prospective observational study in which the primary outcome was hand hygiene compliance. Differences were analyzed using the Pearson χ2 test. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval were calculated using multilevel logistic regression. SETTING:Observations were performed in 9 public hospitals and 1 rehabilitation center in Rotterdam, Netherlands.ParticipantsFrom 2014 to 2016, at 5 time points (at 6-month intervals) in 120 hospital wards, 20,286 hand hygiene opportunities were observed among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare workers (HCWs).InterventionThe multimodal, friendly competition intervention consisted of mandatory interventions: monitoring and feedback of hand hygiene compliance and optional interventions (ie, e-learning, kick-off workshop, observer training, and team training). Hand hygiene opportunities, as formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO), were unobtrusively observed at 5 time points by trained observers. Compliance data were presented to the healthcare organizations as a ranking. RESULTS:The overall mean hand hygiene compliance at time point 1 was 42.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.4-44.4), which increased to 51.4% (95% CI, 49.8-53.0) at time point 5 (P&lt;.001). Nurses showed a significant improvement between time points 1 and 5 (P&lt;.001), whereas the compliance of physicians and other HCWs remained unchanged. In the multilevel logistic regressions, time points, type of ward, and type of HCW showed a significant association with compliance. CONCLUSION:Between the start and the end of the multimodal intervention program in a friendly competition setting, overall hand hygiene compliance increased significantly. 10.1017/ice.2018.261
    A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance. Patel B,Engelbrecht H,McDonald H,Morris V,Smythe W South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde BACKGROUND:Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. OBJECTIVE:To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. METHODS:This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. RESULTS:Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p&lt;0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p&lt;0.05). CONCLUSION:The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital. 10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106i4.10671
    The Safety Stand-down: A Technique for Improving and Sustaining Hand Hygiene Compliance Among Health Care Personnel. Cunningham Dennis,Brilli Richard J,McClead Richard E,Davis J Terrance Journal of patient safety OBJECTIVES:Hand hygiene (HH) is critical to prevent health care-acquired infections. However, compliance by health care workers remains between 30% and 70% at most institutions. Most efforts to improve compliance have proven ineffective. The objective of this study was to determine whether a safety stand-down can improve HH compliance. METHODS:We adapted and borrowed from the military an approach known as a stand-down. A mandatory Hand-Hygiene Leadership Safety Summit was called for all hospital leaders-physicians and nonphysicians. Four days later, a hospital-wide 15-minute-long safety stand-down occurred, during which all nonessential activity was suspended and action plans to improve HH compliance were discussed. All medical sections and hospital departments were required to submit written action plans. After the stand-down, HH compliance monitoring was increased, and noncompliers were required to speak to senior hospital administration. RESULTS:Compliance increased from less than 65% to greater than 95% (P < 0.001) and has been sustained for 3½ years. CONCLUSIONS:A health care safety stand-down can be an effective method to rapidly change and sustain culture change regarding HH in the inpatient hospital setting. 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000172
    Hand hygiene compliance in intensive care units: An observational study. Hoffmann Magdalena,Sendlhofer Gerald,Gombotz Veronika,Pregartner Gudrun,Zierler Renate,Schwarz Christine,Tax Christa,Brunner Gernot International journal of nursing practice AIM:Health care-associated infections along with antibiotic resistance are a leading risk for patient safety in intensive care units. Hygienic hand disinfection is still regarded as the most effective, simplest, and most cost-effective measure to reduce health care-associated infections. To improve hand hygiene compliance and to prevent health care-associated infections, interventions of the "German Clean Hands Campaign" were implemented in a university hospital. METHODS:Observational single-center study using direct observation and feedback. Hand hygiene performance was assessed in 12 intensive care units between 2013 and 2017. Linear mixed model regression analyses were used to estimate the compliance trend over time. RESULTS:In total, 10 315 "my five moments for hand hygiene" were observed. The mean hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 75.1% to 88.6% during the study period, yielding an estimated increase of about 4.5% per year. However, there are differences in compliance between occupational groups (physicians: between 61.2% and 77.1%; nurses: between 80.2% and 90.9%; others: between 61.3% and 82.4%). CONCLUSIONS:After implementation of the "German Clean Hands Campaign" interventions, an overall significant improvement of hand hygiene was detected. Compliance measurements helped to raise awareness among health care professional groups. 10.1111/ijn.12789
    Efficacy of observational hand hygiene audit with targeted feedback on doctors' hand hygiene compliance: A retrospective time series analysis. Smiddy Maura P,Murphy Olive M,Savage Eileen,Fitzgerald Anthony P,O' Sullivan Brenda,Murphy Catriona,Bernard Margaret,Browne John P Journal of infection prevention Background:Healthcare-associated infection compromises patient safety. Compliance with hand hygiene (HH) guidelines has been shown to be an effective method of reducing infection; however, it remains suboptimal and poorer among doctors compared to other healthcare workers. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between an individualised observational hand hygiene audit (OHHA) and feedback intervention with observed HH compliance. Methods:We used a retrospective interrupted time series design using OHHA data from a five-year period, 2011-2015. OHHA indicated poorer HH compliance among doctors than other healthcare workers in a 345-bed acute private hospital. An increase in orthopaedic surgical site infection prompted additional auditing of the orthopaedic unit further identifying substandard HH compliance among orthopaedic surgeons. In addition to ongoing HH interventions, an individualised hand hygiene audit and feedback intervention focusing on consultant orthopaedic surgeons was implemented. Observed HH compliance improved. The intervention was then extended to include all consultant doctors at the study site. Audit was implemented by trained clinical nurse managers during clinical rounds. Written audit feedback was provided by the infection prevention and control team. Results:HH compliance increased significantly among both orthopaedic surgeons and other consultant doctors, < 0.05. Conclusion:An individualised audit and feedback intervention was effective in improving compliance. Incorporation of OHHA with individualised feedback into routine daily practice needs to be considered as a quality improvement opportunity. This study has the potential to inform other audit and feedback interventions to maximise effectiveness and ensure implementation. 10.1177/1757177419833165
    A Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene Compliance of Nurses in the Hospital Setting. Rn Olena Doronina,Jones Denise,Martello Marianna,Biron Alain,Lavoie-Tremblay Mélanie Journal of nursing scholarship : an official publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing PURPOSE:The purpose of the present systematic review is to identify the interventions that improve hand hygiene compliance (HHC) specifically among nurses. METHODS:A systematic review was performed guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to evaluate the short and long-term effects of interventions to promote hand hygiene practices among nurses in the hospital setting. A search of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline Global Health, and Embase was conducted in addition to studies identified by the most recent systematic review. Six studies met inclusion criteria: three randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one controlled before and after studies (CBAs), and two interrupted times series (ITS). FINDINGS:One RCT reported effectiveness and 6-month sustainability of the effect related to multimodal-directed and multimodal with team leadership-directed strategies. The other two RCTs found positive effect of education and feedback on compliance; however, compliance rates declined after 1 month. Education was also found to improve HHC up to 3 months postintervention. An electronic reminder and feedback system evaluated by an ITS improved HHC and detected variation in HHC through the day. CONCLUSIONS:This review showed that single and combined interventions do improve hand hygiene practices among nurses; however, there is a need for more methodologically robust studies to define the most effective and sustainable interventions. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Although hand hygiene is the most effective measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections, compliance with hand hygiene remains low. Nurses are among the healthcare providers who spend the most time in direct patient contact. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify the interventions that improve HHC in this group. 10.1111/jnu.12274
    Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in patient care. Gould Dinah J,Moralejo Donna,Drey Nicholas,Chudleigh Jane H,Taljaard Monica The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Health care-associated infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is regarded as an effective preventive measure. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES:To assess the short- and long-term success of strategies to improve compliance to recommendations for hand hygiene, and to determine whether an increase in hand hygiene compliance can reduce rates of health care-associated infection. SEARCH METHODS:We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL. We conducted the searches from November 2009 to October 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) that evaluated any intervention to improve compliance with hand hygiene using soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), or both. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two review authors independently screened citations for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias for each included study. Meta-analysis was not possible, as there was substantial heterogeneity across studies. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach and present the results narratively in a 'Summary of findings' table. MAIN RESULTS:This review includes 26 studies: 14 randomised trials, two non-randomised trials and 10 ITS studies. Most studies were conducted in hospitals or long-term care facilities in different countries, and collected data from a variety of healthcare workers. Fourteen studies assessed the success of different combinations of strategies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to improve hand hygiene compliance. Strategies consisted of the following: increasing the availability of ABHR, different types of education for staff, reminders (written and verbal), different types of performance feedback, administrative support, and staff involvement. Six studies assessed different types of performance feedback, two studies evaluated education, three studies evaluated cues such as signs or scent, and one study assessed placement of ABHR. Observed hand hygiene compliance was measured in all but three studies which reported product usage. Eight studies also reported either infection or colonisation rates. All studies had two or more sources of high or unclear risks of bias, most often associated with blinding or independence of the intervention.Multimodal interventions that include some but not all strategies recommended in the WHO guidelines may slightly improve hand hygiene compliance (five studies; 56 centres) and may slightly reduce infection rates (three studies; 34 centres), low certainty of evidence for both outcomes.Multimodal interventions that include all strategies recommended in the WHO guidelines may slightly reduce colonisation rates (one study; 167 centres; low certainty of evidence). It is unclear whether the intervention improves hand hygiene compliance (five studies; 184 centres) or reduces infection (two studies; 16 centres) because the certainty of this evidence is very low.Multimodal interventions that contain all strategies recommended in the WHO guidelines plus additional strategies may slightly improve hand hygiene compliance (six studies; 15 centres; low certainty of evidence). It is unclear whether this intervention reduces infection rates (one study; one centre; very low certainty of evidence).Performance feedback may improve hand hygiene compliance (six studies; 21 centres; low certainty of evidence). This intervention probably slightly reduces infection (one study; one centre) and colonisation rates (one study; one centre) based on moderate certainty of evidence.Education may improve hand hygiene compliance (two studies; two centres), low certainty of evidence.Cues such as signs or scent may slightly improve hand hygiene compliance (three studies; three centres), low certainty of evidence.Placement of ABHR close to point of use probably slightly improves hand hygiene compliance (one study; one centre), moderate certainty of evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:With the identified variability in certainty of evidence, interventions, and methods, there remains an urgent need to undertake methodologically robust research to explore the effectiveness of multimodal versus simpler interventions to increase hand hygiene compliance, and to identify which components of multimodal interventions or combinations of strategies are most effective in a particular context. 10.1002/14651858.CD005186.pub4
    Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in emergency departments: a systematic review. Seo H-J,Sohng K-Y,Chang S O,Chaung S K,Won J S,Choi M-J The Journal of hospital infection The emergency department (ED) is where hand hygiene problems are significant as the procedures in the ED are often high risk and invasive. To date, there have been no comprehensive reviews on hand hygiene in EDs. The aim of this study was to investigate hand hygiene compliance (HHC) rate, factors affecting the HHC rate, and intervention strategies to improve HHC in EDs. Electronic databases were used to search for research published from 1948 to January 2018. The databases included ovidMEDLINE, ovidEMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Koreamed, and Kmbase. All study designs were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the bias risk using reliable and validated tools. A narrative synthesis was performed. Twenty-four studies, including 12 cross-sectional surveys and 12 interventional studies, were included. Of the 12 interventional studies reviewed, only 33% (N = 4) reported HHC rates of more than 50%. Factors that influenced HHC included types of healthcare worker, hand hygiene indication, ED crowding, positive attitudes towards HHC, patient location, auditing hand hygiene, and type of shift. Almost all of the studies (83.3%) applied multimodal or dual interventions to improve HHC. A range of strategies, including education, monitoring and providing feedback, campaigns, and cues, effectively improved HHC. The review findings indicate that there is a room for improvement in HHC in EDs. Future randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine which intervention modalities are most effective and sustainable for HHC improvement. 10.1016/j.jhin.2019.03.013