Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Obesity.
Virdis Agostino,Masi Stefano,Colucci Rocchina,Chiriacò Martina,Uliana Monica,Puxeddu Ilaria,Bernardini Nunzia,Blandizzi Corrado,Taddei Stefano
Current hypertension reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To examine the state of the art on the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in the microcirculation of patients with obesity, focusing on the complex relationship between the consolidated and the novel mechanisms involved in this alteration. RECENT FINDINGS:Human obesity is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, caused by a reduced nitric oxide availability secondary to an enhanced oxidative stress production. Pro-inflammatory cytokine generation, secreted by perivascular adipose tissue, is a major mechanism whereby obesity is associated with a reduced vascular NO availability. Vasculature also represents a source of low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress which contribute to endothelial dysfunction in obese patients. Recently, a direct influence of arginase on endothelial function by reducing nitric oxide availability was demonstrated in small vessels from patients with severe obesity. This effect is modulated by ageing and related to the high levels of vascular oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and enzymatic pathways are important players in the pathophysiology of obesity-related vascular disease. The identification of new therapeutic approaches able to interfere with these mechanisms will result in more effective prevention of the cardiovascular complications associated with obesity.
Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity.
El Husseny Mostafa Wanees Ahmed,Mamdouh Mediana,Shaban Sara,Ibrahim Abushouk Abdelrahman,Zaki Marwa Mostafa Mohamed,Ahmed Osama M,Abdel-Daim Mohamed M
Journal of diabetes research
Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.
Oxidative and inflammatory signals in obesity-associated vascular abnormalities.
Reho John J,Rahmouni Kamal
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part due to vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. The hypertension and other health complications that arise from these vascular defects increase the risk of heart diseases and stroke. Prooxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways as well as adipocyte-derived factors have emerged as critical mediators of obesity-associated vascular abnormalities. Designing treatments aimed specifically at improving the vascular dysfunction caused by obesity may provide an effective therapeutic approach to prevent the cardiovascular sequelae associated with excessive adiposity. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting the role of oxidative stress and cytokines and inflammatory signals within the vasculature as well as the impact of the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the regulation of vascular function and arterial stiffening in obesity. In particular, we focus on the highly plastic nature of the vasculature in response to altered oxidant and inflammatory signaling and highlight how weight management can be an effective therapeutic approach to reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and improve vascular function.
Obesity and renal disease: not all fat is created equal and not all obesity is harmful to the kidneys.
Stefan Norbert,Artunc Ferruh,Heyne Nils,Machann Jürgen,Schleicher Erwin D,Häring Hans-Ulrich
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and contributes to many health problems, including kidney disease. Unexpectedly, 10-30% of obese individuals are apparently not at increased risk of metabolic diseases, e.g. type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and risk of renal disease. Their phenotype is labeled 'metabolically healthy obesity'. In the search for mechanisms explaining this unexpected condition, a favourable type of body fat distribution with low insulin resistance and with low subclinical inflammation has been identified. Furthermore, signalling pathways have been found that distinguish between metabolically benign and malignant obesity. In addition, the important roles of fatty acids, adipokines and hepatokines were identified. These factors regulate insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation. Onset and evolution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are affected by obesity. CKD also increases the risk of insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation, two pathways that play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal malfunction. This brief review summarizes novel insights, specifically how distinct body fat compartments (including perivascular and even renal sinus fat) may have an impact on progression of CKD.
Cardiac Computed Tomography: Assessment of Coronary Inflammation and Other Plaque Features.
Oikonomou Evangelos K,West Henry W,Antoniades Charalambos
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Unstable coronary plaques that are prone to erosion and rupture are the major cause of acute coronary syndromes. Our expanding understanding of the biological mechanisms of coronary atherosclerosis and rapid technological advances in the field of medical imaging has established cardiac computed tomography as a first-line diagnostic test in the assessment of suspected coronary artery disease, and as a powerful method of detecting the vulnerable plaque and patient. Cardiac computed tomography can provide a noninvasive, yet comprehensive, qualitative and quantitative assessment of coronary plaque burden, detect distinct high-risk morphological plaque features, assess the hemodynamic significance of coronary lesions and quantify the coronary inflammatory burden by tracking the effects of arterial inflammation on the composition of the adjacent perivascular fat. Furthermore, advances in machine learning, computational fluid dynamic modeling, and the development of targeted contrast agents continue to expand the capabilities of cardiac computed tomography imaging. In our Review, we discuss the current role of cardiac computed tomography in the assessment of coronary atherosclerosis, highlighting its dual function as a clinical and research tool that provides a wealth of structural and functional information, with far-reaching diagnostic and prognostic implications.
Adipocytes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Putative Potential Role of Adipocytes in the Process of AAA Development.
Kugo Hirona,Moriyama Tatsuya,Zaima Nobuhiro
Current drug targets
BACKGROUND:Adipose tissue plays a role in the storage of excess energy as triglycerides (TGs). Excess fat accumulation causes various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that ectopic fat deposition and excess TG accumulation in non-adipose tissue might be important predictors of cardiometabolic and vascular risk. For example, ectopic fat in perivascular tissue promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation in the arterial wall. OBJECTIVE:Recently, it has been reported that ectopic fat (adipocyte) in the vascular wall of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is present in both human and experimental animal models. The pathological significance of adipocytes in the AAA wall has not been fully understood. In this review, we summarized the functions of adipocytes and discussed potential new drugs that target vascular adipocytes for AAA treatment. RESULT:Previous studies suggest that adipocytes in vascular wall play an important role in the development of AAA. CONCLUSION:Adipocytes in the vascular wall could be novel targets for the development of AAA therapeutic drugs.
The Local Regulation of Vascular Function: From an Inside-Outside to an Outside-Inside Model.
Nava Eduardo,Llorens Silvia
Frontiers in physiology
Our understanding of the regulation of vascular function, specifically that of vasomotion, has evolved dramatically over the past few decades. The classic conception of a vascular system solely regulated by circulating hormones and sympathetic innervation gave way to a vision of a local regulation. Initially by the so-called, autacoids like prostacyclin, which represented the first endothelium-derived paracrine regulator of smooth muscle. This was the prelude of the EDRF-nitric oxide age that has occupied vascular scientists for nearly 30 years. Endothelial cells revealed to have the ability to generate numerous mediators besides prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). The need to classify these substances led to the coining of the terms: endothelium-derived relaxing, hyperpolarizing and contracting factors, which included various prostaglandins, thromboxane A2, endothelin, as well numerous candidates for the hyperpolarizing factor. The opposite layer of the vascular wall, the adventitia, eventually and for a quite short period of time, enjoyed the attention of some vascular physiologists. Adventitial fibroblasts were recognized as paracrine cells to the smooth muscle because of their ability to produce some substances such as superoxide. Remarkably, this took place before our awareness of the functional potential of another adventitial cell, the adipocyte. Possibly, because the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) was systematically removed during the experiments as considered a non-vascular artifact tissue, it took quite long to be considered a major source of paracrine substances. These are now being integrated in the vast pool of mediators synthesized by adipocytes, known as adipokines. They include hormones involved in metabolic regulation, like leptin or adiponectin; classic vascular mediators like NO, angiotensin II or catecholamines; and inflammatory mediators or adipocytokines. The first substance studied was an anti-contractile factor named adipose-derived relaxing factor of uncertain chemical nature but possibly, some of the relaxing mediators mentioned above are behind this factor. This manuscript intends to review the vascular regulation from the point of view of the paracrine control exerted by the cells present in the vascular environment, namely, endothelial, adventitial, adipocyte and vascular stromal cells.
Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Obesity: Role of TNF-α.
Virdis Agostino,Colucci Rocchina,Bernardini Nunzia,Blandizzi Corrado,Taddei Stefano,Masi Stefano
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Context:Endothelium guarantees vascular homeostasis by the opposite action of substances by vasodilating/antithrombogenic and vasoconstricting/prothrombotic activities. Obesity is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with a condition of vascular low-grade inflammation. Evidence Acquisition:Analysis of available basic or clinical papers published in peer-reviewed international journals on microcirculation and obesity. Evidence Synthesis:Vascular low-grade inflammation, which characterizes obesity, is secondary to abnormal production of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α. TNF-α, generated either in small vessels or within the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) of patients with obesity, stimulates reactive oxygen species generation, mainly through NAD(P)H oxidase activation, which in turn reduces nitric oxide (NO) availability. These aspects are highlighted by the insulin resistance status and macronutrient intake that characterize the obesity condition. Oxidant excess has also been proposed as a mechanism whereby TNF-α interferes with the endothelin-1/NO system at the level of small vessels from patients with obesity. Conclusions:In obesity, microvasculature from visceral fat is an important source of low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress that, together with the PVAT, directly contribute to vascular changes, favoring the development and acceleration of the vascular atherothrombotic process in this clinical condition.
Browning of White Fat: Novel Insight Into Factors, Mechanisms, and Therapeutics.
Jeremic Nevena,Chaturvedi Pankaj,Tyagi Suresh C
Journal of cellular physiology
What is more interesting about brown adipose tissue (BAT) is its ability to provide thermogenesis, protection against obesity by clearing triglycerides, releasing batokines, and mitigating insulin resistance. White adipose tissue (WAT) on the other hand stores excess energy and secretes some endocrine factors like leptin for regulating satiety. For the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the browning of fat keeping in view its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and protection in the form of perivascular fat. Obesity is one such metabolic disorder that leads to significant morbidity and mortality from obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease risk. Browning of white fat paves the way to restrict obesity and obesity related disorders. Although exercise has been the most common factor for fat browning; however, there are other factors that involve: (1) beta aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA); (2) gamma amino butyric acid (GABA); (3) PPARɣ agonists; (4) JAK inhibition; and (5) IRISIN. In this review, we propose two novel factors musclin and TFAM for fat browning. Musclin a myokine released from muscles during exercise activates PPARɣ which induces browning of WAT that has beneficial metabolic and cardiac effects. TFAM is a transcription factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Since BAT is rich in mitochondria, higher expression of TFAM in WAT or TFAM treatment in WAT cells can induce browning of WAT. We propose that fat browning can be used as a therapeutic tool for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 61-68, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vascular hyperpolarization in human physiology and cardiovascular risk conditions and disease.
Schinzari F,Tesauro M,Cardillo C
Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)
Hyperpolarization causing smooth muscle relaxation contributes to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, particularly in small-calibre arteries and arterioles. It may also become a compensatory vasodilator mechanism upregulated in states with impaired nitric oxide (NO) availability. Bioassay of vascular hyperpolarization in the human circulation has been hampered by the complexity of mechanisms involved and the limited availability of investigational tools. Firm evidence, however, supports the notion that hyperpolarization participates in the regulation of resting vasodilator tone and vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. In addition, an enhanced endothelium-derived hyperpolarization contributes to both resting and agonist-stimulated vasodilation in a variety of cardiovascular risk conditions and disease. Thus, hyperpolarization mediated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and H O has been observed in coronary arterioles of patients with coronary artery disease. Similarly, ouabain-sensitive and EETs-mediated hyperpolarization has been observed to compensate for NO deficiency in patients with essential hypertension. Moreover, in non-hypertensive patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and in hypercholesterolaemia, K channel-mediated vasodilation appears to be activated. A novel paradigm establishes that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is an additional regulator of vascular tone/function and endothelium is not the only agent in vascular hyperpolarization. Indeed, some PVAT-derived relaxing substances, such as adiponectin and angiotensin 1-7, may exert anticontractile and vasodilator actions by the opening of K channels in smooth muscle cells. Conversely, PVAT-derived factors impair coronary vasodilation via differential inhibition of some K channels. In view of adipose tissue abnormalities occurring in human obesity, changes in PVAT-dependent hyperpolarization may be relevant for vascular dysfunction also in this condition.
Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity: Role of Inflammation.
High blood pressure & cardiovascular prevention : the official journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Endothelium modulates vascular function and structure, mainly by production of nitric oxide which protects the vasculature against the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Abdominal obesity is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, caused by a reduced nitric oxide availability secondary to an enhanced oxidative stress production. Pro-inflammatory cytokine generation is a major mechanism whereby obesity is associated with a reduced NO availability. In healthy conditions, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) secretes factors that influence vasodilation by increasing NO availability. Such protective effect is lost in PVAT from obese subjects, which in turn is switched towards a functionally active pro-contractile inflammation source, causing a reduction of vascular NO availability and contributing to the endothelin-1/NO imbalance. In such context, vasculature not only represents a main target of PVAT-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, but is also considered as important source of low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress which, together with the PVAT, contribute to endothelial dysfunction which characterizes obese patients.
Recent Developments in Vascular Adventitial Pathobiology: The Dynamic Adventitia as a Complex Regulator of Vascular Disease.
Tinajero Maria G,Gotlieb Avrum I
The American journal of pathology
The adventitia, the outer layer of the blood vessel wall, may be the most complex layer of the wall and may be the master regulator of wall physiology and pathobiology. This review proposes a major shift in thinking to apply a functional lens to the adventitia rather than only a structural lens. Human and experimental in vivo and in vitro studies show that the adventitia is a dynamic microenvironment in which adventitial and perivascular adipose tissue cells initiate and regulate important vascular functions in disease, especially intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis. Although well away from the blood-wall interface, where much pathology has been identified, the adventitia has a profound influence on the population of intimal and medial endothelial, macrophage, and smooth muscle cell function. Vascular injury and dysfunction of the perivascular adipose tissue promote expansion of the vasa vasorum, activation of fibroblasts, and differentiation of myofibroblasts. This regulates further biologic processes, including fibroblast and myofibroblast migration and proliferation, inflammation, immunity, stem cell activation and regulation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis. A debate exists as to whether the adventitia initiates disease or is just an important participant. We describe a mechanistic model of adventitial function that brings together current knowledge and guides the design of future investigations to test specific hypotheses on adventitial pathobiology.
Roles of Cells from the Arterial Vessel Wall in Atherosclerosis.
Wang Di,Wang Zhiyan,Zhang Lili,Wang Yi
Mediators of inflammation
Atherosclerosis has been identified as a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel wall. Accumulating evidence indicates that different cells from the tunica intima, media, adventitia, and perivascular adipose tissue not only comprise the intact and normal arterial vessel wall but also participate all in the inflammatory response of atherosclerosis via multiple intricate pathways. For instance, endothelial dysfunction has historically been considered to be the initiator of the development of atherosclerosis. The migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells also play a pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Additionally, the fibroblasts from the adventitia and adipocytes from perivascular adipose tissue have received considerable attention given their special functions that contribute to atherosclerosis. In addition, numerous types of cytokines produced by different cells from the arterial vessel wall, including endothelium-derived relaxing factors, endothelium-derived contracting factors, tumor necrosis factors, interleukin, adhesion molecules, interferon, and adventitium-derived relaxing factors, have been implicated in atherosclerosis. Herein, we summarize the possible roles of different cells from the entire arterial vessel wall in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Hypertension Induced Morphological and Physiological Changes in Cells of the Arterial Wall.
American journal of hypertension
Morphological and physiological changes in the vasculature have been described in the evolution and maintenance of hypertension. Hypertension-induced vascular dysfunction may present itself as a contributing, or consequential factor, to vascular remodeling caused by chronically elevated systemic arterial blood pressure. Changes in all vessel layers, from the endothelium to the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), have been described. This mini-review focuses on the current knowledge of the structure and function of the vessel layers, specifically muscular arteries: intima, media, adventitia, PVAT, and the cell types harbored within each vessel layer. The contributions of each cell type to vessel homeostasis and pathophysiological development of hypertension will be highlighted.
Role of PVAT in coronary atherosclerosis and vein graft patency: friend or foe?
Fernández-Alfonso M S,Gil-Ortega M,Aranguez I,Souza D,Dreifaldt M,Somoza B,Dashwood M R
British journal of pharmacology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases numerous factors and adipokines with paracrine effects on both vascular structure and function. These effects are variable as they depend on regional differences in PVAT among blood vessels and vary with changes in adiposity. There is considerable evidence demonstrating an association between coronary PVAT and the development and progression of coronary artery disease, which is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling and blood clotting. However, PVAT also has a protective role in vascular grafts, especially the no-touch saphenous vein, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass. This beneficial influence of PVAT involves factors such as adipocyte-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), leptin, adiponectin, prostanoids, hydrogen sulphide and neurotransmitters, as well as mechanical protection. This article aims to highlight and compare the dual role of PVAT in the development and progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as well as in increased graft patency. Different deleterious and protective mechanisms of PVAT are also discussed and the inside-outside signalling paradigm of atherosclerosis development re-evaluated. The bidirectional communication between the arterial and venous wall and their surrounding PVAT, where signals originating from the vascular wall or lumen can affect PVAT phenotype, has been shown to be very complex. Moreover, signals from PVAT also influence the structure and function of the vascular wall in a paracrine manner. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
The microcirculation: a key player in obesity-associated cardiovascular disease.
Sorop Oana,Olver T Dylan,van de Wouw Jens,Heinonen Ilkka,van Duin Richard W,Duncker Dirk J,Merkus Daphne
It is increasingly recognized that obesity is a risk factor for microvascular disease, involving both structural and functional changes in the microvasculature. This review aims to describe how obesity impacts the microvasculature of a variety of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, brain, kidneys, and lungs. These changes involve endothelial dysfunction, which in turn (i) impacts control of vascular tone, (ii) contributes to development of microvascular insulin resistance, (iii) alters secretion of paracrine factors like nitric oxide and endothelin, but (iv) also influences vascular structure and perivascular inflammation. In concert, these changes impair organ perfusion and organ function thereby contributing to altered release and clearance of neurohumoral factors, such as adipokines and inflammatory cytokines. Global microvascular dysfunction in obese subjects is therefore a common pathway that not only explains exercise-intolerance but also predisposes to development of chronic kidney disease, microvascular dementia, coronary microvascular angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary hypertension.
Differential Role of Adipose Tissues in Obesity and Related Metabolic and Vascular Complications.
Gómez-Hernández Almudena,Beneit Nuria,Díaz-Castroverde Sabela,Escribano Óscar
International journal of endocrinology
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described. For these reasons, in recent years, in order to combat obesity and its related complications, as a complement to conventional treatments, a new insight is focusing on the role of the thermogenic function of brown and perivascular adipose tissues as a promising therapy in humans. These lines of knowledge are focused on the design of new drugs, or other approaches, in order to increase the mass and/or activity of brown adipose tissue or the browning process of beige cells from white adipose tissue. These new treatments may contribute not only to reduce obesity but also to prevent highly prevalent complications such as type 2 diabetes and other vascular alterations, such as hypertension or atherosclerosis.
Impact of different ectopic fat depots on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
Ferrara Daniele,Montecucco Fabrizio,Dallegri Franco,Carbone Federico
Journal of cellular physiology
A growing body of evidence is pointing out the pathophysiological role of fat accumulation in different organs. Ectopic fat depots within heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas as well as around blood vessels might be more associated to cardiometabolic risk than classical variables, such as body mass index. Among different mechanisms, lipid metabolism appears to be particularly influenced by ectopic fat depots. Indeed, intracellular accumulation of nonesterified fatty acids, and triglycerides promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial uncoupling, oxidative stress, and altered membrane composition/function, finally promoting inflammatory response and cell death. The dysfunctional adipose tissue was shown to induce both local and systemic effects, with relevant clinical consequences. Epicardial fat and myocardial steatosis have been associated with the development of atrial fibrillation and ventricular dysfunction. Similarly perivascular adipose tissue appears to trigger atherosclerosis and hypertension. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been recognized both as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Importantly, the renal sinus fat emerged as a potential player in kidney dysfunction. Finally, both skeletal muscle and pancreatic fat depots have been indicated as potential endocrine modulators of insulin resistance. Considering the global rise in the prevalence of obesity, the understanding of mechanisms underlying ectopic fat accumulation represents an urgent need, with potential clinical implications for CV risk stratification. Here, we attempt to update the current knowledge of the different ectopic fat depots, focusing on underlying mechanisms and potential clinical implications.
Localization of fat depots and cardiovascular risk.
Gruzdeva Olga,Borodkina Daria,Uchasova Evgenya,Dyleva Yulia,Barbarash Olga
Lipids in health and disease
Despite the existing preventative and therapeutic measures, cardiovascular diseases remain the main cause of temporary disability, long-term disability, and mortality. Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and their complications. However, not all fat depots have the same inflammatory, paracrine, and metabolic activities. In addition, recent studies have indicated that the accumulation of visceral fat, rather than subcutaneous fat, is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. However, there is also evidence that increasing the area of visceral fat can help protect against lipotoxicity. This review aims to discuss the contemporary literature regarding the characteristics of the visceral, epicardial, and perivascular fat depots, as well as their associations with cardiovascular disease.
Abnormal Peri-Organ or Intra-organ Fat (APIFat) Deposition: An Underestimated Predictor of Vascular Risk?
Katsiki Niki,Athyros Vasilios G,Mikhailidis Dimitri P
Current vascular pharmacology
Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fat may play a beneficial role in cardiometabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat. Apart from these fat depots, there are other adipose tissues that are either systemically (i.e. in the liver, muscle or neck) or mainly locally acting (i.e. pericardial/epicardial, perivascular and perirenal). These fat depots can affect the nearby anatomic organs via lipid accumulation and cytokine secretion. In the present narrative review, the associations of excessive peri-organ adipose tissue, namely intrahepatic, epicardial/ pericardial, perivascular, intramuscular, peripancreatic and perirenal fat, with cardiometabolic and CVD risk factors are discussed. The effects of drugs that target vascular risk and/or different fat depots are also considered.
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors as novel regulators of vascular disease.
Akoumianakis Ioannis,Antoniades Charalambos
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) has been revealed as an adipokine with potential relevance in cardiovascular disease (CVD), while clinically used DPP-IV inhibitors have demonstrated beneficial cardiovascular effects in several experimental studies. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose tissue depot in close anatomical proximity and bidirectional functional interaction with the vascular wall, which is a source of DPP-IV and its biology may be influenced by DPP-IV inhibition. Recently, DPP-IV inhibition has been associated with decreased local inflammation and oxidative stress both in the vascular wall and the PVAT, potentially regulating atherogenesis progression in vivo. DPP-IV inhibition may thus be a promising target in cardiovascular disease. However, the exact pleiotropic mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular effects of DPP-IV inhibition need to be clarified, while the in vivo benefit of DPP-IV inhibition in humans remains unclear.
The Role of Adipocytokines in Coronary Atherosclerosis.
Liberale Luca,Bonaventura Aldo,Vecchiè Alessandra,Casula Matteo,Dallegri Franco,Montecucco Fabrizio,Carbone Federico
Current atherosclerosis reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of this review is to overview the pathophysiological role of adipocytokines in atherogenesis, focusing on their potential role as biomarkers of coronary disease. RECENT FINDINGS:Several lines of evidence indicated adipose tissue not only as depot but rather as an endocrine organ. In this context, the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines has been shown to critically regulate vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Overweight and obesity are characterized by dysfunctional adipose tissue and then the prevalence of pro-inflammatory mediators, with a detrimental effect on vascular health. As opposite to adiponectin, pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, such as leptin and resistin, promote endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory processes involved in atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability. Therefore, many adipocytokines have been investigated as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular (CV) risk, but their role has not yet been clearly established. Furthermore, the perivascular adipose tissue recently emerged as a critical modulator of atherosclerotic processes, due to the close interaction with the underlying vascular tissue. The ongoing discovery of new adipocytokines and the complex pathophysiological role of the different adipose tissue depots strongly contribute to define the complexity of adipocytokines network. Understanding those complex interactions may allow determining new potential biomarkers of CV risk and potential therapeutic targets.
Adipocytes spectrum - From homeostasia to obesity and its associated pathology.
Grigoraş Adriana,Amalinei Cornelia,Balan Raluca Anca,Giuşcă Simona Eliza,Avădănei Elena Roxana,Lozneanu Ludmila,Căruntu Irina-Draga
Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Firstly identified by anatomists, the fat tissue is nowadays an area of intense research due to increased global prevalence of obesity and its associated diseases. Histologically, there are four types of fat tissue cells which are currently recognized (white, brown, beige, and perivascular adipocytes). Therefore, in this study we are reviewing the most recent data regarding the origin, structure, and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of adipocytes. White adipocytes can store triglycerides as a consequence of lipogenesis, under the regulation of growth hormone or leptin and adiponectin, and release fatty acids resulted from lipolysis, under the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, glucocorticoids, TNF-α, insulin, and natriuretic peptides. Brown adipocytes possess a mitochondrial transmembrane protein thermogenin or UCP1 which allows heat generation. Recently, thermogenic, UCP positive adipocytes have been identified in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue and have been named beige adipocytes. The nature of these cells is still controversial, as current theories are suggesting their origin either by transdifferentiation of white adipocytes, or by differentiation from an own precursor cell. Perivascular adipocytes surround most of the arteries, exhibiting a supportive role and being involved in the maintenance of intravascular temperature. Thoracic perivascular adipocytes resemble brown adipocytes, while abdominal ones are more similar to white adipocytes and, consequently, are involved in obesity-induced inflammatory reactions. The factors involved in the regulation of adipose stem cells differentiation may represent potential pathways to inhibit or to divert adipogenesis. Several molecules, such as pro-adipogenic factors (FGF21, BMP7, BMP8b, and Cox-2), cell surface proteins or receptors (Asc-1, PAT2, P2RX5), and hypothalamic receptors (MC4R) have been identified as the most promising targets for the development of future therapies. Further investigations are necessary to complete the knowledge about adipose tissue and the development of a new generation of therapeutic tools based on molecular targets.
Adipose-Vascular Coupling and Potential Therapeutics.
Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, lipid disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ with multiple humoral and metabolic roles in regulating whole-body physiology. However, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) also plays a functional role in regulating the contractile state of the underlying smooth muscle cell layer. Work during the past decade has shown that this adipose-vascular coupling is achieved by production of numerous substances released from PVAT. Animal disease models have been instrumental in identifying biological and pathophysiological functions of this regulation. These studies have produced strong evidence that alterations in the paracrine control of PVAT in the regulation of arterial tone contribute to vascular dysfunction in obesity, hypertension, and cardiometabolic disease. Perivascular relaxing factors, or perhaps their putative targets, might represent exciting new targets for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
Inflammation of brown/beige adipose tissues in obesity and metabolic disease.
Villarroya F,Cereijo R,Gavaldà-Navarro A,Villarroya J,Giralt M
Journal of internal medicine
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Compared to white fat, brown adipose tissue depots are less susceptible to developing local inflammation in response to obesity; however, strong obesogenic insults ultimately induce a locally pro-inflammatory environment in brown fat. This condition directly alters the thermogenic activity of brown fat by impairing its energy expenditure mechanism and uptake of glucose for use as a fuel substrate. Pro-inflammatory cytokines also impair beige adipogenesis, which occurs mainly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. There is evidence that inflammatory processes occurring in perivascular adipose tissues alter their brown-versus-white plasticity, impair the extent of browning in these depots and favour the local release of vasculature damaging signals. In summary, the targeting of brown and beige adipose tissues by pro-inflammatory signals and the subsequent impairment of their thermogenic and metabolite draining activities appears to represent obesity-driven disturbances that contribute to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular alterations in obesity.
'Browning' the cardiac and peri-vascular adipose tissues to modulate cardiovascular risk.
Aldiss Peter,Davies Graeme,Woods Rachel,Budge Helen,Sacks Harold S,Symonds Michael E
International journal of cardiology
Excess visceral adiposity, in particular that located adjacent to the heart and coronary arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In the pathophysiological state, dysfunctional adipose tissue secretes an array of factors modulating vascular function and driving atherogenesis. Conversely, brown and beige adipose tissues utilise glucose and lipids to generate heat and are associated with improved cardiometabolic health. The cardiac and thoracic perivascular adipose tissues are now understood to be composed of brown adipose tissue in the healthy state and undergo a brown-to-white transition i.e. during obesity which may be a driving factor of cardiovascular disease. In this review we discuss the risks of excess cardiac and vascular adiposity and potential mechanisms by which restoring the brown phenotype i.e. "re-browning" could potentially be achieved in clinically relevant populations.
Pro-contractile effects of perivascular fat in health and disease.
Ramirez J G,O'Malley E J,Ho W S V
British journal of pharmacology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active player in vascular homeostasis. The expansion of PVAT in obesity and its possible role in vascular dysfunction have attracted much interest. In terms of the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure, PVAT has been shown to release vasoactive mediators, for instance, angiotensin peptides, reactive oxygen species, chemokines and cytokines. The secretory profile of PVAT is altered by obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, leading to an imbalance between its pro-contractile and anti-contractile effects. PVAT adipocytes represent an important source of the mediators, but infiltrating immune cells may become more important under conditions of hypoxia and inflammation. This review describes recent advances in the effects of PVAT on the regulation of vascular tone, highlighting the evidence for a pro-contractile action in health and disease. The role of the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, immune cells and probably perivascular nerves in PVAT function is also discussed. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Emerging Roles of Adipose Progenitor Cells in Tissue Development, Homeostasis, Expansion and Thermogenesis.
Berry Daniel C,Jiang Yuwei,Graff Jonathan M
Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
Stem or progenitor cells are an essential component for the development, homeostasis, expansion, and regeneration of many tissues. Within white adipose tissue (WAT) reside vascular-resident adipose progenitor cells (APCs) that can proliferate and differentiate into either white or beige/brite adipocytes, which may control adiposity. Recent studies have begun to show that APCs can be manipulated to control adiposity and counteract 'diabesity'. However, much remains unknown about the identity of APCs and how they may control adiposity in response to homeostatic and external cues. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of adipose progenitors and cover a range of topics, including the stem cell/progenitor lineage, their niche, their developmental and adult roles, and their role in cold-induced beige/brite adipocyte formation.
The interplay between adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system: is fat always bad?
Akoumianakis Ioannis,Antoniades Charalambos
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological 'quality' of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognised as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers, and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways. Despite being able to mediate normal cardiovascular function under physiological conditions, AT undergoes a phenotypic shift characterised by acquisition of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory properties in cases of CVD. Crucially, recent evidence suggests that AT depots such as perivascular AT and epicardial AT are able to modify their phenotype in response to local signals of vascular and myocardial origin, respectively. Utilisation of this unique property of certain AT depots to dynamically track cardiovascular biology may reveal novel diagnostic and prognostic tools against CVD. Better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the 'quality' of AT secretome, as well as the communication links between AT and the cardiovascular system, is required for the efficient management of CVD.
Investigating interactions between epicardial adipose tissue and cardiac myocytes: what can we learn from different approaches?
Rietdorf Katja,MacQueen Hilary
British journal of pharmacology
Heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Some cardiovascular conditions can be modulated by lifestyle factors such as increased exercise or a healthier diet, but many require surgical or pharmacological interventions for their management. More targeted and less invasive therapies would be beneficial. Recently, it has become apparent that epicardial adipose tissue plays an important role in normal and pathological cardiac function, and it is now the focus of considerable research. Epicardial adipose tissue can be studied by imaging of various kinds, and these approaches have yielded much useful information. However, at a molecular level, it is more difficult to study as it is relatively scarce in animal models and, for practical and ethical reasons, not always available in sufficient quantities from patients. What is needed is a robust model system in which the interactions between epicardial adipocytes and cardiac myocytes can be studied, and physiologically relevant manipulations performed. There are drawbacks to conventional culture methods, not least the difficulty of culturing both cardiac myocytes and adipocytes, each of which has special requirements. We discuss the benefits of a three-dimensional co-culture model in which in vivo interactions can be replicated. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Immunometabolic Regulation of Vascular Redox State: The Role of Adipose Tissue.
Oikonomou Evangelos K,Antoniades Charalambos
Antioxidants & redox signaling
SIGNIFICANCE:Vascular oxidative stress plays a crucial role in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent evidence suggests that vascular redox state is under the control of complex pathophysiological mechanisms, ranging from inflammation to obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Recent Advances: Adipose tissue (AT) is now recognized as a dynamic endocrine and paracrine organ that secretes several bioactive molecules, called adipokines. AT has recently been shown to regulate vascular redox state in both an endocrine and a paracrine manner through the secretion of adipokines, therefore providing a mechanistic link for the association between obesity, IR, inflammation, and vascular disease. Importantly, AT behaves as a sensor of cardiovascular oxidative stress, modifying its secretory profile in response to cardiovascular oxidative injury. CRITICAL ISSUES:The present article presents an up-to-date review of the association between AT and vascular oxidative stress. We focus on the effects of individual adipokines on modulating reactive oxygen species production and scavenging in the vascular wall. In addition, we highlight how inflammation, obesity, and IR alter the biology and secretome of AT leading to a more pro-oxidant phenotype with a particular focus on the local regulatory mechanisms of perivascular AT driven by vascular oxidation. FUTURE DIRECTIONS:The complex and dynamic biology of AT, as well as its importance in the regulation of vascular redox state, provides numerous opportunities for the development of novel, targeted treatments in the management of CVD. Therapeutic modulation of AT biology could improve vascular redox state affecting vascular disease pathogenesis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 29, 313-336.
The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis.
Szasz Theodora,Bomfim Gisele Facholi,Webb R Clinton
Vascular health and risk management
The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT.
[Role of brown and perivascular adipose tissue in vascular complications due to obesity].
Gómez-Hernández Almudena,Perdomo Liliana,Escribano Óscar,Benito Manuel
Clinica e investigacion en arteriosclerosis : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Arteriosclerosis
The contribution of brown and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of metabolic and vascular complications associated with obesity are analysed in this review. To combat obesity and prevent its highly prevalent metabolic and vascular complications, a new insight on our knowledge of the role of the thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue and its promising therapeutic potential in humans is needed in addition to conventional treatments. Owing to the impact of brown adipose tissue on energy expenditure related to lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as its potential resistance against inflammation along with perivascular adipose tissue, new perspectives in the treatment of obesity treatment could be focused on the design of new drugs, or different regimens or therapies, that increase the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue. These new treatments not only may contribute to combat obesity, but also prevent complications such as type 2 diabetes and other associated metabolic and vascular changes.
The role of infiltrating immune cells in dysfunctional adipose tissue.
Guzik Tomasz J,Skiba Dominik S,Touyz Rhian M,Harrison David G
Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, characterized by loss of its homeostatic functions, is a hallmark of non-communicable diseases. It is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and is observed in obesity, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes. While classically it has been identified by increased cytokine or chemokine expression, such as increased MCP-1, RANTES, IL-6, interferon (IFN) gamma or TNFα, mechanistically, immune cell infiltration is a prominent feature of the dysfunctional AT. These immune cells include M1 and M2 macrophages, effector and memory T cells, IL-10 producing FoxP3+ T regulatory cells, natural killer and NKT cells and granulocytes. Immune composition varies, depending on the stage and the type of pathology. Infiltrating immune cells not only produce cytokines but also metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and chemokines that participate in tissue remodelling, cell signalling, and regulation of immunity. The presence of inflammatory cells in AT affects adjacent tissues and organs. In blood vessels, perivascular AT inflammation leads to vascular remodelling, superoxide production, endothelial dysfunction with loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, contributing to vascular disease, atherosclerosis, and plaque instability. Dysfunctional AT also releases adipokines such as leptin, resistin, and visfatin that promote metabolic dysfunction, alter systemic homeostasis, sympathetic outflow, glucose handling, and insulin sensitivity. Anti-inflammatory and protective adiponectin is reduced. AT may also serve as an important reservoir and possible site of activation in autoimmune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. Thus, reciprocal regulation between immune cell infiltration and AT dysfunction is a promising future therapeutic target.
The Role of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Non-atherosclerotic Vascular Disease.
Horimatsu Tetsuo,Kim Ha Won,Weintraub Neal L
Frontiers in physiology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds most large blood vessels and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT releases various chemokines and adipocytokines, functioning in an endocrine and paracrine manner to regulate vascular signaling and inflammation. Mounting evidence suggests that PVAT plays an important role in atherosclerosis and hypertension; however, the role of PVAT in non-atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including neointimal formation, aortic aneurysm, arterial stiffness and vasculitis, has received far less attention. Increasing evidence suggests that PVAT responds to mechanical endovascular injury and regulates the subsequent formation of neointima via factors that promote smooth muscle cell growth, adventitial inflammation and neovascularization. Circumstantial evidence also links PVAT to the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms and vasculitic syndromes, such as Takayasu's arteritis, where infiltration and migration of inflammatory cells from PVAT into the vascular wall may play a contributory role. Moreover, in obesity, PVAT has been implicated to promote stiffness of elastic arteries via the production of reactive oxygen species. This review will discuss the growing body of data and mechanisms linking PVAT to the pathogenesis of non-atherosclerotic vascular diseases in experimental animal models and in humans.
PVAT and Its Relation to Brown, Beige, and White Adipose Tissue in Development and Function.
Hildebrand Staffan,Stümer Jasmin,Pfeifer Alexander
Frontiers in physiology
Adipose tissue is commonly categorized into three types with distinct functions, phenotypes, and anatomical localizations. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major energy store; the largest depots of WAT are found in subcutaneous or intravisceral sites. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for energy dissipation during cold-exposure (i.e., non-shivering thermogenesis) and is primarily located in the interscapular region. Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissue can be found interspersed in WAT and can attain a brown-like phenotype. These three types of tissues also have endocrine functions and play major roles in whole body metabolism especially in obesity and its co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular disease. Over the last years, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has emerged as an adipose organ with endocrine and paracrine functions. Pro and anti-inflammatory agents released by PVAT affect vascular health, and are implicated in the inflammatory aspects of atherosclerosis. PVAT shares several of the defining characteristics of brown adipose tissue, including its cellular morphology and expression of thermogenic genes characteristic for brown adipocytes. However, PVATs from different vessels are phenotypically different, and significant developmental differences exist between PVAT and other adipose tissues. Whether PVAT represents classical BAT, beige adipose tissue, or WAT with changing characteristics, is unclear. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on how PVAT relates to other types of adipose tissue, both in terms of functionality, developmental origins, and its role in obesity-related cardiovascular disease and inflammation.
Regional differences in perivascular adipose tissue impacting vascular homeostasis.
Gil-Ortega Marta,Somoza Beatriz,Huang Yu,Gollasch Maik,Fernández-Alfonso Maria S
Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases several important vasoactive factors with physiological and pathophysiological paracrine effects. A large body of evidence suggests regional phenotypic and functional differences among PVAT depots, depending on the specific vascular bed or different regions in the vascular bed where the PVAT is located. These non-uniform and separate PVATs exert various paracrine effects on vascular structure and function that largely impact disease states, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, or insulin resistance. This emerging view of PVAT function requires considering heterogeneous PVAT as a specialized organ that can differentially regulate vascular function depending on its anatomical location. In this context, the adipose-vascular axis may represent a novel target for pharmacological intervention in vasculopathy in cardiometabolic disorders.
The role of mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in the cross-talk between adipose tissue and the vascular wall.
Jia Guanghong,Aroor Annayya R,Sowers James R
Vascular dysfunction and impaired endothelial mediated relaxation are powerful underlying abnormalities in the pathogenesis of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other metabolic abnormalities are associated with activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MRs) in the vasculature and adipose tissue. While MR signaling is involved in the normal physiological differentiation and maturation of adipocyte, enhanced activation of MRs also contributes to increase oxidative stress, release of pro-inflammatory adipokines, and dysregulation of adipocyte autophagy. This, in turn, increases the maladaptive expansion of subcutaneous, visceral and perivascular adipose tissue, resulting in systemic and cardiovascular (CV) insulin resistance and increased CV stiffness and impaired vascular and cardiac relaxation. This review summarizes the normal role of MR activation in adipose tissues and explores the mechanisms by which excessive MR activation mediates adipose tissue inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Potential preventative and therapeutic strategies directed in the prevention of MR activation and CV disease are also discussed.
Adipose tissue depots and inflammation: effects on plasticity and resident mesenchymal stem cell function.
Badimon Lina,Cubedo Judit
Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly heterogeneous organ. Beside the heterogeneity associated to different tissue types (white, brown, and 'brite') and its location-related heterogeneity (subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular, etc.), AT composition, structure, and functionality are highly dependent on individual-associated factors. As such, the pro-inflammatory state associated to the presence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) directly affects AT metabolism. Furthermore, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that reside in the stromal vascular fraction of AT, besides being responsible for most of the plasticity attributed to AT, is an additional source of heterogeneity. Thus, ASCs directly contribute to AT homeostasis, cell renewal, and spontaneous repair. These ASCs share many properties with the bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (i.e. potential to differentiate towards multiple tissue lineages, and angiogenic, antiapoptotic, and immunomodulatory properties). Moreover, ASCs show clear advantages in terms of accessibility and quantity of available sample, their easy in vitro expansion, and the possibility of having an autologous source. All these properties point out towards a potential use of ASCs in regenerative medicine. However, the presence of obesity and other CVRFs induces a pro-inflammatory state that directly impacts ASCs proliferation and differentiation capacities affecting their regenerative abilities. The focus of this review is to summarize how inflammation affects the different AT depots and the mechanisms by which these changes further enhance the obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Furthermore, we highlight the impact of obesity-induced inflammation on ASCs properties and how those effects impair their plasticity.
Perivascular adipose tissue, inflammation and vascular dysfunction in obesity.
Van de Voorde Johan,Boydens Charlotte,Pauwels Bart,Decaluwé Kelly
Current vascular pharmacology
Adipocytes are no longer considered just as cells related to storage of energy and thermoregulation. Now we know that they release a huge number of paracrine and endocrine biologically active molecules. This is also the case for perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) that surrounds almost all blood vessels in the organism. PVAT secretes the so-called adipo(cyto)kines that, because of its proximity, can easily influence vascular smooth muscle cells. The role of PVAT on vascular function can be both protective and deleterious. Normal healthy PVAT, as present in lean subjects, helps to keep the blood vessels dilated as its presence diminishes the effect of vasocontractile agents. Obesity is associated with an increased mass in PVAT. Excessive adipocyte hypertrophy may result in "adiposopathy" in which PVAT attracts macrophages and becomes a more inflammatory phenotype. This leads to a change in profile of the released adipo(cyto)kines, resulting in a decreased vasorelaxing effect of PVAT, which may be linked to obesity-induced hypertension. It also results in smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The increased knowledge of PVAT function brings up new targets that can be useful to develop novel therapeutic and preventive strategies for obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. This mini-review presents a general overview of the actual knowledge on the role of PVAT on vascular function and dysfunction in obesity.
Perivascular adipose tissue and its role in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Meijer Rick I,Serne Erik H,Smulders Yvo M,van Hinsbergh Victor W M,Yudkin John S,Eringa Etto C
Current diabetes reports
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are incompletely understood. Microvascular dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of both insulin resistance and hypertension in obesity. Adipose tissue-derived substances (adipokines) and especially inflammatory products of adipose tissue control insulin sensitivity and vascular function. In the past years, adipose tissue associated with the vasculature, or perivascular adipose tissue (PAT), has been shown to produce a variety of adipokines that contribute to regulation of vascular tone and local inflammation. This review describes our current understanding of the mechanisms linking perivascular adipose tissue to vascular function, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, we will discuss mechanisms controlling the quantity and adipokines secretion by PAT.
[Research Advance of on the Support Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell on Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell--Review].
Zhou Rui,Zheng Bo
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
The normal hematopoiesis of the body are depends on the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC), as well as the mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) that support the growth and development of hematopoietic microenvironment of bone marrow (BM). At present, the commonly used MSC for promoting hematopoiesis are mainly derived from BM, however, the acquisition of MSC from BM is limited by the number, sampling, isolation and purification. Compared with BM, adipose tissue has many advantages, including widely distributed, abundant in source, simple and easy to obtain, and contains more pluripotent stem cell, such as adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ADSC), in which Perivascular cell/pericyte (PC) are considered as the precursor cell of MSC, also is the main components of vascular microenvironment, and plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of HSPC. PC is especially abundant in adipose tissue, and with the advantages of easy acquisition, small damage, fast cell proliferation and low immunogenicity. Therefore, the sustaining hematopoiess of human adipose derived-perivascular stem cell (AD-PC) to HSPC requires further research and exploration. In this review, the possible supporting effects and PC subgroup of ADSC as stromal cell on HSPC are summarized briefly.
Regional Heterogeneity of Perivascular Adipose Tissue: Morphology, Origin, and Secretome.
Li Xinzhi,Ma Zhongyuan,Zhu Yi Zhun
Frontiers in pharmacology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique fat depot with local and systemic impacts. PVATs are anatomically, developmentally, and functionally different from classical adipose tissues and they are also different from each other. PVAT adipocytes originate from different progenitors and precursors. They can produce and secrete a wide range of autocrine and paracrine factors, many of which are vasoactive modulators. In the context of obesity-associated low-grade inflammation, these phenotypic and functional differences become more evident. In this review, we focus on the recent findings of PVAT's heterogeneity by comparing commonly studied adipose tissues around the thoracic aorta (tPVAT), abdominal aorta (aPVAT), and mesenteric artery (mPVAT). Distinct origins and developmental trajectory of PVAT adipocyte potentially contribute to regional heterogeneity. Regional differences also exist in ways how PVAT communicates with its neighboring vasculature by producing specific adipokines, vascular tone regulators, and extracellular vesicles in a given microenvironment. These insights may inspire new therapeutic strategies targeting the PVAT.
Adipose Tissue and Modulation of Hypertension.
Das Eashita,Moon Joon Ho,Lee Ju Hee,Thakkar Nikita,Pausova Zdenka,Sung Hoon-Ki
Current hypertension reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension (HTN), a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Growing body of research suggests that adipose tissue function is directly associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related HTN. In this review, we will discuss recent research on the role of adipose tissue in blood pressure (BP) regulation and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a potentially new therapeutic means for obesity-related HTN. RECENT FINDINGS:Adipose tissue provides mechanical protection of the blood vessels and plays a role in regulation of vascular tone. Exercise and fasting activate BAT and induce browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). BAT-secreted FGF21 lowers BP and protects against HTN. Browning of perivascular WAT improves HTN. New insights on WAT browning and BAT activation can open new avenues of potential therapeutic interventions to treat obesity-related HTN.
Epicardial adipose tissue as a metabolic transducer: role in heart failure and coronary artery disease.
Patel Vaibhav B,Shah Saumya,Verma Subodh,Oudit Gavin Y
Heart failure reviews
Obesity and diabetes are strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue is identified as a complex endocrine organ, which by exerting a wide array of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels can have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. Different terms including "epicardial," "pericardial," and "paracardial" have been used to describe adipose tissue deposits surrounding the heart. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a unique and multifaceted fat depot with local and systemic effects. The functional and anatomic proximity of EAT to the myocardium enables endocrine, paracrine, and vasocrine effects on the heart. EAT displays a large secretosome, which regulates physiological and pathophysiological processes in the heart. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) secretes adipose-derived relaxing factor, which is a "cocktail" of cytokines, adipokines, microRNAs, and cellular mediators, with a potent effect on paracrine regulation of vascular tone, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, atherosclerosis-susceptibility, and restenosis. Although there are various physiological functions of the EAT and PVAT, a phenotypic transformation can lead to a major pathogenic role in various cardiovascular diseases. The equilibrium between the physiological and pathophysiological properties of EAT is very delicate and susceptible to the influences of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Various adipokines secreted from EAT and PVAT have a profound effect on the myocardium and coronary arteries; targeting these adipokines could be an important therapeutic approach to counteract cardiovascular disease.
Perivascular adipose tissue, vascular reactivity and hypertension.
Oriowo Mabayoje A
Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Most blood vessels are surrounded by a variable amount of adventitial adipose tissue, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which was originally thought to provide mechanical support for the vessel. It is now known that PVAT secretes a number of bioactive substances including vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor, interleukin-6, plasminogen activator substance, resistin and angiotensinogen. Several studies have shown that PVAT significantly modulated vascular smooth muscle contractions induced by a variety of agonists and electrical stimulation by releasing adipocyte-derived relaxing (ADRF) and contracting factors. The identity of ADRF is not yet known. However, several vasodilators have been suggested including adiponectin, angiotensin 1-7, hydrogen sulfide and methyl palmitate. The anticontractile effect of PVAT is mediated through the activation of potassium channels since it is abrogated by inhibiting potassium channels. Hypertension is characterized by a reduction in the size and amount of PVAT and this is associated with the attenuated anticontractile effect of PVAT in hypertension. However, since a reduction in size and amount of PVAT and the attenuated anticontractile effect of PVAT were already evident in prehypertensive rats with no evidence of impaired release of ADRF, there is the possibility that the anticontractile effect of PVAT was not directly related to an altered function of the adipocytes per se. Hypertension is characterized by low-grade inflammation and infiltration of macrophages. One of the adipokines secreted by macrophages is TNF-α. It has been shown that exogenously administered TNF-α enhanced agonist-induced contraction of a variety of vascular smooth muscle preparations and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Other procontractile factors released by the PVAT include angiotensin II and superoxide. It is therefore possible that the loss could be due to an increased amount of these proinflammatory and procontractile factors. More studies are definitely required to confirm this.
New actions of an old friend: perivascular adipose tissue's adrenergic mechanisms.
Ayala-Lopez Nadia,Watts Stephanie W
British journal of pharmacology
The revolutionary discovery in 1991 by Soltis and Cassis that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has an anti-contractile effect changed how we think about the vasculature. Most experiments on vascular pharmacology begin by removing the fat surrounding vessels. Thus, PVAT was thought to have a minor role in vascular function and its presence was just for structural support. The need to rethink PVAT's role was precipitated by observations that obesity carries a high cardiovascular risk and PVAT dysfunction is associated with obesity. PVAT is a vascular-adipose organ that has intimate connections with the nervous and immune system. A complex world of physiology resides in PVAT, including the presence of an 'adrenergic system' that is able to release, take up and metabolize noradrenaline. Adipocytes, stromal vascular cells and nerves within PVAT contain components that make up this adrenergic system. Some of the great strides in PVAT research came from studying adipose tissue as a whole. Adipose tissue has many roles and participates in regulating energy balance, energy stores, inflammation and thermoregulation. However, PVAT is dissimilar from non-PVAT adipose tissues. PVAT is intimately connected with the vasculature, which is what makes its role in body homeostasis unique. The adrenergic system within PVAT may be an integral link connecting the effects of obesity with the vascular dysfunction observed in obesity-associated hypertension, a condition in which the sympathetic nervous system has a significant role. This review will explore what is known about the adrenergic system in adipose tissue and PVAT, plus the translational importance of these findings. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Adipose Tissue Immunomodulation: A Novel Therapeutic Approach in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases.
AlZaim Ibrahim,Hammoud Safaa H,Al-Koussa Houssam,Ghazi Alaa,Eid Ali H,El-Yazbi Ahmed F
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine
Adipose tissue is a critical regulator of systemic metabolism and bodily homeostasis as it secretes a myriad of adipokines, including inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. As the main storage pool of lipids, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues undergo marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia in response to nutritional excess leading to hypoxia, adipokine dysregulation, and subsequent low-grade inflammation that is characterized by increased infiltration and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. The specific localization, physiology, susceptibility to inflammation and the heterogeneity of the inflammatory cell population of each adipose depot are unique and thus dictate the possible complications of adipose tissue chronic inflammation. Several lines of evidence link visceral and particularly perivascular, pericardial, and perirenal adipose tissue inflammation to the development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the implication of the immune system in the regulation of adipose tissue function, adipose tissue immune components are pivotal in detrimental or otherwise favorable adipose tissue remodeling and thermogenesis. Adipose tissue resident and infiltrating immune cells undergo metabolic and morphological adaptation based on the systemic energy status and thus a better comprehension of the metabolic regulation of immune cells in adipose tissues is pivotal to address complications of chronic adipose tissue inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of adipose innate and adaptive immune cells across various physiological and pathophysiological states that pertain to the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic disorders. Understanding such mechanisms allows for the exploitation of the adipose tissue-immune system crosstalk, exploring how the adipose immune system might be targeted as a strategy to treat cardiovascular derangements associated with metabolic dysfunctions.
The role of perivascular adipose tissue in vasoconstriction, arterial stiffness, and aneurysm.
Villacorta Luis,Chang Lin
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
Since the "rediscovery" of brown adipose tissue in adult humans, significant scientific efforts are being pursued to identify the molecular mechanisms to promote a phenotypic change of white adipocytes into brown-like cells, a process called "browning". It is well documented that white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and factors released from WAT influence the vascular function and positively correlate with cardiac arrest, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications. Similar to other fat depots, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is an active endocrine organ and anatomically surrounds vessels. Both brown-like and white-like PVAT secrete various adipokines, cytokines, and growth factors that either prevent or promote the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) depending on the relative abundance of each type and their bioactivity in the neighboring vasculature. Notably, pathophysiological conditions, such as obesity, hypertension, or diabetes, induce the imbalance of PVAT-derived vasoactive products that promote the infiltration of inflammatory cells. This then triggers derangements in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cell dysfunction, resulting in the development of vascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the recent advances on the contribution of PVAT in CVDs. Specifically, we summarize the current proposed roles of PVAT in relationship with vascular contractility, endothelial dysfunction, neointimal formation, arterial stiffness, and aneurysm.
Paradoxical roles of perivascular adipose tissue in atherosclerosis and hypertension.
Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is the fat tissue surrounding most of the vasculature and it has long been considered solely as vessel-supporting connective tissue. There are 2 major types of adipose tissue widely distributed throughout the body: white (WAT) and brown (BAT). PVAT is similar to BAT in rodents, but it was believed that only WAT existed in adult humans and BAT was present only in infants. However, the presence of functional BAT in adult humans is now accepted. The main function of BAT is to generate heat, and it is essential for adaptive thermogenesis and energy expenditure, whereas the main function of WAT is to store lipids. Besides the different functions of WAT and BAT, growing evidence suggests that different depots of adipose tissue have different functions. Similar to other fat depots, PVAT produces various adipokines, growth factors and inhibitors that affect functions of adjacent layers of the vasculature. Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, vascular injury, aging and infection could cause PVAT dysfunction, leading to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions. In this review, we discuss the function and dysfunction of PVAT on atherosclerosis and hypertension.
A Clinical Perspective: Contribution of Dysfunctional Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT) to Cardiovascular Risk.
Lian Xiaoming,Gollasch Maik
Current hypertension reports
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an important paracrine organ influencing the homeostasis of the vessel wall, regional blood flow and peripheral arterial resistance. There is remarkable phenotypic variability and plasticity of PVAT among various vascular beds, exhibiting phenotypes from white to brown and beige adipocytes. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by disturbed secretion of various adipokines, which, together with endothelial dysfunction, contribute to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This brief review describes our current knowledge on PVAT in health and cardiovascular disease, with a special focus on different phenotypes and signaling pathways in adipocytes of PVAT associated with hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disorders.
Coronary Artery Spasm and Perivascular Adipose Tissue Inflammation: Insights From Translational Imaging Research.
Ohyama Kazuma,Matsumoto Yasuharu,Shimokawa Hiroaki
Perivascular adipose tissue, which constitutes perivascular components along with the adventitial vasa vasorum, plays an important role as a source of various inflammatory mediators in cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory changes in the coronary adventitia are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm and vasospastic angina. Recent advances in translational research using non-invasive imaging modalities, including F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and cardiac CT, have enabled us to visualise perivascular inflammation in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm. These modality approaches appear to be clinically useful as a non-invasive tool for examining the presence and severity of vasospastic angina.
Perivascular adipose tissue as a cause of atherosclerosis.
Verhagen Sandra N,Visseren Frank L J
Perivascular adipose tissue surrounds (coronary) arteries and may be involved in local stimulation of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Epicardial adipose tissue, the adipose tissue within the pericardium, is a frequently used measure of coronary perivascular adipose tissue and can be quantified with echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The quantity of (coronary) perivascular adipose tissue is correlated with parameters of the metabolic syndrome, such as increased waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia, and with coronary atherosclerosis. Coronary artery segments covered by myocardium are not exposed to coronary perivascular adipose tissue and interestingly, atherosclerosis is absent in these intra-myocardial segments. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines are expressed and secreted at a higher level in epicardial adipose tissue of patients with coronary artery disease compared to patients without coronary artery disease. Furthermore, in vitro and ex vivo perivascular adipose tissue induces inflammation of the artery wall by secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins. Atherogenesis in the vascular wall is thus stimulated from 'outside to inside'. Based on the results of clinical, ex vivo and in vitro studies, it can be argued that perivascular adipose tissue may be involved in the process of atherosclerosis.
Functional Relationship between Arterial Tissue and Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Syndrome.
Kagota Satomi,Iwata Saki,Maruyama Kana,Wakuda Hirokazu,Shinozuka Kazumasa
Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Metabolic syndrome is a complex of disorders that includes visceral obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. It is characterized by an increased risk for serious cardiovascular events. Adipocytes are now recognized to contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications in metabolic syndrome via the release of several bioactive substances (adipocytokines). Obesity induces an increase in the volume of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which is located outside the blood vessels. In recent years, PVAT has been reported to produce/release vasoactive adipocytokines. Thus, PVAT can modulate vasomotor function by releasing vasorelaxing/vasocontracting factors, resulting in the development of cardiovascular disease due to metabolic syndrome. By using animal models (SHR/NDmcr-cp rats, SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr rats, and B6.BKS (D)-Lepr(fa)/J mice), we have demonstrated that chronic oxidative-nitrative stress is closely linked to the development of vascular dysfunction in response to nitric oxide (NO) in resistant arteries with increasing age/exposure to metabolic abnormalities. Further, our recent findings have led us to believe that PVAT helps in the regulation of vasodilation to compensate for the impaired vasodilation observed in pathophysiological conditions in the mesenteric arteries of SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr rats. However, a breakdown of the compensatory system occurs with long-term exposure to metabolic abnormalities. We propose the concept of the functional regulation of vascular tissue by PVAT in metabolic syndrome.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue as a Target for Antioxidant Therapy for Cardiovascular Complications.
Man Andy W C,Zhou Yawen,Xia Ning,Li Huige
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is the connective tissue surrounding most of the systemic blood vessels. PVAT is now recognized as an important endocrine tissue that maintains vascular homeostasis. Healthy PVAT has anticontractile, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative roles. Vascular oxidative stress is an important pathophysiological event in cardiometabolic complications of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Accumulating data from both humans and experimental animal models suggests that PVAT dysfunction is potentially linked to cardiovascular diseases, and associated with augmented vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and arterial remodeling. Reactive oxygen species produced from PVAT can be originated from mitochondria, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PVAT can also sense vascular paracrine signals and response by secreting vasoactive adipokines. Therefore, PVAT may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on PVAT functions, ROS production, and oxidative stress in different pathophysiological settings and discuss the potential antioxidant therapies for cardiovascular diseases by targeting PVAT.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue as an Indication, Contributor to, and Therapeutic Target for Atherosclerosis.
Liu Yan,Sun Yan,Hu Chengping,Liu Jinxing,Gao Ang,Han Hongya,Chai Meng,Zhang Jianwei,Zhou Yujie,Zhao Yingxin
Frontiers in physiology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been identified to have significant endocrine and paracrine functions, such as releasing bioactive adipokines, cytokines, and chemokines, rather than a non-physiological structural tissue. Considering the contiguity with the vascular wall, PVAT could play a crucial role in the pathogenic microenvironment of atherosclerosis. Growing clinical evidence has shown an association between PVAT and atherosclerosis. Moreover, based on computed tomography, the fat attenuation index of PVAT was verified as an indication of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Under pathological conditions, such as obesity and diabetes, PVAT shows a proatherogenic phenotype by increasing the release of factors that induce endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory cell infiltration, thus contributing to atherosclerosis. Growing animal and human studies have investigated the mechanism of the above process, which has yet to be fully elucidated. Furthermore, traditional treatments for atherosclerosis have been proven to act on PVAT, and we found several studies focused on novel drugs that target PVAT for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Emerging as an indication, contributor to, and therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, PVAT warrants further investigation.
Perivascular adipose tissue, potassium channels, and vascular dysfunction.
Tano Jean-Yves,Schleifenbaum Johanna,Gollasch Maik
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Perivascular adipose tissue has been recognized unequivocally as a major player in the pathology of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Through its production of adipokines and the release of other thus far unidentified factors, this recently discovered adipose tissue modulates vascular regulation and the myogenic response. After the discovery of its ability to diminish the vessel's response to vasoconstrictors, a new paradigm established adipose-derived relaxing factor (ADRF) as a paracrine smooth muscle cells' potassium channel opener that could potentially help combat vascular dysfunction. This review will discuss the role of ADRF in vascular dysfunction in obesity and hypertension, the different potassium channels that can be activated by this factor, and describes new pharmacological tools that can mimic the ADRF effect and thus can be beneficial against vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease.
Mechanisms linking adipose tissue inflammation to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Anthony Sarah R,Guarnieri Adrienne R,Gozdiff Anamarie,Helsley Robert N,Phillip Owens Albert,Tranter Michael
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
Adipose tissue is classically recognized as the primary site of lipid storage, but in recent years has garnered appreciation for its broad role as an endocrine organ comprising multiple cell types whose collective secretome, termed as adipokines, is highly interdependent on metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. Anatomical location (e.g. visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial etc) and cellular composition of adipose tissue (e.g. white, beige, and brown adipocytes, macrophages etc.) also plays a critical role in determining its response to metabolic state, the resulting secretome, and its potential impact on remote tissues. Compared with other tissues, the heart has an extremely high and constant demand for energy generation, of which most is derived from oxidation of fatty acids. Availability of this fatty acid fuel source is dependent on adipose tissue, but evidence is mounting that adipose tissue plays a much broader role in cardiovascular physiology. In this review, we discuss the impact of the brown, subcutaneous, and visceral white, perivascular (PVAT), and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) secretome on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with a particular focus on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Perivascular adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
Lee Hae-Young,Després Jean-Pierre,Koh Kwang Kon
Adipose tissue, which has been considered mainly as a site of energy storage and mobilization, is found in many depots throughout the body. Adipose depots may have structural properties such as, for instance, the fat pads located in the hands and feet and the periorbital fat supporting the eyes. Adipose tissue also shows remarkable regional heterogeneity. For instance, substantial differences have been reported in the metabolic properties of visceral (intra-abdominal) vs. subcutaneous adipose depots. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has active endocrine and paracrine functions with the secretion of various pro-inflammatory chemokines potentially contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis related with obesity. In addition, adipose depots surrounding the heart, such as epicardial (EAT) and perivascular adipose tissues (PAT) may also exert important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease beyond the contribution of VAT due to their close anatomic relationships with vascular structures and myocardium. The purpose of the present review is to outline the current understanding of the pathophysiological links between EAT, PAT and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Also, we discuss the current investigative methods for PAT quantification and discuss the potential impact of PAT on cardiovascular risk prediction. Finally, potential clinical implications of these notions are discussed.
Neck adipose tissue - tying ties in metabolic disorders.
Pandzic Jaksic Vlatka,Grizelj Danijela,Livun Ana,Boscic Drago,Ajduk Marko,Kusec Rajko,Jaksic Ozren
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
Upper body adipose tissue accumulation has been associated with clustering of metabolic disorders and increased cardiovascular risk. Neck circumference (NC) indicated that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in that region is an independent pathogenic depot that might account for the additional risk missed by visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Neck adipose tissue (NAT) is not only one more ectopic depot but has several particular features that might modulate its metabolic role. Besides a controversial impact on obstructive apnea syndrome, neck fat encompasses carotid arteries as an important perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) depot. With dysfunctional changes in obesity, physiologic vascular regulation is lost and inflammatory signals accelerate atherogenesis. Unexpected was the discovery of brown and beige adipocytes in the neck of human adults. When stimulated, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy through thermogenesis and it is associated with other favorable metabolic effects. Moreover, the neck is the region where the browning mechanism was disclosed. With this unique plastic nature, NAT revealed multiple ties, challenging dynamics and potential new therapeutic targets that might have significant implications on metabolic outcomes and vascular risk.
Comparisons between perivascular adipose tissue and the endothelium in their modulation of vascular tone.
Zaborska K E,Wareing M,Austin C
British journal of pharmacology
The endothelium is an established modulator of vascular tone; however, the recent discovery of the anti-contractile nature of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) suggests that the fat, which surrounds many blood vessels, can also modulate vascular tone. Both the endothelium and PVAT secrete vasoactive substances, which regulate vascular function. Many of these factors are common to both the endothelium and PVAT; therefore, this review will highlight the potential shared mechanisms in the modulation of vascular tone. Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of many vascular diseases, including hypertension and obesity. Moreover, PVAT dysfunction is now being reported in several cardio-metabolic disorders. Thus, this review will also discuss the mechanistic insights into endothelial and PVAT dysfunction in order to evaluate whether PVAT modulation of vascular contractility is similar to that of the endothelium in health and disease. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Perivascular adipose tissue as a regulator of vascular disease pathogenesis: identifying novel therapeutic targets.
Akoumianakis Ioannis,Tarun Akansha,Antoniades Charalambos
British journal of pharmacology
Adipose tissue (AT) is an active endocrine organ with the ability to dynamically secrete a wide range of adipocytokines. Importantly, its secretory profile is altered in various cardiovascular disease states. AT surrounding vessels, or perivascular AT (PVAT), is recognized in particular as an important local regulator of vascular function and dysfunction. Specifically, PVAT has the ability to sense vascular paracrine signals and respond by secreting a variety of vasoactive adipocytokines. Due to the crucial role of PVAT in regulating many aspects of vascular biology, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease pathogenesis. Signalling pathways in PVAT, such as those using adiponectin, H S, glucagon-like peptide 1 or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are among the potential novel pharmacological therapeutic targets of PVAT. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
The role of perivascular adipose tissue in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction.
Xia Ning,Li Huige
British journal of pharmacology
Under physiological conditions, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction by releasing vasoactive molecules including hydrogen peroxide, angiotensin 1-7, adiponectin, methyl palmitate, hydrogen sulfide, NO and leptin. This anticontractile effect of PVAT is lost under conditions of obesity. The central mechanism underlying this PVAT dysfunction in obesity is likely to be an 'obesity triad' (consisting of PVAT hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress) that leads to the impairment of PVAT-derived vasoregulators. The production of hydrogen sulfide, NO and adiponectin by PVAT is reduced in obesity, whereas the vasodilator response to leptin is impaired (vascular leptin resistance). Strikingly, the vasodilator response to acetylcholine is reduced only in PVAT-containing, but not in PVAT-free thoracic aorta isolated from diet-induced obese mice, indicating a unique role for PVAT in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction. Furthermore, PVAT dysfunction has also been observed in small arteries isolated from the gluteal/visceral fat biopsy samples of obese individuals. Therefore, PVAT may represent a new therapeutic target for vascular complications in obesity. A number of approaches are currently being tested under experimental conditions. Potential therapeutic strategies improving PVAT function include body weight reduction, enhancing PVAT hydrogen sulfide release (e.g. rosiglitazone, atorvastatin and cannabinoid CB receptor agonists) and NO production (e.g. arginase inhibitors), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inhibition of inflammation with melatonin or cytokine antagonists, activators of AMP-activated kinase (e.g. metformin, resveratrol and diosgenin) and adiponectin releasers or expression enhancers. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Role of Inflammation in Vascular Disease-Related Perivascular Adipose Tissue Dysfunction.
Chen Yaozhi,Qin Zeyu,Wang Yaqiong,Li Xin,Zheng Yang,Liu Yunxia
Frontiers in endocrinology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is the connective tissue around most blood vessels throughout the body. It provides mechanical support and maintains vascular homeostasis in a paracrine/endocrine manner. Under physiological conditions, PVAT has anti-inflammatory effects, improves free fatty acid metabolism, and regulates vasodilation. In pathological conditions, PVAT is dysfunctional, secretes many anti-vasodilator factors, and participates in vascular inflammation through various cells and mediators; thus, it causes dysfunction involving vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Inflammation is an important pathophysiological event in many vascular diseases, such as vascular aging, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Therefore, the pro-inflammatory crosstalk between PVAT and blood vessels may comprise a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases. In this review, we summarize findings concerning PVAT function and inflammation in different pathophysiological backgrounds, focusing on the secretory functions of PVAT and the crosstalk between PVAT and vascular inflammation in terms of vascular aging, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases. We also discuss anti-inflammatory treatment for potential vascular diseases involving PVAT.
Perivascular adipose tissue in cardiovascular diseases-an update.
Grigoras Adriana,Amalinei Cornelia,Balan Raluca Anca,Giusca Simona Eliza,Caruntu Irina Draga
Anatolian journal of cardiology
The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been recently recognized as an important factor in vascular biology, with implications in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The cell types and the precursor cells of PVAT appear to be different according to their location, with the component cell type including white, brown, and beige adipocytes. PVAT releases a panel of adipokines and cytokines that maintain vascular homeostasis, but it also has the ability of intervention in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic plaques development and in the vascular tone modulation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and discuss the role of PVAT as a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of ischemic coronary disease, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The new perspective of PVAT as an endocrine organ, along with the recent knowledge of the mechanisms involved in dysfunctional PVAT intervention in local vascular homeostasis perturbations, nowadays represent a new area of research in cardiovascular pathology, aiming to discover new therapeutic methods.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue as a Relevant Fat Depot for Cardiovascular Risk in Obesity.
Costa Rafael M,Neves Karla B,Tostes Rita C,Lobato Núbia S
Frontiers in physiology
Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death, morbidity, and mortality from several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. However, this is not a straightforward relationship. Although several studies have substantiated that obesity confers an independent and additive risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, there is significant variability in these associations, with some lean individuals developing diseases and others remaining healthy despite severe obesity, the so-called metabolically healthy obese. Part of this variability has been attributed to the heterogeneity in both the distribution of body fat and the intrinsic properties of adipose tissue depots, including developmental origin, adipogenic and proliferative capacity, glucose and lipid metabolism, hormonal control, thermogenic ability, and vascularization. In obesity, these depot-specific differences translate into specific fat distribution patterns, which are closely associated with differential cardiometabolic risks. The adventitial fat layer, also known as perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), is of major importance. Similar to the visceral adipose tissue, PVAT has a pathophysiological role in CVDs. PVAT influences vascular homeostasis by releasing numerous vasoactive factors, cytokines, and adipokines, which can readily target the underlying smooth muscle cell layers, regulating the vascular tone, distribution of blood flow, as well as angiogenesis, inflammatory processes, and redox status. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and discuss the role of PVAT within the scope of adipose tissue as a major contributing factor to obesity-associated cardiovascular risk. Relevant clinical studies documenting the relationship between PVAT dysfunction and CVD with a focus on potential mechanisms by which PVAT contributes to obesity-related CVDs are pointed out.
Epicardial perivascular adipose tissue as a therapeutic target in obesity-related coronary artery disease.
Payne Gregory A,Kohr Meredith C,Tune Johnathan D
British journal of pharmacology
UNLABELLED:Adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that may influence the development of atherosclerosis and vascular disease. In the setting of obesity, adipose tissue produces a variety of inflammatory cytokines (or adipokines) that are known to modulate key mechanisms of atherogenesis. In particular, adipose tissue located on the surface of the heart surrounding large coronary arteries (i.e. epicardial perivascular adipose tissue) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The present review outlines our current understanding of the cellular and molecular links between perivascular adipose tissue and atherosclerosis with a focus on potential mechanisms by which epicardial perivascular adipose tissue contributes to obesity-related coronary disease. The pathophysiology of perivascular adipose tissue in obesity and its influence on oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and vascular reactivity is addressed. In addition, the contribution of specific epicardial perivascular adipose-derived adipokines (e.g. leptin, adiponectin) to the initiation and expansion of coronary disease is also highlighted. Finally, future investigative goals are discussed with an emphasis on indentifying novel therapeutic targets and disease markers within perivascular adipose tissue. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3.
Intraoperative Strategies for Minimal Manipulation of Autologous Adipose Tissue for Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapies: Concise Review.
Trivisonno Angelo,Alexander Robert W,Baldari Silvia,Cohen Steven R,Di Rocco Giuliana,Gentile Pietro,Magalon Guy,Magalon Jérémy,Miller Randy B,Womack Hayley,Toietta Gabriele
Stem cells translational medicine
The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous population of stem/stromal cells isolated from perivascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissue complex (ATC). Administration of SVF holds a strong therapeutic potential for regenerative and wound healing medicine applications aimed at functional restoration of tissues damaged by injuries or chronic diseases. SVF is commonly divided into cellular stromal vascular fraction (cSVF) and tissue stromal vascular fraction (tSVF). Cellular SVF is obtained from ATC by collagenase digestion, incubation/isolation, and pelletized by centrifugation. Enzymatic disaggregation may alter the relevant biological characteristics of adipose tissue, while providing release of complex, multiattachment of cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix, effectively eliminating the bioactive ECM and periadventitial attachments. In many countries, the isolation of cellular elements is considered as a "more than minimal" manipulation, and is most often limited to controlled clinical trials and subject to regulatory review. Several alternative, nonenzymatic methods of adipose tissue processing have been developed to obtain via minimal mechanical manipulation an autologous tSVF product intended for delivery, reducing the procedure duration, lowering production costs, decreasing regulatory burden, and shortening the translation into the clinical setting. Ideally, these procedures might allow for the integration of harvesting and processing of adipose tissue for ease of injection, in a single procedure utilizing a nonexpanded cellular product at the point of care, while permitting intraoperative autologous cellular and tissue-based therapies. Here, we review and discuss the options, advantages, and limitations of the major strategies alternative to enzymatic processing currently developed for minimal manipulation of adipose tissue. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1265&1271.
Perivascular adipose tissue in vascular function and disease: a review of current research and animal models.
Brown Nicholas K,Zhou Zhou,Zhang Jifeng,Zeng Rong,Wu Jiarui,Eitzman Daniel T,Chen Y Eugene,Chang Lin
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), long assumed to be nothing more than vessel-supporting connective tissue, is now understood to be an important, active component of the vasculature, with integral roles in vascular health and disease. PVAT is an adipose tissue with similarities to both brown and white adipose tissue, although recent evidence suggests that PVAT develops from its own precursors. Like other adipose tissue depots, PVAT secretes numerous biologically active substances that can act in both autocrine and paracrine fashion. PVAT has also proven to be involved in vascular inflammation. Although PVAT can support inflammation during atherosclerosis via macrophage accumulation, emerging evidence suggests that PVAT also has antiatherosclerotic properties related to its abilities to induce nonshivering thermogenesis and metabolize fatty acids. We here discuss the accumulated knowledge of PVAT biology and related research on models of hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Relationships Between Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.
Ye Tongtong,Zhang Guangdong,Liu Hangyu,Shi Junfeng,Qiu Hongyan,Liu Yongping,Han Fang,Hou Ningning
Frontiers in endocrinology
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are typically asymptomatic, and there is a high mortality rate associated with aneurysm rupture. AAA pathogenesis involves extracellular matrix degradation, vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype switching, inflammation, and oxidative stress. There is increasing evidence of excessive adipocyte accumulation in ruptured AAA walls. These excessive numbers of adipocytes in the vascular wall have been closely linked with AAA progression. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), a unique type of adipose tissue, can be involved in adipocyte accumulation in the AAA wall. PVAT produces various chemokines and adipocytokines around vessels to maintain vascular homeostasis through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms in normal physiological conditions. Nevertheless, PVAT loses its normal function and promotes the progression of vascular diseases in pathological conditions. There is evidence of significantly reduced AAA diameter in vessel walls of removed PVAT. There is a need to highlight the critical roles of cytokines, cells, and microRNA derived from PVAT in the regulation of AAA development. PVAT may constitute an important therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AAAs. In this review, we discuss the relationship between PVAT and AAA development; we also highlight the potential for PVAT-derived factors to serve as a therapeutic target in the treatment of AAAs.
Perivascular adipose tissue and the dynamic regulation of K 7 and K channels: Implications for resistant hypertension.
Gollasch Maik,Welsh Donald G,Schubert Rudolf
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)
Resistant hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled despite treatment with at least three antihypertensive drugs at adequate doses. Resistant hypertension is an increasingly common clinical problem in older age, obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, and chronic kidney disease. Although the direct vasodilator minoxidil was introduced in the early 1970s, only recently has this drug been shown to be particularly effective in a subgroup of patients with treatment-resistant or uncontrolled hypertension. This pharmacological approach is interesting from a mechanistic perspective as minoxidil is the only clinically used K channel opener today, which targets a subclass of K channels, namely K channels in VSMCs. Beside K channels, two other classes of VSMC K channels could represent novel effective targets for treatment of resistant hypertension, namely K 7 (KCNQ) and inward rectifier potassium (K 2.1) channels. Interestingly, these channels are unique among VSMC potassium channels. First, both have been implicated in the control of microvascular tone by perivascular adipose tissue. Second, they exhibit biophysical properties strongly controlled and regulated by membrane voltage, but not intracellular calcium. This review focuses on K 7 (K 7.1-5) and K (K 2.1) channels in VSMCs as potential novel drug targets for treatment of resistant hypertension, particularly in comorbid conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Endothelial and Perivascular Adipose Tissue Abnormalities in Obesity-Related Vascular Dysfunction: Novel Targets for Treatment.
Schinzari Francesca,Tesauro Manfredi,Cardillo Carmine
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology
The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT is in intimate contact with the vessel wall, hence affecting vascular function and structure. In lean individuals, PVAT exerts anticontractile and anti-inflammatory activities to protect the vasculature. In obesity, instead, these beneficial properties are lost and PVAT releases inflammatory mediators, promotes oxidative stress, and contributes to vascular dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms elicited by these outside-in signals include resistance to the vasodilator actions of insulin and activation of endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction. A number of adipokines and gut hormones, which are important modulators of food intake, energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation, have also positive vascular actions. This feature makes them promising tools for targeting both the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity, a view supported by recent large-scale clinical trials indicating that novel drugs for type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular potential may translate into clinically significant benefits. There is, therefore, real hope that unleashing the power of fat- and gut-derived substances might provide effective dual-action therapies for obesity and its complications.
Role of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.
Fernández-Alfonso Maria S,Somoza Beatriz,Tsvetkov Dmitry,Kuczmanski Artur,Dashwood Mick,Gil-Ortega Marta
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is cushion of fat tissue surrounding blood vessels, which is phenotypically different from other adipose tissue depots. PVAT is composed of adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction, constituted by different populations of immune cells, endothelial cells, and adipose-derived stromal cells. It expresses and releases an important number of vasoactive factors with paracrine effects on vascular structure and function. In healthy individuals, these factors elicit a net anticontractile and anti-inflammatory paracrine effect aimed at meeting hemodynamic and metabolic demands of specific organs and regions of the body. Pathophysiological situations, such as obesity, diabetes or hypertension, induce changes in its amount and in the expression pattern of vasoactive factors leading to a PVAT dysfunction in which the beneficial paracrine influence of PVAT is shifted to a pro-oxidant, proinflammatory, contractile, and trophic environment leading to functional and structural cardiovascular alterations and cardiovascular disease. Many different PVATs surrounding a variety of blood vessels have been described and exhibit regional differences. Both protective and deleterious influence of PVAT differs regionally depending on the specific vascular bed contributing to variations in the susceptibility of arteries and veins to vascular disease. PVAT therefore, might represent a novel target for pharmacological intervention in cardiovascular disease. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:23-59, 2018.
Perivascular adipose tissue, inflammation and insulin resistance: link to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.
Lastra Guido,Manrique Camila
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
Obesity is a leading risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), however the underlying mechanisms still remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that dysfunctional adipose tissue in conditions of obesity is a critical source of inflammation that impacts the cardiovascular system and contributes to CVD. Although traditionally visceral adipose tissue has been linked to increased CVD risk, there is mounting interest in the role that fat accumulation around the vasculature plays in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is in intimate contact with large, medium and small diameter arterial beds in several tissues, and has been shown to control vascular function as well as remodeling. PVAT does not merely mirror visceral adipose tissue changes seen in obesity, but has unique features that impact vascular biology. In lean individuals PVAT exerts vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory functions, however obesity results in PVAT inflammation, characterized by imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cells as wells as adipokines. PVAT inflammation promotes insulin resistance in the vasculature, thus resulting in impaired insulin-mediated vasodilatory responses and vascular remodeling. In this review we address current knowledge about the mechanisms that link PVAT inflammation to insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction. Indeed, PVAT emerges as a novel type of adipose tissue that participates in the pathogenesis of CVD, independently to a large extent to visceral adipose tissue.
Perivascular adipose tissue and coronary atherosclerosis.
Mancio Jennifer,Oikonomou Evangelos K,Antoniades Charalambos
Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Adipose tissue (AT) is no longer viewed as a passive, energy-storing depot, and a growing body of evidence supports the concept that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of AT are critical in determining an individual's cardiometabolic risk profile. Among all AT sites, perivascular AT (PVAT) has emerged as a depot with a distinctive biological significance in cardiovascular disease given its close anatomical proximity to the vasculature. Recent studies have suggested the presence of complex, bidirectional paracrine and vasocrine signalling pathways between the vascular wall and its PVAT, with far-reaching implications in cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, we first discuss the biological role of PVAT in both cardiovascular health and disease, highlighting its dual pro-atherogenic and anti-atherogenic roles, as well as potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. We then review current evidence and promising new modalities on the non-invasive imaging of epicardial AT and PVAT. Specifically, we present how our expanding knowledge on the bidirectional interplay between the vascular wall and its PVAT can be translated into novel clinical diagnostics tools to assess coronary inflammation. To this end, we present the example of a new CT-based method that tracks spatial changes in PVAT phenotype to extract information about the inflammatory status of the adjacent vasculature, highlighting the numerous diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities that arise from our increased understanding of PVAT biology.
Roles of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis.
Tanaka Kimie,Sata Masataka
Frontiers in physiology
Traditionally, it is believed that white adipose tissues serve as energy storage, heat insulation, and mechanical cushion, whereas non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue. Recent evidence revealed that adipose tissue secretes many types of cytokines, called as adipocytokines, which modulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, appetite, fibrinolysis, blood pressure, and inflammation. Most of the arteries are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT has been thought to be simply a structurally supportive tissue for vasculature. However, recent studies showed that PVAT influences vasodilation and vasocontraction, suggesting that PVAT regulates vascular tone and diameter. Adipocytokines secreted from PVAT appear to have direct access to the adjacent arterial wall by diffusion or via vasa vasorum. In fact, PVAT around atherosclerotic lesions and mechanically-injured arteries displayed inflammatory cytokine profiles, suggesting that PVAT functions to promote vascular lesion formation. Many clinical studies revealed that increased accumulation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which surrounds coronary arteries, is associated with coronary artery disease. In this review article, we will summarize recent findings about potential roles of PVAT in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, particularly focusing on a series of basic and clinical studies from our laboratory.
Perivascular adipose tissue and coronary vascular disease.
Owen Meredith Kohr,Noblet Jillian N,Sassoon Daniel J,Conteh Abass M,Goodwill Adam G,Tune Johnathan D
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Coronary perivascular adipose tissue is a naturally occurring adipose tissue depot that normally surrounds the major coronary arteries on the surface of the heart. Although originally thought to promote vascular health and integrity, there is a growing body of evidence to support that coronary perivascular adipose tissue displays a distinct phenotype relative to other adipose depots and is capable of producing local factors with the potential to augment coronary vascular tone, inflammation, and the initiation and progression of coronary artery disease. The purpose of the present review is to outline previous findings about the cardiovascular effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue and the potential mechanisms by which adipose-derived factors may influence coronary vascular function and the progression of atherogenesis.
Effects of resveratrol on eNOS in the endothelium and the perivascular adipose tissue.
Xia Ning,Förstermann Ulrich,Li Huige
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Under physiological conditions, nitric oxide (NO) is produced in the vasculature mainly by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Experiments using gene-disrupted mice have demonstrated that eNOS has antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Recent studies show that eNOS is expressed not only in the endothelium but also in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Resveratrol prevents eNOS uncoupling and upregulates eNOS expression and activity. These effects of resveratrol are well established for the eNOS enzyme in the endothelium. Interestingly, resveratrol also improves PVAT function. However, a causal role for eNOS in the effects of resveratrol on PVAT function has not yet been verified and needs to be studied in the future.
Human perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction as a cause of vascular disease: Focus on vascular tone and wall remodeling.
Ozen Gulsev,Daci Armond,Norel Xavier,Topal Gokce
European journal of pharmacology
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is characterized by excessive or abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including depots which surround the blood vessels named perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT plays endocrine and paracrine roles by producing large numbers of metabolically vasoactive adipokines. The present review outlines our current understanding of the beneficial roles of PVAT in vascular tone and remodeling in healthy subjects supported by clinical studies, highlighting different factors or mechanisms that could mediate protective effects of PVAT on vascular function. Most studies in humans show that adiponectin is the best candidate for the advantageous effect of PVAT. However, in pathological conditions especially obesity-related cardiovascular diseases, the beneficial effects of PVAT on vascular functions are impaired and transform into detrimental roles. This change is defined as PVAT dysfunction. In the current review, the contribution of PVAT dysfunction to obesity-related cardiovascular diseases has been discussed with a focus on possible mechanisms including an imbalance between beneficial and detrimental adipokines (commonly described as decreased levels of adiponectin and increased levels of leptin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)), increased quantity of adipose tissue, inflammation, cell proliferation and endothelial dysfunction. Finally, novel pharmacotherapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders are addressed.
Emerging Roles of Sympathetic Nerves and Inflammation in Perivascular Adipose Tissue.
Cardiovascular drugs and therapy
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is no longer recognised as simply a structural support for the vasculature, and we now know that PVAT releases vasoactive factors which modulate vascular function. Since the discovery of this function in 1991, PVAT research is rapidly growing and the importance of PVAT function in disease is becoming increasingly clear. Obesity is associated with a plethora of vascular conditions; therefore, the study of adipocytes and their effects on the vasculature is vital. PVAT contains an adrenergic system including nerves, adrenoceptors and transporters. In obesity, the autonomic nervous system is dysfunctional; therefore, sympathetic innervation of PVAT may be the key mechanistic link between increased adiposity and vascular disease. In addition, not all obese people develop vascular disease, but a common feature amongst those that do appears to be the inflammatory cell population in PVAT. This review will discuss what is known about sympathetic innervation of PVAT, and the links between nerve activation and inflammation in obesity. In addition, we will examine the therapeutic potential of exercise in sympathetic stimulation of adipose tissue.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue Oxidative Stress on the Pathophysiology of Cardiometabolic Diseases.
Victorio Jamaira A,Davel Ana P
Current hypertension reviews
Most of the systemic blood vessels are surrounded by the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Healthy PVAT is anticontractile and anti-inflammatory, but a dysfunctional PVAT has been suggested to link cardiometabolic risk factors to vascular dysfunction. Vascular oxidative stress is an important pathophysiological event in cardiometabolic complications of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. PVAT-derived adipocytes generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that might signal to the vascular wall. Therefore, an abnormal generation of ROS by PVAT emerges as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying vascular injury. This review summarizes new findings describing ROS production in the PVAT of several vascular beds, major sources of ROS in this tissue including mitochondria, NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupled, and finally, changes in ROS production affecting vascular function in the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases.
Perivascular adipose tissue in age-related vascular disease.
Queiroz Marcelo,Sena Cristina M
Ageing research reviews
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), a crucial regulator of vascular homeostasis, is actively involved in vascular dysfunction during aging. PVAT releases various adipocytokines, chemokines and growth factors. In an endocrine and paracrine manner PVAT-derived factors regulate vascular signalling and inflammation modulating functions of adjacent layers of the vasculature. Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, vascular injury and aging can cause PVAT dysfunction, leading to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions. We and others have suggested that PVAT is involved in the inflammatory response of the vascular wall in diet induced obesity animal models leading to vascular dysfunction due to disappearance of the physiological anticontractile effect. Previous studies confirm a crucial role for pinpointed PVAT inflammation in promoting vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, enhancing the risk for development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss several studies and mechanisms linking PVAT to age-related vascular diseases. An overview of the suggested roles played by PVAT in different disorders associated with the vasculature such as endothelial dysfunction, neointimal formation, aneurysm, vascular contractility and stiffness will be performed. PVAT may be considered a potential target for therapeutic intervention in age-related vascular disease.
Modulation of Vascular Reactivity by Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT).
Agabiti-Rosei Claudia,Paini Anna,De Ciuceis Carolina,Withers Sarah,Greenstein Adam,Heagerty Anthony M,Rizzoni Damiano
Current hypertension reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In this review, we discuss the role of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in the modulation of vascular contractility and arterial pressure, focusing on the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative stress/inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS:PVAT possesses a relevant endocrine-paracrine activity, which may be altered in several pathophysiological and clinical conditions. During the last two decades, it has been shown that PVAT may modulate vascular reactivity. It has also been previously demonstrated that inflammation in adipose tissue may be implicated in vascular dysfunction. In particular, adipocytes secrete a number of adipokines with various functions, as well as several vasoactive factors, together with components of the renin-angiotensin system which may act at local or at systemic level. It has been shown that the anti-contractile effect of PVAT is lost in obesity, probably as a consequence of the development of adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Adipose tissue dysfunction is interrelated with inflammation and oxidative stress, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction observed in several pathological and clinical conditions such as obesity and hypertension. Decreased local adiponectin level, macrophage recruitment and infiltration, and activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system could play an important role in this regard.
Targeting white, brown and perivascular adipose tissue in atherosclerosis development.
van Dam Andrea D,Boon Mariëtte R,Berbée Jimmy F P,Rensen Patrick C N,van Harmelen Vanessa
European journal of pharmacology
Obesity is a well-established risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, the mechanistic link between accumulation of adipose tissue and development of atherosclerosis is not clear. Adipose tissue comprises various depots including white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). The phenotype of thoracic PVAT resembles BAT, whereas abdominal PVAT is more like WAT. Here, we review the distinct roles of the adipose tissue depots in the development of atherosclerosis with the ultimate aim to understand how these can be targeted to reduce atherosclerosis. In obesity, increased fatty acid release by WAT and decreased lipid combustion by BAT and thoracic PVAT lead to hyperlipidaemia, which contributes to atherosclerosis development. Besides, obese WAT and abdominal PVAT release pro-inflammatory factors that further promote atherosclerosis. To discourage atherosclerosis development, strategies that reduce the release of pro-inflammatory factors and fatty acids from WAT and abdominal PVAT, or increase combustion of fatty acids by activation of BAT and thoracic PVAT and beiging of WAT are probably most efficient. Possible therapies could include anti-inflammatory compounds such as adiponectin and salicylates to lower inflammation, and β3-adrenergic receptor activators to increase fatty acid combustion. Additional and more specific strategies to promote fatty acid combustion are currently subject of investigation. In conclusion, different adipose depots differentially affect atherosclerosis development, in which atherosclerosis is promoted by energy-storing adipose depots and attenuated by energy-combusting adipose tissue. In obesity, combining therapies that reduce inflammation and increase combustion of lipids are most conceivable to restrain atherogenesis.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Coronary Atherosclerosis: from Biology to Imaging Phenotyping.
Lin Andrew,Dey Damini,Wong Dennis T L,Nerlekar Nitesh
Current atherosclerosis reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has a complex, bidirectional relationship with the vascular wall. In disease states, PVAT secretes pro-inflammatory adipocytokines which may contribute to atherosclerosis. Recent evidence demonstrates that pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) may also function as a sensor of coronary inflammation. This review details PVAT biology and its clinical translation to current imaging phenotyping. RECENT FINDINGS:PCAT attenuation derived from routine coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is a novel noninvasive imaging biomarker of coronary inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines released from the arterial wall diffuse directly into the surrounding PCAT and inhibit adipocyte lipid accumulation in a paracrine manner. This can be detected as an increased PCAT CT attenuation, a metric which associates with high-risk plaque features and independently predicts cardiac mortality. There is also evidence that PCAT attenuation relates to coronary plaque progression and is modified by systemic anti-inflammatory therapies. Due to its proximity to the coronary arteries, PCAT has emerged as an important fat depot in cardiovascular research. PCAT CT attenuation has the potential to improve cardiovascular risk stratification, and future clinical studies should examine its role in guiding targeted medical therapy.
Exercise effects on perivascular adipose tissue: endocrine and paracrine determinants of vascular function.
Boa B C S,Yudkin J S,van Hinsbergh V W M,Bouskela E,Eringa E C
British journal of pharmacology
Obesity is a global epidemic, accompanied by increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue hypertrophy is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, which alters the secretion of adipose tissue-derived bioactive products, known as adipokines. Adipokines determine vessel wall properties such as smooth muscle tone and vessel wall inflammation. Exercise is a mainstay of prevention of chronic, non-communicable diseases, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in particular. Aside from reducing adipose tissue mass, exercise has been shown to reduce inflammatory activity in this tissue. Mechanistically, contracting muscles release bioactive molecules known as myokines, which alter the metabolic phenotype of adipose tissue. In adipose tissue, myokines induce browning, enhance fatty acid oxidation and improve insulin sensitivity. In the past years, the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) which surrounds the vasculature, has been shown to control vascular tone and inflammation through local release of adipokines. In obesity, an increase in mass and inflammation of PVAT culminate in dysregulation of adipokine secretion, which contributes to vascular dysfunction. This review describes our current understanding of the mechanisms by which active muscles interact with adipose tissue and improve vascular function. Aside from the exercise-dependent regulation of canonical adipose tissue function, we will focus on the interactions between skeletal muscle and PVAT and the role of novel myokines, such as IL-15, FGF21 and irisin, in these interactions. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Perivascular adipose tissue: epiphenomenon or local risk factor?
Schäfer K,Drosos I,Konstantinides S
International journal of obesity (2005)
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities. In this review, we will discuss the recent literature on the possible direct and indirect connections between perivascular fat alterations and cardiovascular pathologies. In addition to clinical evidence on the association between perivascular fat mass and morphology and anthropometric measures of obesity or the reciprocal connection between perivascular fat and cardiometabolic risk factors and disease, special emphasis will be placed on results in rodent and other models and the possible direct contribution of local fat depots to vascular dysfunction, neointima formation or atherosclerosis. We will briefly highlight results from human and murine genome, miRNome and proteome-wide expression analyses of potential candidate mediators involved in its paracrine activities and present data on how the cardiovascular risk factors obesity, age or diabetes, but also the preventive measures weight loss or exercise impact on perivascular expression patterns. A better understanding of this unique adipose tissue depot, its properties and regulatory mechanisms, may create opportunities for novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to combat the cardiovascular consequences of increased body weight.
Potential role of perivascular adipose tissue in modulating atherosclerosis.
Ahmadieh Samah,Kim Ha Won,Weintraub Neal L
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) directly juxtaposes the vascular adventitia and contains a distinct mixture of mature adipocytes, preadipocytes, stem cells, and inflammatory cells that communicate via adipocytokines and other signaling mediators with the nearby vessel wall to regulate vascular function. Cross-talk between perivascular adipocytes and the cells in the blood vessel wall is vital for normal vascular function and becomes perturbed in diseases such as atherosclerosis. Perivascular adipocytes surrounding coronary arteries may be primed to promote inflammation and angiogenesis, and PVAT phenotypic changes occurring in the setting of obesity, hyperlipidemia etc., are fundamentally important in determining a pathogenic versus protective role of PVAT in vascular disease. Recent discoveries have advanced our understanding of the role of perivascular adipocytes in modulating vascular function. However, their impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in humans, is yet to be fully elucidated. This review will highlight the complex mechanisms whereby PVAT regulates atherosclerosis, with an emphasis on clinical implications of PVAT and emerging strategies for evaluation and treatment of CVD based on PVAT biology.
State-of-the-art review article. Atherosclerosis affecting fat: What can we learn by imaging perivascular adipose tissue?
Antoniades Charalambos,Kotanidis Christos P,Berman Daniel S
Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding the human coronary arteries, secretes a wide range of adipocytokines affecting the biology of the adjacent vascular wall in a paracrine way. However, we have recently found that PVAT also behaves as a sensor of signals coming from the vascular wall, to which it reacts by changing its morphology and secretory profile. Indeed, vascular inflammation, a key feature of vascular disease pathogenesis, leads to the release of inflammatory signals that disseminate into local fat, inducing local lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis. This ability of PVAT to sense inflammatory signals from the vascular wall, can be used as a "thermometer" of the vascular wall, allowing for non-invasive detection of coronary inflammation. Vascular inflammation induces a shift of PVAT's composition from lipid to aqueous phase, resulting into increased computed tomography (CT) attenuation around the inflamed artery, forming a gradient with increasing attenuation closer to the inflamed coronary artery wall. These spatial changes in PVAT's attenuation are easily detected around culprit lesions during acute coronary syndromes. A new biomarker designed to captured these spatial changes in PVAT's attenuation around the human coronary arteries, the Fat Attenuation Index (FAI), has additional predictive value in stable patients for cardiac mortality and non-fatal heart attacks, above the prediction provided by the current state of the art that includes risk factors, calcium score and presence of high risk plaque features. The use of perivascular FAI in clinical practice may change the way we interpret cardiovascular CT angiography, as it is applicable to any coronary CT angiogram, and it offers dynamic information about the inflammatory burden of the coronary arteries, providing potential guidance for preventive measures and invasive treatments.
Review on multifaceted involvement of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular pathology.
Samuel O Olapoju
Cardiovascular pathology : the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a fat tissue deposit that encircles the vasculature. PVAT is traditionally known to protect the vasculature from external stimuli that could cause biological stress. In addition to the protective role of PVAT, it secretes certain biologically active substances known as adipokines that induce paracrine effects on proximate blood vessels. These adipokines influence vascular tones. There are different types of PVAT and they are phenotypically and functionally distinct. These are the white and brown PVATs. Under certain conditions, white PVAT could undergo phenotypic switch to attain a brown PVAT-like phenotype. This type of PVAT is referred to as Beige PVAT. The morphology of adipose tissue is influenced by species, age, and sex. These factors play significant roles in adipose tissue mass, functionality, paracrine activity, and predisposition to vascular diseases. The difficulty that is currently experienced in extrapolating animal models to human physiology could be traceable to these factors. Up till now, the involvement of PVAT in the development of vascular pathology is still not well understood. Brown and white PVAT contribute differently to vascular pathology. Thus, the PVAT could be a therapeutic target in curbing certain vascular diseases. In this review, knowledge would be updated on the multifaceted involvement of PVAT in vascular pathology and also explore its vascular therapeutic potential.
Perivascular adipose tissue: An unique fat compartment relevant for the cardiometabolic syndrome.
Siegel-Axel D I,Häring H U
Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
Type 2 diabetes and its major risk factor, obesity, are an increasing worldwide health problem. The exact mechanisms that link obesity with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular complications and renal diseases, are still not clarified sufficiently. Adipose tissue in general is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that may influence the development of these disorders. Excessive body fat in general obesity may also cause quantitative and functional alterations of specific adipose tissue compartments. Beside visceral and subcutaneous fat depots which exert systemic effects by the release of adipokines, cytokines and hormones, there are also locally acting fat depots such as peri- and epicardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. Perivascular adipose tissue is in close contact with the adventitia of large, medium and small diameter arteries, possesses unique features differing from other fat depots and may act also independently of general obesity. An increasing number of studies are dealing with the "good" or "bad" characteristics and functions of normally sized and dramatically increased perivascular fat mass in lean or heavily obese individuals. This review describes the origin of perivascular adipose tissue, its different locations, the dual role of a physiological and unphysiological fat mass and its impact on diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Clinical studies, new imaging methods, as well as basic research in cell culture experiments in the last decade helped to elucidate the various aspects of the unique fat compartment.
Mechanistic Links Between Obesity, Diabetes, and Blood Pressure: Role of Perivascular Adipose Tissue.
Saxton Sophie N,Clark Ben J,Withers Sarah B,Eringa Etto C,Heagerty Anthony M
Obesity is increasingly prevalent and is associated with substantial cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue distribution and morphology play a key role in determining the degree of adverse effects, and a key factor in the disease process appears to be the inflammatory cell population in adipose tissue. Healthy adipose tissue secretes a number of vasoactive adipokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and changes to this secretory profile will contribute to pathogenesis in obesity. In this review, we discuss the links between adipokine dysregulation and the development of hypertension and diabetes and explore the potential for manipulating adipose tissue morphology and its immune cell population to improve cardiovascular health in obesity.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue Attenuation on Computed Tomography beyond the Coronary Arteries. A Systematic Review.
Tuttolomondo Domenico,Martini Chiara,Nicolini Francesco,Formica Francesco,Pini Alessandro,Secchi Francesco,Volpi Riccardo,De Filippo Massimo,Gaibazzi Nicola
Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)
(1) Background: Perivascular adipose tissue attenuation, measured with computed tomography imaging, is a marker of mean local vascular inflammation since it reflects the morphological changes of the fat tissue in direct contact with the vessel. This method is thoroughly validated in coronary arteries, but few studies have been performed in other vascular beds. The aim of the present study is to provide insight into the potential application of perivascular adipose tissue attenuation through computed tomography imaging in extra-coronary arteries. (2) Methods: A comprehensive search of the scientific literature published in the last 30 years (1990-2020) has been performed on Medline. (3) Results: A Medline databases search for titles, abstracts, and keywords returned 3251 records. After the exclusion of repetitions and the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and abstract screening, 37 studies were selected for full-text evaluation. Three papers were finally included in the systematic review. Perivascular adipose tissue attenuation assessment was studied in the internal carotid artery, ascending thoracic aorta, and abdominal aorta. (4) Conclusions: Perivascular adipose tissue attenuation seems to be an applicable parameter in all investigated vascular beds, generally with good inter-observer reproducibility.
Perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in vascular disease.
Nosalski Ryszard,Guzik Tomasz J
British journal of pharmacology
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies, perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte-derived relaxing factors and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokines [RANTES (CCL5) and MCP-1 (CCL2)]. These adipocyte-derived factors initiate and orchestrate inflammatory cell infiltration including primarily T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and NK cells. Protective factors such as adiponectin can reduce NADPH oxidase superoxide production and increase NO bioavailability in the vessel wall, while inflammation (e.g. IFN-γ or IL-17) induces vascular oxidases and eNOS dysfunction in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts. All of these events link the dysfunctional perivascular fat to vascular dysfunction. These mechanisms are important in the context of a number of cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Inflammatory changes in PVAT's molecular and cellular responses are uniquely different from classical visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue or from adventitia, emphasizing the unique structural and functional features of this adipose tissue compartment. Therefore, it is essential to develop techniques for monitoring the characteristics of PVAT and assessing its inflammation. This will lead to a better understanding of the early stages of vascular pathologies and the development of new therapeutic strategies focusing on perivascular adipose tissue. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue: the Sixth Man of the Cardiovascular System.
Cardiovascular drugs and therapy
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) refers to the local aggregate of adipose tissue surrounding the vascular tree, exhibiting phenotypes from white to brown and beige adipocytes. Although PVAT has long been regarded as simply a structural unit providing mechanical support to vasculature, it is now gaining reputation as an integral endocrine/paracrine component, in addition to the well-established modulator endothelium, in regulating vascular tone. Since the discovery of anti-contractile effect of PVAT in 1991, the use of multiple rodent models of reduced amounts of PVAT has revealed its regulatory role in vascular remodeling and cardiovascular implications, including atherosclerosis. PVAT does not only release PVAT-derived relaxing factors (PVRFs) to activate multiple subsets of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle potassium channels and anti-inflammatory signals in the vasculature, but it does also provide an interface for neuron-adipocyte interactions in the vascular wall to regulate arterial vascular tone. In this review, we outline our current understanding towards PVAT and attempt to provide hints about future studies that can sharpen the therapeutic potential of PVAT against cardiovascular diseases and their complications.
The role of perivascular adipose tissue in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The importance of diagnosis for assessing the risk stratification of cardiovascular diseases.
Uchasova E G,Gruzdeva O V,Dyleva Yu A,Belik E V
Obesity is closely associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue (AT) is identified as a complex endocrine organ, with a wide range of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. Various terms, including paracardiac, epicardial and pericardial, are used to describe the fatty deposits surrounding the heart. Among all the fat depots, perivascular AT (PVAT) is of great biological significance for the cardiovascular system due to its anatomical proximity to the vessels. Recent studies have shown the presence of a complex, bidirectional paracrine and vasocardial signaling system between the vascular wall and PVAT. In the review, we will discuss the biological role of PVAT in both the physiological state and cardiovascular pathology, emphasizing its dual proatherogenic and antiatherogenic role. Let us consider PVAT as a target for various therapeutic agents in cardiovascular diseases. We will also analyze data on the role of non-invasive techniques as a diagnostic tool for assessing coronary artery inflammation.
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword.
Qi Xiao-Yan,Qu Shun-Lin,Xiong Wen-Hao,Rom Oren,Chang Lin,Jiang Zhi-Sheng
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), the adipose tissue that surrounds most of the vasculature, has emerged as an active component of the blood vessel wall regulating vascular homeostasis and affecting the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although PVAT characteristics resemble both brown and white adipose tissues, recent evidence suggests that PVAT develops from its own distinct precursors implying a closer link between PVAT and vascular system. Under physiological conditions, PVAT has potent anti-atherogenic properties mediated by its ability to secrete various biologically active factors that induce non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolize fatty acids. In contrast, under pathological conditions (mainly obesity), PVAT becomes dysfunctional, loses its thermogenic capacity and secretes pro-inflammatory adipokines that induce endothelial dysfunction and infiltration of inflammatory cells, promoting atherosclerosis development. Since PVAT plays crucial roles in regulating key steps of atherosclerosis development, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Here, we review the current literature regarding the roles of PVAT in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue Regulates Vascular Function by Targeting Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Chang Lin,Garcia-Barrio Minerva T,Chen Y Eugene
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Adipose tissues are present at multiple locations in the body. Most blood vessels are surrounded with adipose tissue which is referred to as perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Similarly to adipose tissues at other locations, PVAT harbors many types of cells which produce and secrete adipokines and other undetermined factors which locally modulate PVAT metabolism and vascular function. Uncoupling protein-1, which is considered as a brown fat marker, is also expressed in PVAT of rodents and humans. Thus, compared with other adipose tissues in the visceral area, PVAT displays brown-like characteristics. PVAT shows a distinct function in the cardiovascular system compared with adipose tissues in other depots which are not adjacent to the vascular tree. Growing and extensive studies have demonstrated that presence of normal PVAT is required to maintain the vasculature in a functional status. However, excessive accumulation of dysfunctional PVAT leads to vascular disorders, partially through alteration of its secretome which, in turn, affects vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. In this review, we highlight the cross talk between PVAT and vascular smooth muscle cells and its roles in vascular remodeling and blood pressure regulation.
Role of Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Derived Adiponectin in Vascular Homeostasis.
Sowka Adrian,Dobrzyn Pawel
Studies of adipose tissue biology have demonstrated that adipose tissue should be considered as both passive, energy-storing tissue and an endocrine organ because of the secretion of adipose-specific factors, called adipokines. Adiponectin is a well-described homeostatic adipokine with metabolic properties. It regulates whole-body energy status through the induction of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake. Adiponectin also has anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties, making it an interesting subject of biomedical studies. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a fat depot that is conterminous to the vascular wall and acts on it in a paracrine manner through adipokine secretion. PVAT-derived adiponectin can act on the vascular wall through endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. The present review describes adiponectin's structure, receptors, and main signaling pathways. We further discuss recent studies of the extent and nature of crosstalk between PVAT-derived adiponectin and endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, we argue whether adiponectin and its receptors may be considered putative therapeutic targets.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Vascular Perturbation/Atherosclerosis.
Kim Ha Won,Shi Hong,Winkler Michael A,Lee Richard,Weintraub Neal L
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Atherosclerosis is orchestrated by complex interactions between vascular and inflammatory cells. Traditionally, it has been considered to be an intimal inflammatory disease, characterized by endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, lipid oxidation, and foam cell formation. This inside-out signaling paradigm has been accepted as dogma for many years, despite the fact that inflammatory cells are far more prevalent in the adventitia compared with the intima. For decades, the origin of adventitial inflammation in atherosclerosis was unknown. The fact that these inflammatory cells were observed to cluster at the margin of perivascular adipose tissues-a unique and highly inflammatory adipose depot that surrounds most atherosclerosis-prone blood vessels-has stimulated interest in perivascular adipose tissue-mediated outside-in signaling in vascular pathophysiology, including atherosclerosis. The phenotype of perivascular adipocytes underlies the functional characteristics of this depot, including its role in adventitial inflammatory cell recruitment, trafficking to the intima via the vasa vasorum, and atherosclerosis perturbation. This review is focused on emerging concepts pertaining to outside-in signaling in atherosclerosis driven by dysfunctional perivascular adipose tissues during diet-induced obesity and recent strategies for atherosclerosis prediction and prognostication based upon this hypothesis.
Perivascular adipose tissue: An immune cell metropolis.
Saxton S N,Heagerty A M,Withers S B
NEW FINDINGS:What is the topic of this review? The review discusses how eosinophils can contribute to the function of perivascular adipose tissue and explores the mechanisms involved. What advances does it highlight? Understanding the communication between the cell populations that constitute perivascular adipose tissue function is important for exploring therapeutic options in the treatment of obesity-related cardiovascular complications. This article highlights that eosinophils are able to contribute directly to healthy perivascular adipose tissue function. These immune cells contribute to adrenergic signalling and nitric oxide- and adiponectin-dependent mechanisms in perivascular adipose tissue. ABSTRACT:Perivascular adipose tissue is a heterogeneous tissue that surrounds most blood vessels in the body. This review focuses on the contribution of eosinophils located within the adipose tissue to vascular contractility. A high-fat diet reduces the number of these immune cells within perivascular adipose tissue, and this loss is linked to an increase in vascular contractility and hypertension. We explored the mechanisms by which eosinophils contribute to this function using genetically modified mice, ex vivo assessment of contractility and pharmacological tools. We found that eosinophils contribute to adrenergic signalling and nitric oxide- and adiponectin-dependent mechanisms in perivascular adipose tissue. It is now important to explore whether manipulation of these pathways in obesity can alleviate cardiovascular complications, in order to determine whether eosinophils are a valid target for obesity-related disease.