Effect of change in renal replacement therapy modality on laboratory variables: a cohort study from the UK Renal Registry.
Rao Raman,Ansell David,Gilg Julie A,Davies Simon J,Lamb Edmund J,Tomson Charlie R V
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
BACKGROUND:Although previous comparisons have shown differences in biochemical and haematological variables between patients on haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and those with functioning transplants, these could be due to case mix rather than being due to differences in the types of renal replacement therapy (RRT). The longitudinal follow-up of individual patients after the change in modality has not hitherto been described. METHODS:From the UK Renal Registry (UKRR) database of patients receiving RRT between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2004, we identified two cohorts: 2033 patients who had been on either haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) for at least a year and who subsequently underwent transplantation and then survived at least a year (PD + HD to Tp); and 892 patients who had been on PD for at least a year who changed to HD and then survived at least a year (PD to HD). In both cohorts, the following variables were studied for the four quarters before and after the change of modality: blood haemoglobin and serum, ferritin, albumin, bicarbonate, cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. No information on drug treatment was available. RESULTS:In the PD + HD to Tp cohort, transplantation was associated with a rise in haemoglobin, albumin and bicarbonate, a fall in ferritin and phosphate, no change in calcium, a fall (but not to normal) in PTH and a transient rise in cholesterol concentrations. In the PD to HD group, the change in modality was associated with a significant temporary fall in haemoglobin, a progressive rise in ferritin, albumin, phosphate and PTH, no change in calcium and fall in bicarbonate and cholesterol concentrations. CONCLUSION:The change from HD to PD is associated with a significant fall in the haemoglobin concentration; anticipation of this change might enable clinicians to ameliorate it. Persistent hyperparathyroidism is common after kidney transplantation.
Vitamin D status, bone mineral density, and inflammation in kidney transplantation patients.
Sezer S,Yavuz D,Canoz M B,Ozdemir F N,Haberal M
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities in the healthy population and in various disease states. There are few data on the quantification of vitamin D status and inflammation with respect to changes in bone mineral density among renal transplantation patients. We analyzed the influence of vitamin D levels on allograft function and inflammatory status at the time of enrollment and at 1-year follow-up. Sixty-four renal transplant patients, including 38 males, showed an overall age of 38.61 +/- 1.05 years, had a mean graft age of 6.15 +/- 3.17 years. We excluded patients who had diabetes mellitus, chronic inflammatory disease, or chronic allograft nephropathy. We obtained pre- and posttransplantation serum samples and daily proteinuria on each patient. Measurements of bone mineral density were performed by dual-energy X-ray absortiometry. After enrollment, we followed the patients for 1 year. Thereafter we assessed serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, albumin, and spot urinary protein levels. The patients were divided into two groups based upon vitamin D levels: group I (n = 29), <20 microg/L versus group II (n = 35), >or=20 microg/L. There was no significant difference in intact parathyroid hormone levels between the two groups. Vitamin D level positively correlated with serum creatinine (r = .32, P = .01) and serum albumin levels (r = .28, P = .023) at the time of enrollment. At 1 year, patients in group I showed significantly higher creatinine (P < .001) and proteinuria levels (P < .05) than those in group II. Low vitamin D levels are not uncommon among renal transplant recipients. There was a significant association of vitamin D levels with renal allograft function. Low vitamin D levels may be a predictor of worsening of graft function and increasing proteinuria.
A possible role of hepcidin in the pathogenesis of anemia among kidney allograft recipients.
Malyszko J,Malyszko J S,Mysliwiec M
Hepcidin is a small, defensin-like peptide whose production by hepatocytes is modulated in response to anemia, hypoxia, or inflammation. We studied correlations of hepcidin concentrations with markers of iron status, erythropoietin therapy, and markers of inflammation among 130 kidney allograft recipients. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of anemia and its relation to hepcidin. Soluble receptor of transferrin (sTfR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, prohepcidin, and hepcidin were measured using commercially available kits. According to the WHO definition, the prevalence of anemia was 28%. Among anemic recipients we found a significantly higher values of serum creatinine, serum prohepcidin, hepcidin, (hsCRP), TNF-alpha, IL-6, ferritin, and proteinuria in addition to more frequent use of rapamycin and significantly lower use of CSA with lower CSA concentrations, as well as lower cholesterol, hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation). Serum prohepcidin significantly correlated with creatinine, GFR, time after transplantation, albumin, hsCRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, whereas hepcidin-25 correlated with serum iron, ferritin, hsCRP, IL-6, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), creatinine, and GFR. Multiple regression analysis showed that prohepcidin was independently related only to GFR and ferritin. Upon multiple regression analysis, predictors of serum hepcidin were eGFR, ferritin, and hsCRP, explaining 79% of the variation of hepcidin values. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia was relatively high among a population of kidney allograft recipients. The pathogenesis of anemia is mulitfactorial. Elevated hepcidin levels among kidney transplant recipients may be due to low-grade inflammation, which is frequently encountered in this population, and mainly to impaired renal function, but it did not seem to be a major pathogenetic factor for anemia in this population.
Impact of personality and psychological distress on health-related quality of life in kidney transplant recipients.
Prihodova Lucia,Nagyova Iveta,Rosenberger Jaroslav,Roland Robert,van Dijk Jitse P,Groothoff Johan W
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome in the evaluation of kidney transplantation (KT). Although the medical and sociodemographic predictors of HRQoL in patients after KT are well known, there is still a lack of knowledge about the psychological factors involved. This study focuses on the role of personality and actual psychological distress in predicting HRQoL after KT. Sociodemographic (gender, age, education, average income), medical (glomerular filtration, serum albumin, number of co-morbid diseases) and psychological data (neuroticism, extroversion, psychological distress) were collected from 177 (60.5% male subjects; 48 +/- 12.1 years) kidney transplant recipients, and physical and mental HRQoL were measured using the SF-36. A univariate general linear model analysis was performed. Higher physical HRQoL was associated with younger age, higher education and income, a low number of co-morbid diseases, lower neuroticism and distress. Higher mental HRQoL was associated with higher education and income, longer time from KT, higher extroversion, lower neuroticism and distress. In both physical and mental HRQoL, actual distress was the best predictor, even when controlled for neuroticism. These results confirm the importance of psychological distress in patients and its impact on their HRQoL after KT and can be applied in intervention programs focused on increasing HRQoL.
Hypoalbuminaemia at time of surgery is associated with an increased risk for overall graft loss after kidney transplantation.
Anderson Benjamin,Khalil Khalid,Evison Felicity,Nath Jay,Sharif Adnan
Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
AIM:The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether pre-operative hypoalbuminaemia (<35 g/L) is associated with adverse outcomes post-kidney transplantation. METHODS:Our retrospective, single-centre analysis included all patients who received their kidney transplant between 2007 and 2017, with documented admission albumin levels prior to surgery. Survival analyses were undertaken to explore the relationship of pre-transplant hypoalbuminaemia versus other baseline variables upon post-transplant outcomes. RESULTS:We analysed 1131 kidney allograft recipients transplanted at our centre (2007-2017), with median follow-up 746 days (interquartile range 133-1750 days). Kidney transplant recipients with pre-operative hypoalbuminaemia were more likely older, female, recipients of deceased-donor kidneys and to have longer cold ischaemic times. Recipients with pre-operative hypoalbuminaemia had longer hospital admissions post-operatively but no difference in delayed graft function rates. There was no difference in 1 year creatinine but recipients with hypoalbuminaemia had reduced risk for cellular rejection. We observed significantly worse patient survival (83.2% vs 90.7%, P < 0.001) and overall graft survival (72.5% vs 82.0%, P < 0.001) for recipients with hypoalbuminaemia vs normal albumin levels, respectively, but no difference in death-censored graft survival. In a Cox regression model, adjusted for baseline pre-operative variables, hypoalbuminaemia was independently associated with an increased risk for overall graft loss after kidney transplantation (hazard ratio 1.468, 95% confidence interval 1.087-1.982, P = 0.012). CONCLUSION:Pre-operative hypoalbuminaemia is an independent risk factor for overall graft loss after kidney transplantation. Further work is warranted to investigate the underlying pathophysiology to determine what supportive measures can be undertaken to attenuate adverse post-transplant outcomes.
Modifiable Risk Factors for Delayed Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.
Kaufmann Kai B,Baar Wolfgang,Silbach Kai,Knörlein Julian,Jänigen Bernd,Kalbhenn Johannes,Heinrich Sebastian,Pisarski Przemyslaw,Buerkle Hartmut,Göbel Ulrich
Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.)
PURPOSE:Delayed graft function is a major complication after kidney transplantation affecting patients' long-term outcome. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable risk factors for delayed graft function after deceased donor kidney transplantation. METHODS:This is a single-center retrospective cohort study of a university transplantation center. Univariate and multivariate step-wise logistic regression analysis of patient-specific and procedural risk factors were conducted. RESULTS:We analyzed 380 deceased donor kidney transplantation patients between October 30, 2008 and December 30, 2017. The incidence of delayed graft function was 15% (58/380). Among the patient-specific risk factors recipient diabetes (2.8 [1.4-5.9] odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]), American Society of Anesthesiologist score of 4 (2.7 [1.2-6.5] OR [95% CI]), cold ischemic time >13 hours (2.8 [1.5-5.3] OR [95% CI]) and donor age >55 years (1.9 [1.01-3.6] OR [95% CI]) revealed significance. The significant intraoperative, procedural risk factors included the use of colloids (3.9 [1.4-11.3] OR [95% CI]), albumin (3.0 [1.2-7.5] OR [95% CI]), crystalloids >3000 mL (3.1 [1.2-7.5] OR [95% CI]) and mean arterial pressure <80 mm Hg at the time of reperfusion (2.4 [1.2-4.8] OR [95% CI]). CONCLUSION:Patients undergoing deceased donor kidney transplantation with a mean arterial pressure >80 mm Hg at the time of transplant reperfusion without requiring excessive fluid therapy in terms of colloids, albumin or crystalloids >3000 mL are less likely to develop delayed graft function.
Predicting potential survival benefit of renal transplantation in patients with chronic kidney disease.
van Walraven Carl,Austin Peter C,Knoll Greg
CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
BACKGROUND:To facilitate decision-making about treatment options for patients with end-stage renal disease considering kidney transplantation, we sought to develop an index for clinical prediction of risk for death. METHODS:We derived and validated a multivariable survival model predicting time to death in 169,393 patients with end-stage renal disease who were eligible for transplantation. We modified the model into a simple point-system index. RESULTS:Deaths occurred in 23.5% of the cohort. Twelve variables independently predicted death: age, race, cause of kidney failure, body mass index, comorbid disease, smoking, employment status, serum albumin level, year of first renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation, time to transplant wait-listing and time on the wait list. The index separated patients into 26 groups having significantly unique five-year survival, ranging from 97.8% in the lowest-risk group to 24.7% in the highest-risk group. The index score was discriminative, with a concordance probability of 0.746 (95% CI 0.741-0.751). Observed survival in the derivation and validation cohorts was similar for each level of index score in 93.9% of patients. INTERPRETATION:Our prognostic index uses commonly available information to predict mortality accurately in patients with end-stage renal disease. This index could provide valuable quantitative data on survival for clinicians and patients to use when deciding whether to pursue transplantation or remain on dialysis.
Influence of C-reactive protein and urinary protein excretion on prediction of graft failure and mortality by serum albumin in renal transplant recipients.
van Ree Rutger M,Gross Sascha,Zelle Dorien M,van der Heide Jaap J Homan,Schouten Jan P,van Son Willem J,Gans Reinold O B,Bakker Stephan J L
BACKGROUND:Hypoalbuminemia is an established predictor of poor outcome in renal transplant recipients (RTR). It is considered to reflect inflammation, poor nutritional status, or proteinuria. We explored the roles of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and urinary protein excretion in prediction of graft failure and mortality by serum albumin in RTR. METHODS:We included 605 RTR at a median (interquartile range) time of 6.0 years (2.5-11.5 years) after transplantation for baseline measurements. RESULTS:At baseline, urinary protein excretion (beta=-0.242, P<0.0001), hsCRP concentration (beta=-0.207, P<0.0001), recipient age (beta=-0.115, P=0.004), living kidney donor (beta=0.100, P=0.01), and a history of myocardial infarction (beta=-0.084, P=0.03) were independently related to serum albumin. Prospectively, 94 RTR died and 42 had graft failure during 5.3 years (4.7-5.7 years) of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, including hsCRP and urinary protein excretion in Cox-regression analyses, low serum albumin was significantly associated with graft failure (hazard ratio=0.34 [95% confidence interval=0.15-0.76] per g/dL, P=0.008) and mortality (hazard ratio=0.43 [95% confidence interval=0.24-0.78] per g/dL, P=0.005), with significant modification of the effect of serum albumin on graft failure by urinary protein excretion (P=0.003). CONCLUSION:Low serum albumin concentrations predict graft failure and mortality in RTR independent of hsCRP and urinary protein excretion. The effect of serum albumin on graft failure is strongly modified by urinary protein excretion. These results suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation is not an important mechanism underlying inverse associations of serum albumin with graft failure and mortality. They also suggest that proteinuria is involved in the association of low serum albumin with graft failure.
Impact of clinical condition at restarting dialysis on outcome after kidney allograft loss: a single-center experience.
Zhang P,Lv R,Xu C P,Hu X H,Li Y W,Jiang H,Chen J H
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this paper was to determine the impact of the clinical condition of the patient at the restart of dialysis on long-term survival after renal graft loss. METHODS:We performed an analysis of 110 patients with renal allograft failure compared with 115 hemodialysis patients without kidney transplantation. RESULTS:There was a relatively high glomerular filtration rate, low serum albumin, and greater prevalence of infection among graft loss patients compared with the never-transplanted patients. Patient survival after allograft loss was significantly lower than that of never-transplanted patients (P = .024) with 63.4% patients succumbing in the first 3 months. Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) positivity, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and malnutrition were independent risk factors for graft loss patient upon COX regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Serum HBV positive, complicated with CVD and malnutrition were independent risk factors for the graft loss among patients who restarted hemodialysis. More attention should be paid to treat complications of transplant recipients in K/DOQI 4 and 5 stages.
Renal artery stenosis in kidney transplants: assessment of the risk factors.
Etemadi Jalal,Rahbar Khosro,Haghighi Ali Nobakht,Bagheri Nazila,Falaknazi Kianoosh,Ardalan Mohammad Reza,Ghabili Kamyar,Shoja Mohammadali M
Vascular health and risk management
BACKGROUND:Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is an important cause of hypertension and renal allograft dysfunction occurring in kidney transplant recipients. However, conflicting predisposing risk factors for TRAS have been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to assess the potential correlation between possible risk factors and TRAS in a group of living donor renal transplant recipients 1 year after the renal transplantation. METHODS:We evaluated the presence of renal artery stenosis in 16 recipients who presented with refractory hypertension and/or allograft dysfunction 1 year after renal transplantation. Screening for TRAS was made by magnetic resonance angiography and diagnosis was confirmed by conventional renal angiography. Age, gender, history of acute rejection, plasma lipid profile, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, calcium phosphate (CaPO₄) product, alkaline phosphatase, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin, and albumin were compared between the TRAS and non-TRAS groups. RESULTS:Of 16 kidney transplant recipients, TRAS was diagnosed in three patients (two men and one woman). High levels of calcium, phosphorous, CaPO₄ product, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly correlated with the risk of TRAS 1 year after renal transplantation (P < 0.05). Serum level of uric acid tended to have a significant correlation (P = 0.051). CONCLUSION:Correlation between high CaPO₄ product, LDL cholesterol, and perhaps uric acid and TRAS in living donor renal transplant recipients 1 year after renal transplantation might suggest the importance of early detection and tight control of these potential risk factors.
Relationship among changes in hematocrit, albumin and corticosteroid dose on the disposition of tacrolimus during the first six months following renal transplantation.
Robles-Piedras A L,Romano-Moreno S,Fuentes-Noriega I,Mancilla-Urrea E,González-López E H,Domínguez-Ramírez A
Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society
Tacrolimus is a macrolide immunosuppressant that is safe and effective for the prevention of rejection after kidney transplantation. The oral bioavailability of tacrolimus averages 20% to 25%; however, the inter-individual variability in this parameter is large. Because of the poor correlation of dose to blood concentration between patients, the variability in pharmacokinetics and a relatively narrow therapeutic window, therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations must be a standard practice. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the relationship among changes in hematocrit, albumin, and corticosteroid dosing on the disposition of tacrolimus during 6 months of treatment in renal transplant recipients. Blood samples for the determination of trough tacrolimus concentrations were taken immediately prior to the morning dose, samples were collected according to the request of the attending physician. Clinical and dosage data were reviewed 6 months after transplantation. The analysis was conducted including 11 patients who were analyzed for hematocrit and albumin at the same time they are measured tacrolimus blood levels. The mean age was 25.3 years (range 17 to 41 years) 4 of the patients were female. Levels of tacrolimus, hematocrit and albumin over the first 24 weeks post-transplant were documented and the estimated relative clearance of tacrolimus were calculated. Statistical evaluation of the data indicates poor correlation between relative clearance and both hematocrit and albumin levels and the mean oral steroid dose. This observation is of clinical significance because dose adjustment may be required to maintain blood concentrations within thetherapeutic range in patients in whom hematocrit or albumin concentrations are changing.
Predonation quality of life and early postdonation safety of older living renal donors in China.
Zhang L,Qiu J,Chen L,Fei J,Wang C,Deng S,Li J,Chen G,Huang G
BACKGROUND:Studies on the safety of older living renal donors are lacking in China. METHODS:We observed 142 consecutive living renal donors before and early after (7 days) the operation. There were no prisoners used as donors or recipients. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: older than 50 years of age (n = 40) or younger age (n = 102). We compared differences in early safety between the 2 groups. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in 8 aspects of the predonation quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire, except for physical function (P < .001). Zero hour biopsies performed on 52 kidneys showed 15 to display abnormal renal tissues (28.85%), which was significantly greater among the older age group (P = .034). The perioperative indexes were similar between the 2 groups; however, the hospital stay was longer in the older group (P = .034). Compared with the younger group, the older group generally showed a lower creatinine clearance (CCr; P < .001), higher cystatin c (P = .006), and similar serum creatinine (Scr) preoperatively, conditions that persisted at 7 days postoperatively. Although the increased Scr and reduced CCr were present in all donors, the changes in Scr and CCr were similar between the 2 groups. Differences in urinary micro-albumin and proteinuria before and after operation were not significantly different for both groups. CONCLUSIONS:Increased use of older living kidney donors in China may be a safe strategy to meet the demand for transplantation. However, long-term outcomes need further follow-up.
Associations of pretransplant serum albumin with post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.
Molnar M Z,Kovesdy C P,Bunnapradist S,Streja E,Mehrotra R,Krishnan M,Nissenson A R,Kalantar-Zadeh K
American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
The association between pretransplant serum albumin concentration and post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients is unclear. We hypothesized that in transplant-waitlisted hemodialysis patients, lower serum albumin concentrations are associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. Linking the 5-year patient data of a large dialysis organization (DaVita) to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we identified 8961 hemodialysis patients who underwent first kidney transplantation. Mortality or graft failure and delayed graft function (DGF) risks were estimated by Cox regression (hazard ratio [HR]) and logistic regression (Odds ratio [OR]), respectively. Patients were 48 ± 13 years old and included 37% women and 27% diabetics. The higher pretransplant serum albumin was associated with lower mortality, graft failure and DGF risk even after multivariate adjustment for case-mix, malnutrition-inflammation complex and transplant related variable. Every 0.2 g/dL higher pretransplant serum albumin concentration was associated with 13% lower all-cause mortality (HR = 0.87 [95% confidence interval: 0.82-0.93]), 17% lower cardiovascular mortality (HR = 0.83[0.74-0.93]), 7% lower combined risk of death or graft failure (HR = 0.93[0.89-0.97]) and 4% lower DGF risk (OR = 0.96[0.93-0.99]). Hence, lower pretransplant serum albumin level is associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. Clinical trials to examine interventions to improve nutritional status in transplant-waitlisted hemodialysis patients and their impacts on post-transplant outcomes are indicated.
Association of increased arterial wave reflections with decline in renal function in chronic kidney disease stages 3 and 4.
Weber Thomas,Ammer Marcus,Gündüz Duygu,Bruckenberger Paul,Eber Bernd,Wallner Manfred
American journal of hypertension
BACKGROUND:Increased arterial wave reflections predict cardiovascular events in dialysis patients. Their impact on the progression of renal disease has not been determined. METHODS:We prospectively quantified wave reflections as pressure augmentation (AP) and augmentation index (AIx) using radial applanation tonometry and a transfer function, in 111 patients (mean age 53.6 years; 71 men, 31 diabetics) with chronic kidney disease not requiring dialysis. Primary endpoint was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine, need for dialysis, and transplantation. Secondary endpoint was a combination of renal and cardiovascular events. RESULTS:After a mean follow-up of 41.3 months, 37 and 46 patients reached the primary and the secondary endpoint. AIx and AP proved statistically significant predictors of the renal endpoint (P < 0.05 for all), with a 2.5- and 3-fold increased risk for patients in the highest vs. the lowest tertile, respectively. After adjustment for mean blood pressure (MBP), age, gender, diabetes, serum albumin, hemoglobin, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and renal function at baseline, AIx (hazard ratio 1.474/10% increase in AIx, P = 0.04) as well as AP (hazard ratio 1.559/10 mm Hg increase in AP, P = 0.04) remained significant predictors of the renal endpoint. In addition, AIx and AP were significant (P < 0.05) predictors of the combined cardiorenal endpoint in univariate analysis and multivariable models. CONCLUSION:Increased arterial wave reflections are independent predictors of renal as well as cardiorenal events in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Predicting kidney transplantation outcomes using proteinuria ascertained from spot urine samples versus timed urine collections.
Talreja Hari,Akbari Ayub,White Christine A,Ramsay Tim O,Hiremath Swapnil,Knoll Greg
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
BACKGROUND:Proteinuria has been associated with transplant loss and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Both spot samples (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR] and protein-creatinine ratio [PCR]) and 24-hour collections (albumin excretion rate [AER] and protein excretion rate [PER]) have been used to quantify protein excretion, but which measurement is a better predictor of outcomes in kidney transplantation remains uncertain. STUDY DESIGN:Observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Tertiary care center, 207 kidney transplant recipients who were enrolled in a prospective study to measure glomerular filtration rate. Consecutive patients who met inclusion criteria were approached. PREDICTORS:ACR and PCR in spot urine samples, AER and PER in 24-hour urine collections. OUTCOMES:Primary outcome included transplant loss, doubling of serum creatinine level, or death. MEASUREMENTS:Urine and serum creatinine were measured using a modified Jaffé reaction that had not been standardized by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Urine albumin was measured by immunoturbidimetry. Urine protein was measured by pyrogallol red molybdate complex formation using a timed end point method. RESULTS:Mean follow-up was 6.4 years and 22% developed the primary end point. Multivariable-adjusted areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were similar for the different protein measurements: ACR (0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.89), PCR (0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.89), PER (0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.90), and AER (0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.88). C Index values also were similar for the different proteinuria measurements: 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.95), 0.86 (95% CI, 0.79-0.94), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.94), and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.77-0.95) for log(ACR), log(PCR), log(PER), and log(AER), respectively. LIMITATIONS:Single-center study. Measurement of proteinuria was at variable times posttransplantation. CONCLUSIONS:Spot and 24-hour measurements of albumin and protein excretion are similar predictors of doubling of serum creatinine level, transplant loss, and death. Thus, spot urine samples are a suitable alternative to 24-hour urine collection for measuring protein excretion in this population.
Kidney transplantation: which variables should be improved?
Guedes-Marques M,Romãozinho C,Santos L,Macário F,Alves R,Mota A
INTRODUCTION:Several factors have an impact on allograft survival but many are still controversial. In this study we investigated the effect of multiple factors on early renal graft function as an effort to find new tools to improve. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This was a transversal study of 64 patients who underwent kidney transplantation during the first semester of 2013. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. We used SPSS 20.0. Univariate analysis through nonparametric tests and multivariate analysis through linear regression were made. RESULTS:Regarding the donor, age (β = 1.581; P = .003) and stroke as cause of death (P = .044) were associated with a higher creatinine level. Concerning the recipient, age (β = 0.963; P = .001) as well as the difference between the candidate and the donor (β = 1.203; P = .000), black race (P = .032/.000), male gender (P = .027/.046), vasculopathic end-stage renal disease (ESRD; P = .050), hemodialysis (HD) modality (P = .001/.033), HD session before surgery (P = .005), body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2) (P = .043), hypoalbuminemia (β = -0.280/-0.076; P = .029/.046), and anemia (β = -0.361; P = .032) were also associated with a higher creatinine level. Living donor transplant (P = .000/.043), instant diuresis (P = .000/.021), and post-transplantation higher blood pressure (BP; systolic BP [SBP] β = -0.452; P = .021 and diastolic BP [DBP] β = -0.318; P = .033) were associate with lower creatinine values. Overall, 87.6% of the renal function markers after the first semester were explained by the multiple factors above mentioned. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings are of practical clinical interest because nutritional status, hemoglobin, albumin, and BP are some of the objective measurable and modifiable parameters of which management may improve renal graft function.
A prospective controlled study of living kidney donors: three-year follow-up.
Kasiske Bertram L,Anderson-Haag Teresa,Israni Ajay K,Kalil Roberto S,Kimmel Paul L,Kraus Edward S,Kumar Rajiv,Posselt Andrew A,Pesavento Todd E,Rabb Hamid,Steffes Michael W,Snyder Jon J,Weir Matthew R
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
BACKGROUND:There have been few prospective controlled studies of kidney donors. Understanding the pathophysiologic effects of kidney donation is important for judging donor safety and improving our understanding of the consequences of reduced kidney function in chronic kidney disease. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:3-year follow-up of kidney donors and paired controls suitable for donation at their donor's center. PREDICTOR:Kidney donation. OUTCOMES:Medical history, vital signs, glomerular filtration rate, and other measurements at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after donation. RESULTS:At 36 months, 182 of 203 (89.7%) original donors and 173 of 201 (86.1%) original controls continue to participate in follow-up visits. The linear slope of the glomerular filtration rate measured by plasma iohexol clearance declined 0.36±7.55mL/min per year in 194 controls, but increased 1.47±5.02mL/min per year in 198 donors (P=0.005) between 6 and 36 months. Blood pressure was not different between donors and controls at any visit, and at 36 months, all 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters were similar in 126 controls and 135 donors (mean systolic blood pressure, 120.0±11.2 [SD] vs 120.7±9.7mmHg [P=0.6]; mean diastolic blood pressure, 73.4±7.0 vs 74.5±6.5mmHg [P=0.2]). Mean arterial pressure nocturnal dipping was manifest in 11.2% ± 6.6% of controls and 11.3% ± 6.1% of donors (P=0.9). Urinary protein-creatinine and albumin-creatinine ratios were not increased in donors compared with controls. From 6 to 36 months postdonation, serum parathyroid hormone, uric acid, homocysteine, and potassium levels were higher, whereas hemoglobin levels were lower, in donors compared with controls. LIMITATIONS:Possible bias resulting from an inability to select controls screened to be as healthy as donors, short follow-up duration, and dropouts. CONCLUSIONS:Kidney donors manifest several of the findings of mild chronic kidney disease. However, at 36 months after donation, kidney function continues to improve in donors, whereas controls have expected age-related declines in function.
The Role of Bone Marrow Cells in the Phenotypic Changes Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy.
Yang Guang,Cheng Qingli,Liu Sheng,Zhao Jiahui
The aim of our study was to investigate the role of bone marrow cells in the phenotypic changes that occur in diabetic nephropathy. Bone marrow cells were obtained from either streptozotocin-induced diabetic or untreated control C3H/He mice and transplanted into control C3H/He mice. Eight weeks after bone marrow cell transplantation, renal morphologic changes and clinical parameters of diabetic nephropathy, including the urine albumin/creatinine ratio and glucose tolerance, were measured in vivo. Expression levels of the genes encoding α1 type IV collagen and transforming growth factor-β1 in the kidney were assayed. Our results demonstrated that glucose tolerance was normal in the recipients of bone marrow transplants from both diabetic and control donors. However, compared with recipients of the control bone marrow transplant, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, glomerular size, and the mesangial/glomerular area ratio increased 3.3-fold (p < 0.01), 1.23-fold (p < 0.01), and 2.13-fold (p < 0.001), respectively, in the recipients of the diabetic bone marrow transplant. Expression levels of the genes encoding glomerular α1 type IV collagen and transforming growth factor-β1 were also significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the recipients of the diabetic bone marrow transplant. Our data suggest that bone marrow cells from the STZ-induced diabetic mice can confer a diabetic phenotype to recipient control mice without the presence of hyperglycemia.
Creatinine-Based and Cystatin C-Based GFR Estimating Equations and Their Non-GFR Determinants in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
Keddis Mira T,Amer Hatem,Voskoboev Nikolay,Kremers Walter K,Rule Andrew D,Lieske John C
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:eGFR equations have been evaluated in kidney transplant recipients with variable performance. We assessed the performance of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations on the basis of creatinine, cystatin C, and both (eGFR creatinine-cystatin C) compared with measured GFR by iothalamate clearance and evaluated their non-GFR determinants and associations across 15 cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:A cross-sectional cohort of 1139 kidney transplant recipients >1 year after transplant was analyzed. eGFR bias, precision, and accuracy (percentage of estimates within 30% of measured GFR) were assessed. Interaction of each cardiovascular risk factor with eGFR relative to measured GFR was determined. RESULTS:Median measured GFR was 55.0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). eGFR creatinine overestimated measured GFR by 3.1% (percentage of estimates within 30% of measured GFR of 80.4%), and eGFR Modification of Diet in Renal Disease underestimated measured GFR by 2.2% (percentage of estimates within 30% of measured GFR of 80.4%). eGFR cystatin C underestimated measured GFR by -13.7% (percentage of estimates within 30% of measured GFR of 77.1%), and eGFR creatinine-cystatin C underestimated measured GFR by -8.1% (percentage of estimates within 30% of measured GFR of 86.5%). Lower measured GFR associated with older age, women, obesity, longer time after transplant, lower HDL, lower hemoglobin, lower albumin, higher triglycerides, higher proteinuria, and an elevated cardiac troponin T level but did not associate with diabetes, smoking, cardiovascular events, pretransplant dialysis, or hemoglobin A1c. These risk factor associations differed for five risk factors with eGFR creatinine, six risk factors for eGFR Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, ten risk factors for eGFR cystatin C, and four risk factors for eGFR creatinine-cystatin C. CONCLUSIONS:Thus, eGFR creatinine and eGFR creatinine-cystatin C are preferred over eGFR cystatin C in kidney transplant recipients because they are less biased, more accurate, and more consistently reflect the same risk factor associations seen with measured GFR.
Long-Term Effect of Body Mass Index Changes on Graft Damage Markers in Patients After Kidney Transplantation.
Kurnatowska Ilona,Małyska Aneta,Wysocka Kamila,Mazur Katarzyna,Krawczyk Joanna,Nowicki Michał
Annals of transplantation
BACKGROUND Both adiposity and underweight are negatively associated with graft and patient survival after kidney transplantation (KTx). The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the changes in body mass index (BMI) after KTx and their relations with graft damage markers. MATERIAL AND METHODS The anthropometric measurements of body mass and height were performed in 92 consecutive deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (37 F; 55 M) from a single transplant center. Patient medical history, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum lipids, and ACR (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio) was obtained from medical charts. RESULTS KTx recipients were on average 3.4±2.5 years after transplantation. Mean body BMI before KTx were 25.3±4.3 kg/m2 and increased after transplantation to 27.0±4.6 kg/m² (p=0.01). BMI increase after KTx was noted in 65% of recipients, most often in patients with normal pre-KTx BMI. Kidney function was better in patients with normal post-KTx BMI (55.2±15.8 ml/min/1.73 m²) than in obese patients (48.0±20.3 ml/min/1.73 m², p<0.05). Patients with normal post-KTx BMI had lower ACR (31.9±18.1 mg/g) than overweight (117.4±53.6 mg/g, p<0.05) and obese patients (280.0±81.7 mg/g, p<0.05). There were no differences in the mean BMI changes in recipients who received cyclosporine A or tacrolimus. CONCLUSIONS Patients after KTx showed an increase of BMI greater in those with normal pre-transplant body mass. The change in BMI over time has no effect on the graft function or magnitude of albuminuria. Overweight and obese patients after KTx have higher albuminuria and worse graft function than those with normal BMI. The type of calcineurin inhibitor has no effect on body mass after KTx.
Prognostic Significance of 1-Year Serum Albumin Levels Within the Normal Range After Kidney Transplantation.
Oh Il Hwan,Park Joon-Sung,Lee Chang Hwa,Kang Chong Myung,Kim Gheun-Ho
Hypoalbuminemia is associated with poor outcomes in kidney transplantation (KT). However, what level is optimal in serum albumin is not clear for the long-term prognosis. To determine whether the long-term outcomes are different even between the normal ranges of serum albumin after KT, we analyzed data from 404 renal allograft recipients whose 1-year post-transplant serum albumin levels were within the normal limits (3.5-5.5 g/dL). During a follow-up of 122 ± 56 months, 97 graft losses, 20 patient deaths, and 50 cardiovascular (CV) events occurred. Based on 1-year serum albumin levels, the patients were divided into high normal (≥4.6 g/dL, n = 209) and low normal (<4.6 g/dL, n = 195) groups. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the low normal group had poorer allograft survival (P = 0.01), patient survival (P < 0.001), and CV event-free survival (P < 0.001) than the high normal group. Cox regression analysis confirmed that 1-year serum albumin was inversely associated with the risk of graft loss (hazard ratio [HR] 0.414, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.200-0.856), patient death (HR 0.097, 95% CI 0.019-0.484), and CV events (HR 0.228, 95% CI 0.074-0.702). In conclusion, a relatively low 1-year post-transplant serum albumin level within the normal limits (<4.6 g/dL) significantly predicts poor long-term outcomes.
iChoose Kidney: A Clinical Decision Aid for Kidney Transplantation Versus Dialysis Treatment.
Patzer Rachel E,Basu Mohua,Larsen Christian P,Pastan Stephen O,Mohan Sumit,Patzer Michael,Konomos Michael,McClellan William M,Lea Janice,Howard David,Gander Jennifer,Arriola Kimberly Jacob
BACKGROUND:Despite a significant survival advantage of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis, nearly one third of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are not educated about kidney transplantation as a treatment option at the time of ESRD diagnosis. Access to individualized, evidence-based prognostic information is needed to facilitate and encourage shared decision making about the clinical implications of whether to pursue transplantation or long-term dialysis. METHODS:We used a national cohort of incident ESRD patients in the US Renal Data System surveillance registry from 2005 to 2011 to develop and validate prediction models for risk of 1- and 3-year mortality among dialysis versus kidney transplantation. Using these data, we developed a mobile clinical decision aid that provides estimates of risks of death and survival on dialysis compared with kidney transplantation patients. RESULTS:Factors included in the mortality risk prediction models for dialysis and transplantation included age, race/ethnicity, dialysis vintage, and comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and low albumin. Among the validation cohorts, the discriminatory ability of the model for 3-year mortality was moderate (c statistic, 0.7047; 95% confidence interval, 0.7029-0.7065 for dialysis and 0.7015; 95% confidence interval, 0.6875-0.7155 for transplant). We used these risk prediction models to develop an electronic, user-friendly, mobile (iPad, iPhone, and website) clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney. CONCLUSIONS:The use of a mobile clinical decision aid comparing individualized mortality risk estimates for dialysis versus transplantation could enhance communication between ESRD patients and their clinicians when making decisions about treatment options.
Relationship Between Albuminuria During the First Year and Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Protocol Biopsies in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
Belmar Vega L,Rodrigo Calabia E,Gómez Román J J,Ruiz San Millán J C,Martín Penagos L,Arias Rodríguez M
BACKGROUND:Antibody-mediated rejection is the main cause of deterioration of kidney transplants and frequently is detected only by means of protocol biopsies. The aim of this study was to relate the presence of albuminuria throughout the 1st year to the histologic findings detected by 1-year protocol biopsies in kidney graft recipients. METHODS:Retrospective observational study of 86 protocol biopsies 1 year after transplantation. Albuminuria was measured at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months in urine samples and expressed as albumin/creatinine (mg/g). RESULTS:Analysis of biopsies, reflected according to the Banff criteria, the following categories: fibrosis and tubular atrophy, 35 (40.7%); cellular rejection, 13 (15.1%); antibody-mediated rejection, 8 (9.3%); chronic glomerulopathy, 10 (11.6%); normal, 14 (16.3%); recurrence, 1 (1.2%); and other, 5 (5.8%). The proportions of patients with albuminuria for Banff scale scores (0 vs ≥1, respectively) at 6 and 12 months, respectively, after transplantation, were: for marker glomerulitis, 45.5% versus 59.3% (P = .021) and 36.4% versus 70.4% (P < .001); for marker glomerulopathy, 49.1% versus 50.0% (P = .051) and 42.1% versus 58.3% (P = .019); for marker peritubular capillaritis, 45.8% versus 60.9% (P = .047) and 39.0% versus 69.6% (P = .276); and for marker C4d, 49.2% versus 56.3% (P = .894) and 46.2% versus 56.3% (P = .774). CONCLUSIONS:The presence of albuminuria after renal transplantation is common, especially in patients with proteinuria. Persistent albuminuria after transplantation, even at low levels, can be indicative of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection. Additional broader studies to relate the albuminuria to histologic changes observed in protocol biopsies are required.
PREOPERATIVE RISK FACTORS FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: RESULTS FROM A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL.
Gomes Junior Raimundo Martins,Cezar Lia Cavalcante,Meneses Gdayllon Cavalcante,Silva Junior Geraldo Bezerra da,Garcia José Huygenes Parente,Daher Elizabeth De Francesco
Arquivos de gastroenterologia
BACKGROUND:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in the immediate postoperative period of patients undergoing liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative risk factors for AKI after liver transplantation. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults submitted to orthotopic liver transplantation at a reference hospital in Fortaleza, Northeast of Brazil, from January to December 2016. Preoperative risk factors were evaluated for AKI development in the immediate postoperative period. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. RESULTS:A total of 40 patients were included in the study. AKI was found in 85% of patients in the first 24 hours after transplantation, most of them (40%) classified in KDIGO stage 1. Preoperative data indicate that serum albumin levels were lower in the KDIGO stage 3 group compared to the non-AKI group, as well as the hematocrit levels. Direct bilirubin (DB) was higher in the KDIGO stage 3 group compared to the group without AKI, as well as alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma-glutamiltransferase (GGT). In a logistic regression analysis independent risk factors for AKI were increase levels of AP, GGT and DB and decrease level of serum albumin. CONCLUSION:Low levels of serum albumin, and elevated levels of DB, AP and GGT in the preoperative period are risk factors for AKI development after liver transplantation.
Serum Calcification Propensity and Fetuin-A: Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
Bostom Andrew,Pasch Andreas,Madsen Tracy,Roberts Mary B,Franceschini Nora,Steubl Dominik,Garimella Pranav S,Ix Joachim H,Tuttle Katherine R,Ivanova Anastasia,Shireman Theresa,Gohh Reginald,Merhi Basma,Jarolim Petr,Kusek John W,Pfeffer Marc A,Liu Simin,Eaton Charles B
American journal of nephrology
BACKGROUND:"T50," shortened transformation time from primary to secondary calciprotein particles may reflect deranged mineral metabolism predisposing to vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The glycoprotein fetuin-A is a major T50 determinant. METHODS:The Folic Acid For Vascular Outcome Prevention In Transplantation (FAVORIT) cohort is a completed, large, multiethnic controlled clinical trial cohort of chronic, stable kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We conducted a longitudinal case-cohort analysis using a randomly selected subcohort of patients, and all individual cases who developed CVD. Serum T50 and fetuin-A were determined in this total of n = 685 FAVORIT trial participants at randomization. RESULTS:During a median surveillance of 2.18-years, 311 incident or recurrent CVD events occurred. Shorter T50 (minutes) or reduced fetuin-A concentrations (g/L) were associated with CVD after adjustment for treatment assignment, systolic blood pressure, age, sex, race, preexisting CVD and diabetes, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, kidney allograft vintage and type, calcineurin inhibitor, or lipid-lowering drug use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin/creatinine: tertile 1 (lowest) to tertile 3 (highest) comparisons, T50, (hazard ratio [HR] 1.86; 95% CI 1.20-2.89); fetuin-A, (HR 2.25; 95% CI 1.38-3.69). Elevated high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP) was an effect modifier of both these associations. CONCLUSIONS:Shortened T50, as well as reduced fetuin-A levels, ostensible promoters of vascular calcification, remained associated with greater risk for CVD outcomes, after adjustment for major CVD risk factors, measures of kidney function and damage, and KTR clinical characteristics and demographics, in a large, multiethnic cohort of long-term KTRs. Increased hsCRP was an effect modifier of these CVD risk associations.
Optimization of Treatment Modality in Elderly End-stage Renal Disease Population: Peritoneal Dialysis versus Transplant.
Kaul A,Behera M R,Kishore R,Karthikeyan B,Bhadauria D S,Mishra P,Prasad N,Gupta A,Sharma R K
Indian journal of nephrology
Despite kidney transplantation (KT) being considered as the best treatment modality for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), patient and graft survival in the elderly population is poorer than younger individuals. Many authors argue that prolonged life expectancy outweighs the risk of remaining on dialysis, but few studies had compared the treatment modalities, especially with peritoneal dialysis (PD). A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care institute to compare outcome of elderly ESRD patients, who received KT with those continued on PD; and to evaluate the predictors of patient survival. Patient survival at 1 year was (76.2% vs. 91.1%); 5 years (53.7% vs. 21.8%); and 10 years (35.6% vs. 0.00%) among KT and PD population, respectively. Infection was the most common cause of death among KT group (35 [41.2%] vs. 34 [28.2%]) while cardiovascular mortality in PD group (55 [46.2%] vs. 7 [8.2%]). Technique survival at 1, 5, and 10 years in PD group was 92.8%, 58.5%, and 0%, respectively. Similarly, graft survival at 1, 5, and 10 years in KT group was 98.7%, 90.2%, and 90.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed body mass index (BMI) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-0.93, < 0.001), and albumin (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37-0.80, = 0.002) were significant predictors of survival. In the 1 year, patient survival was better in PD than KT, but after adjustment for BMI and albumin, both short-term and long-term survival in elderly KT group was better than that of PD. Hence, elderly ESRD patients should not be barred from KT just because of age.
Paricalcitol versus placebo for reduction of proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
Oblak Manca,Mlinšek Gregor,Kandus Aljoša,Buturović-Ponikvar Jadranka,Arnol Miha
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Proteinuria after kidney transplantation is accompanied by an increased risk of graft failure. In this single-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial we studied whether vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol might reduce proteinuria. Patients with urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) ≥20 mg/mmol despite optimization of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade were randomly assigned to receive 24 weeks' treatment with 2 μg/day paricalcitol or placebo. Primary endpoint was change in UPCR, and main secondary endpoints were change in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and 24-h proteinuria. Analysis was by intention to treat. One hundred and sixty-eight patients undergo randomization, and 83 were allocated to paricalcitol, and 85 to placebo. Compared with baseline, UPCR declined in the paricalcitol group (-39%, 95% CI -45 to -31) but not in the placebo group (21%, 95% CI 9 to 35), with a between group difference of -49% (95% CI -57 to -41; P < 0.001). UACR and 24-h proteinuria decreased only on paricalcitol therapy and significantly differed between groups at end-of-treatment (P < 0.001). Paricalcitol was well tolerated but incidence of mild hypercalcemia was higher than in placebo. In conclusion, addition of 2 μg/day paricalcitol lowers residual proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients. Long-term studies are needed to determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves transplant outcomes (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01436747).
Predicting 5-year risk of kidney transplant failure: a prediction instrument using data available at 1 year posttransplantation.
Shabir Shazia,Halimi Jean-Michel,Cherukuri Aravind,Ball Simon,Ferro Charles,Lipkin Graham,Benavente David,Gatault Philippe,Baker Richard,Kiberd Bryce,Borrows Richard
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
BACKGROUND:Accurate prediction of kidney transplant failure remains imperfect. The objective of this study was to develop and validate risk scores predicting 5-year transplant failure, based on data available 12 months posttransplantation. STUDY DESIGN:Development and then independent multicenter validation of risk scores predicting death-censored and overall transplant failure. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Outcomes of kidney transplant recipients (n=651) alive with transplant function 12 months posttransplantation in Birmingham, United Kingdom, were used to develop models predicting transplant failure risk 5 years posttransplantation. The resulting risk scores were evaluated for prognostic utility (discrimination, calibration, and risk reclassification) in independent cohorts from Tours, France (n=736); Leeds, United Kingdom (n=787); and Halifax, Canada (n=475). PREDICTORS:Weighted regression coefficients for baseline and 12-month demographic and clinical predictor characteristics. OUTCOMES:Death-censored and overall transplant failure 5 years posttransplantation. MEASUREMENTS:Baseline data and time to transplant failure. RESULTS:Following model development, variables included in separate scores for death-censored and overall transplant failure included recipient age, sex, and race; acute rejection; transplant function; serum albumin level; and proteinuria. In the validation cohorts, these scores showed good to excellent discrimination for death-censored transplant failure (C statistics, 0.78-0.90) and moderate to good discrimination for overall transplant failure (C statistics, 0.75-0.81). Both scores demonstrated good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P>0.05 in all cohorts). Compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate in isolation, application of the scores resulted in statistically significant and clinically relevant risk reclassification for death-censored transplant failure (net reclassification improvement [NRI], 36.1%-83.0%; all P<0.001) and overall transplant failure (NRI, 38.7%-53.5%; all P<0.001). Compared with the previously described US Renal Data System-based risk calculator, significant and relevant risk reclassification for overall transplant failure was seen (NRI, 30.0%; P<0.001). LIMITATIONS:Validation is required in further populations. CONCLUSIONS:These validated risk scores may be of prognostic utility in kidney transplantation, accurately identifying at-risk transplants, and informing clinicians and patients.
Biomarkers of inflammation, fibrosis, cardiac stretch and injury predict death but not renal replacement therapy at 1 year in a Canadian chronic kidney disease cohort.
Levin Adeera,Rigatto Claudio,Barrett Brendan,Madore François,Muirhead Norman,Holmes Daniel,Clase Catherine M,Tang Mila,Djurdjev Ognjenka,
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
BACKGROUND:Newer biomarkers, reflective of biological processes, such as inflammation and fibrosis, cardiac stretch or damage and vascular health may be useful in understanding clinical events in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed whether these newer biomarkers, alone or as a panel, improve risk prediction for renal replacement therapy or death, over and above conventional clinical, demographic and laboratory variables. METHODS:We conducted a prospective observational Canadian cohort study in 2544 CKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), under nephrology care, in urban and rural centers. We measured traditional clinical and laboratory risk factors, as well as newer biomarkers: cystatin C, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin I and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Key outcomes were renal replacement therapy (RRT, dialysis or transplantation) and death, during the first year follow-up after enrollment: a time point important for clinical decision-making for patients and providers. RESULTS:Newer biomarkers do not improve the prediction of RRT, when added to conventional risk factors such as eGFR, urine albumin to creatinine ratio, hemoglobin, phosphate and albumin. However, in predicting death within 1 year, cystatin C, NT-proBNP, hsCRP and FGF23 values significantly improved model discrimination and reclassification: c statistic increased by absolute 4.3% and Net Reclassification Improvement for categories of low, intermediate and high risk at 11.2%. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that the addition of newer biomarkers may be useful in predicting death in patients with established CKD within a 1-year timeframe. This information may be useful in informing prognosis and redirect resources to serve patients at higher risk to improve outcomes and sustainability of the nephrology care system.
Abdominal aorta and pelvic artery calcifications on plain radiographs may predict mortality in chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis and renal transplantation.
Disthabanchong Sinee,Vipattawat Kotcharat,Phakdeekitcharoen Bunyong,Kitiyakara Chagriya,Sumethkul Vasant
International urology and nephrology
PURPOSE:Vascular calcification is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and predicts poor patient outcomes. While computed tomography is the gold standard for evaluation of vascular calcification, plain radiograph offers a simpler and less costly alternative. The calcification of abdominal aorta, iliac and femoral arteries has been evaluated by plain radiograph, but the data on their outcome predictabilities are still limited. The present study investigated the role of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and pelvic arterial calcification (PAC) in predicting overall morality in non-dialysis CKD stages 2-5 (CKD 2-5), maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and long-term kidney transplant (KT) patients. METHODS:Four hundred and nineteen patients were included. Lateral abdominal and pelvic radiographs were obtained. The degree of AAC and PAC was evaluated according to the methods described previously by Kaupplia et al. and Adragao et al. Patients were followed prospectively for 5 years. RESULTS:AAC and PAC scores correlated well with the correlation coefficients of 0.442 for CKD 2-5, 0.438 for HD and 0.586 for KT (p < 0.001). Patients with AAC score > 6 or PAC score > 1 were older, showed higher prevalence of DM and had higher serum phosphate and PTH but lower serum albumin and eGFR. A more severe degree of AAC was associated with an increase in KT duration, whereas a more severe degree of PAC was associated with worsening kidney function and prolonged dialysis vintage. Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed AAC score > 6 as a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in CKD 2-5 but not in HD or KT, whereas PAC score > 1 was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in all three populations. After adjusting for age, the predictability of AAC was lost, whereas PAC remained an independent predictor of mortality in all three populations. Adjustments for cardiovascular and CKD risk factors including age, gender, BMI, DM, serum albumin, calcium and phosphate attenuated the predictability of PAC in HD but not in CKD 2-5 or KT patients. CONCLUSION:PAC was better than AAC in predicting mortality in CKD, HD and KT patients.
CKD complications in kidney-transplanted patients going back to dialysis: impact on patients outcomes.
Aniort Julien,Kaysi Saleh,Garrouste Cyril,Abdelkader Mohamed Hadj,Isnard Myriam,Aguilera Didier,Ali Youssef,Bouiller Marc,Mulliez Aurelien,Heng Anne Elisabeth
Journal of nephrology
AIMS:The management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications is not always adequate in patients with a failed kidney transplant. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of CKD complications and assess whether they may lead to worse outcomes in this patient population. METHOD:We analyzed 49 kidney transplant recipients with a failed transplant (T+) and matched non-transplanted patients (T-) starting dialysis between 2000 and 2010 in five dialysis centers in France. CKD complications at dialysis initiation, hospitalizations and death were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS:At dialysis initiation, T+ patients were more likely to have bicarbonate < 22 mmol/l (77.6 vs. 22.0%, p < 0.01), phosphate > 1.5 mmol/l (77.6 vs. 59.2%, p = 0.03), arterial blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (75.5 vs. 93.9%, p = 0.01), body mass index < 23 (59.2 vs. 32.7%, p = 0.01) and albumin < 38 g/l (69.4 vs. 36.7%) than T- patients. T+ patients were hospitalized more frequently in the year following dialysis initiation (40.8 ± 7.0 vs. 16.3 ± 5.3%, log rank p = 0.01) and 5-year survival rate was lower than in T- patients (82.1 ± 6.2 vs. 64.0 ± 7.4%, log rank p = 0.02). However risk of hospitalization and mortality was lesser after adjustments for CKD complications. CONCLUSION:Despite regular follow-up by nephrologists, CKD complications before initiation of dialysis are more frequent in T+ patients than in T- patients. A better management of CKD complications in T+ patients could improve outcomes after dialysis initiation.