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    Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients. ,Raber-Durlacher Judith E,Brennan Mike T,Verdonck-de Leeuw Irma M,Gibson Rachel J,Eilers June G,Waltimo Tuomas,Bots Casper P,Michelet Marisol,Sollecito Thomas P,Rouleau Tanya S,Sewnaik Aniel,Bensadoun Rene-Jean,Fliedner Monica C,Silverman Sol,Spijkervet Fred K L Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer PURPOSE:Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools, prevalence, complications, and impact on quality of life in patients with a variety of different cancers, particularly in those treated with curative chemoradiation for head and neck cancer. METHODS:The literature search was limited to the English language and included both MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. The search focused on papers reporting dysphagia as a side effect of cancer and cancer therapy. We identified relevant literature through the primary literature search and by articles identified in references. RESULTS:A wide range of assessment tools for dysphagia was identified. Dysphagia is related to a number of factors such as direct impact of the tumor, cancer resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and to newer therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Concomitant oral complications such as xerostomia may exacerbate subjective dysphagia. Most literature focuses on head and neck cancer, but dysphagia is also common in other types of cancer. CONCLUSIONS:Swallowing impairment is a clinically relevant acute and long-term complication in patients with a wide variety of cancers. More prospective studies on the course of dysphagia and impact on quality of life from baseline to long-term follow-up after various treatment modalities, including targeted therapies, are needed. 10.1007/s00520-011-1342-2
    A Comparison of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures to Evaluate Dysphagia and Dysphonia After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion. Rosenthal Brett D,McCarthy Michael H,Bhatt Surabhi,Savage Jason W,Singh Kern,Hsu Wellington K,Patel Alpesh A The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons OF BACKGROUND DATA:Dysphagia and dysphonia are the most common complications after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). No consensus system exists currently in the spine literature for the classification of these conditions postoperatively. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) in the assessment of dysphagia when compared with the Bazaz score. A secondary goal was to assess the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) scores among patients following ACDF. METHODS:Patients treated with ACDF (one, two, or three level) for cervical radiculopathy and/or cervical myelopathy at two tertiary hospitals were administered patient-reported outcome metrics preoperatively as well as at multiple time points postoperatively. The metrics administered included the EAT-10, VHI-10, Bazaz, Neck Disbability Index, and EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D)/visual analog scale. RESULTS:One hundred patients were included in this study. Eighty-nine percentage had a 1-year follow-up, and 100% had a 12-week follow-up. Mean Neck Disbability Index, EQ-5D, and EQ-visual analog scale scores all improved from baseline at both 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Both the EAT-10 and VHI-10 demonstrated excellent internal reliability (α = 0.95 and α = 0.90, respectively). Analysis of variance of EAT-10 and VHI-10 scores by time point demonstrated a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.0001). The EAT-10 and VHI-10 scores were statistically greater on postoperative day 1 than at all other times (Tukey posthoc, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.004, respectively). Across all time points, 176 instances of clinically significant dysphagia (EAT-10 ≥ 3) were noted, 57 (32%) of which were classified as "None" on the Bazaz classification. CONCLUSIONS:The EAT-10 score is an accurate measure for mild to severe dysphagia and better captured significant dysphagia that would have otherwise been missed when the Bazaz score is used. EAT-10 and VHI-10 are better measures of postoperative dysphagia and dysphonia than the current metrics used in spine surgery. STUDY DESIGN:This was a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients. 10.5435/JAAOS-D-17-00631
    Airway adverse events following posterior occipito-cervical spinal fusion. Sheshadri Veena,Moga Rebecca,Manninen Pirjo,Goldstein Christina L,Rampersaud Yoga Raja,Massicotte Eric M,Fehlings Michael G,Venkatraghavan Lashmi Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia Management of the airway may be challenging in patients undergoing occipito-cervical spine fusions (OCF). Changes in the occipito-cervical angle (dOC2A) of fusion after surgery may result in acute airway obstruction, dyspnea and/or dysphagia. Objectives of the study were to review the airway management of patients during posterior OCF, determine the incidence, nature and risk factors for postoperative airway adverse events (AEs), and to determine the relationship between airway AEs and the change in dOC2A. In this retrospective cohort of 59 patients, following extubation in the operating room (OR), there were no complications in 43 (73%) patients (Group 1). Sixteen (27%) patients (Group 2) had airway complications; 4 requiring reintubation and 12 having delayed extubation. The number of vertebral levels fused (>6), presence of difficult intubation and duration of surgery (>5h) were significantly associated with AEs. There was no significant difference in the dOC2A between the groups (-1.070±5.527 versus -4.375±10.788, p=0.127). Airway management in patients undergoing OCF poses a challenge for the anesthesiology and surgical teams. The incidence of AEs was 27%. The decision to extubate immediately after surgery needs to be individualized. Factors such as difficult intubation, number of vertebral levels fused and duration of surgery have to be considered. A significant correlation between dOC2A and postoperative AEs could not be established. Risk factors for postoperative AEs are multifactorial and prospective evaluation of these factors is indicated. 10.1016/j.jocn.2016.12.036
    Severe dysphagia secondary to posterior C1-C3 instrumentation in a patient with atlantoaxial traumatic injury: a case report and review of the literature. Bekelis Kimon,Gottfried Oren N,Wolinsky Jean-Paul,Gokaslan Ziya L,Omeis Ibrahim Dysphagia There are only a few reports of dysphagia cases in patients who underwent surgery for posterior cervical fusion, but none provides an explanation for the occurrence of dysphagia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report showing evidence of severe neurogenic dysphagia, possibly secondary to vagal nerve praxia, in a patient who underwent posterior fusion. A 61-year-old man presented with severe neck pain after he sustained a fall. Imaging studies in the emergency department showed a C2 fracture associated with anterior subluxation of C2 on C3. Given the instability of the injury, a C1-C3 posterior cervical fusion was performed. The surgery was uneventful. The patient's postoperative course was complicated by severe dysphagia. Fluoroscopic and endoscopic assessments of the patient's pharynx and larynx showed significantly decreased epiglottic inversion, hypokinesis of his pharyngeal wall, and decreased hyolaryngeal elevation. There was also mild vocal cord paresis bilaterally, with incomplete approximation of the glottis. He demonstrated intra- and post-deglutitive aspiration. The patient coughed (both immediate and delayed) in response to the aspiration but was not able to clear aspirated material completely from the airway. The patient had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placed to provide him with nutrition. He was then discharged home. On postoperative follow-up visit 1 month later, the patient's swallowing function improved and he could tolerate pureed consistencies and thin liquids with tube feed supplement. The patient could swallow without coughing. Possible causes of dysphagia in this case include traumatized airways from anesthesia, mechanical compromise of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and neurogenic dysphagia. After excluding the other possibilities, we concluded that our patient was suffering from neurogenic dysphagia associated with vagal nerve dysfunction. 10.1007/s00455-009-9255-7
    O-C2 angle as a predictor of dyspnea and/or dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion. Miyata Masahiko,Neo Masashi,Fujibayashi Shunsuke,Ito Hiromu,Takemoto Mitsuru,Nakamura Takashi Spine STUDY DESIGN:A retrospective clinical study. OBJECTIVE:To confirm the impact of the O-C2 angle on dyspnea and dysphagia after posterior occipitocervical (O-C) fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Dyspnea and dysphagia are complications of posterior O-C fusion with malalignment, and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. However, it is difficult to select a safe alignment during surgery, and no indicators of the appropriate alignment have been available to preclude these complications. METHODS:The authors retrospectively reviewed 29 consecutive patients who had undergone O-C or occipitocervicothoracic fusion between 2003 and 2008. Data were analyzed for O-C2 angles on plain radiographs and the axial computed tomographic cross-sectional areas of the oropharynx just cranial to the epiglottis before and after surgery. The patients were grouped according to whether they developed postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia (group A) or not (group B). RESULTS:After surgery, 4 patients complained of dysphagia, and 1 patient had dyspnea and dysphagia, although they had all undergone short O-C fusions. The difference in the O-C2 angle (dOC2A = postoperative O-C2 angle--preoperative O-C2 angle) and the percentage change in the cross-sectional area of the oropharynx (S) before and after surgery (% dS) were linearly correlated. Both dOC2A and % dS were significantly lower in group A than in group B. All patients with dOC2A of less than -10 degrees showed % dS of less than -40%, and developed dyspnea and/or dysphagia after surgery. Conversely, no patients with positive dOC2A developed these complications. CONCLUSION:The O-C2 angle has considerable impact on dyspnea and/or dysphagia after O-C fusion. The O-C2 angle is easily measured during surgery and can be a practical index with which to avoid postoperative dyspnea and dysphagia. 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31818ff64e
    The O-C2 angle established at occipito-cervical fusion dictates the patient's destiny in terms of postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia. Izeki Masanori,Neo Masashi,Takemoto Mitsuru,Fujibayashi Shunsuke,Ito Hiromu,Nagai Koutatsu,Matsuda Shuichi European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society PURPOSE:We have revealed that the cause of postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia after occipito-cervical (O-C) fusion is mechanical stenosis of the oropharyngeal space and the O-C2 alignment, rather than total or subaxial alignment, is the key to the development of dyspnea and/or dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to confirm the impact of occipito-C2 angle (O-C2A) on the oropharyngeal space and to investigate the chronological impact of a fixed O-C2A on the oropharyngeal space and dyspnea and/or dysphagia after O-C fusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We reviewed 13 patients who had undergone O-C2 fusion, while retaining subaxial segmental motion (OC2 group) and 20 who had subaxial fusion without O-C2 fusion (SA group). The O-C2A, C2-C6 angle and the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space were measured on lateral dynamic X-rays preoperatively, when dynamic X-rays were taken for the first time postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. We also recorded the current dyspnea and/or dysphagia status at the final follow-up of patients who presented with it immediately after the O-C2 fusion. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in the mean preoperative values of the O-C2A (13.0 ± 7.5 in group OC2 and 20.1 ± 10.5 in group SA, Unpaired t test, P = 0.051) and the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (17.8 ± 6.0 in group OC2 and 14.9 ± 3.9 in group SA, Unpaired t test, P = 0.105). In the OC2 group, the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space changed according to the cervical position preoperatively, but became constant postoperatively. In contrast, in the SA group, the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space changed according to the cervical position at any time point. Three patients who presented with dyspnea and/or dysphagia immediately after O-C2 fusion had not resolved completely at the final follow-up. The narrowest oropharyngeal airway space and postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia did not change with time once the O-C2A had been established at O-C fusion. CONCLUSIONS:The O-C2A established at O-C fusion dictates the patient's destiny in terms of postoperative dyspnea and/or dysphagia. Surgeons should pay maximal attention when establishing the O-C2A during surgery, because their careless decision for the O-C2A may cause persistent dysphagia or a life-threatening consequence. We recommend that the O-C2A in O-C fusion should be kept at least at more than the preoperative O-C2A in the neutral position. 10.1007/s00586-013-2963-6
    Dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a prospective study comparing two anterior surgical approaches. Fengbin Yu,Xinwei Wang,Haisong Yang,Yu Chen,Xiaowei Liu,Deyu Chen European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society BACKGROUND:The Smith-Robinson approach is commonly used to expose the vertebrae in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Postoperative dysphagia has been frequently reported following this procedure. In this approach, surgical dissection can be carried out either lateral (LEO) or medial (MEO) to the omohyoid muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of dysphagia between the LEO and MEO groups. METHODS:In this randomized, prospective study, 80 patients were enrolled and evenly divided into the MEO and LEO groups. Patients underwent two-level ACDF using a right-sided Smith-Robinson approach. Follow-up was obtained 1, 3, 6, 12 week and 6 months after surgery. The degree of dysphagia was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire from the SWAL-QOL survey. RESULTS:There were no differences between the MEO and LEO groups with respect to age, gender, body mass index, or length of surgery. Overall, the SWAL-QOL scores were not different between the two groups at any of the follow-up time points. However, when the level of surgery was taken into consideration, the early postoperative SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower in the C3-C4 subgroup when the MEO approach was used. Conversely, the SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower in the C6-C7 subgroup when the LEO approach was used. Two patients with C6-C7 surgery in the MEO group also developed dysphonia that resolved spontaneously within 3 months. CONCLUSION:The findings from this study suggest that the LEO approach should be selected if the level of surgery involves C3-C4. For C6-C7 surgery, however, a left-sided MEO approach should be used. Depending on surgeon's preference, either approach can be used if both cervical levels are involved. 10.1007/s00586-012-2620-5
    The Prediction and Prevention of Dysphagia After Occipitospinal Fusion by Use of the S-line (Swallowing Line). Kaneyama Shuichi,Sumi Masatoshi,Takabatake Masato,Kasahara Koichi,Kanemura Aritetsu,Hirata Hiroaki,Darden Bruce V Spine STUDY DESIGN:Clinical case series and risk factor analysis of dysphagia after occipitospinal fusion (OSF). OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop new criteria to avoid postoperative dysphagia by analyzing the relationship among the craniocervical alignment, the oropharyngeal space, and the incidence of dysphagia after OSF. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Craniocervical malalignment after OSF is considered to be one of the primary triggers of postoperative dysphagia. However, ideal craniocervical alignment has not been confirmed. METHODS:Thirty-eight patients were included. We measured the O-C2 angle (O-C2A) and the pharyngeal inlet angle (PIA) on the lateral cervical radiogram at follow-up. PIA is defined as the angle between McGregor's line and the line that links the center of the C1 anterior arch and the apex of cervical sagittal curvature. The impact of these two parameters on the diameter of pharyngeal airway space (PAS) and the incidence of the dysphagia were analyzed. RESULTS:Six of 38 cases (15.8%) exhibited the dysphagia. A multiple regression analysis showed that PIA was significantly correlated with PAS (β = 0.714, P = 0.005). Receiver-operating characteristic curves showed that PIA had a high accuracy as a predictor of the dysphagia with an AUC (area under the curve) of 0.90. Cases with a PIA less than 90 degrees showed significantly higher incidence of dysphagia (31.6%) than those with a 90 or more degrees of PIA (0.0%) (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION:Our results indicated that PIA had the high possibility to predict postoperative dysphagia by OSF with the condition of PIA <90°. Based on these results, we defined "Swallowing-line (S-line)" for the reference of 90° of PIA. S-line (-) is defined as PIA <90°, where the apex of cervical lordosis protruded anterior to the "S-line," which should indicate the patient is at a risk of postoperative dysphagia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:4. 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001963
    A cohort study of the morbidity of combined anterior-posterior cervical spinal fusions: incidence and predictors of postoperative dysphagia. Reinard Kevin A,Cook Diana M,Zakaria Hesham M,Basheer Azam M,Chang Victor W,Abdulhak Muwaffak M European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society PURPOSE:To identify risk factors that may lead to the development of dysphagia after combined anterior and posterior (360°) cervical fusion surgery. METHODS:A single center, retrospective analysis of patients who had same-day, 360° fusion at Henry Ford Hospital between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Variables analyzed included demographics, medical co-morbidities, levels fused, and degree of dysphagia. RESULTS:The overall dysphagia rate was 37.7 %. Patients with dysphagia had a longer mean length of stay (p < 0.001), longer mean operative time (p < 0.001), greater intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.002), and fusion above the fourth cervical vertebra, C4, (p = 0.007). There were no differences in the rates of dysphagia when comparing patients undergoing primary or revision surgery (p = 0.554). CONCLUSION:Prolonged surgery and fusion above C4 lead to higher rates of dysphagia after 360° fusions. Prior anterior cervical fusion does not increase the risk of dysphagia development. 10.1007/s00586-016-4429-0
    Quantitative Risk Factor Analysis of Postoperative Dysphagia After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) Using the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10). Yew Andrew Y,Nguyen Matthew T,Hsu Wellington K,Patel Alpesh A Spine STUDY DESIGN:A retrospective case series. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to utilize the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10) to quantitatively analyze risk factors contributing to dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:ACDF is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States, with postoperative dysphagia rates ranging from 2% to 60%. The EAT-10 is a self-administered, symptom-specific 10-item clinical instrument to document dysphagia symptom severity and has demonstrated excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion-based validity. METHODS:This study utilized a retrospective chart review of 163 patients from July 2013 to October 2017 who underwent ACDF at a single institution and prospectively completed EAT-10 surveys pre- and postoperatively. EAT-10 scores were collected preoperatively and at postoperative day 1, day 14, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Preselected risk factors were abstracted from the patients' chart. Univariate analyses were performed to identify candidate variables that correlated with abnormal EAT-10 scores at each time point. Multivariate logistic regression was then utilized to identify risk factors that were independently correlated with abnormal EAT-10 scores at each time point. RESULTS:Female gender, younger patients, and increased operating room (OR) time was associated with increased rates of dysphagia in the early postoperative period. History of obstructive sleep apnea, history of asthma, increased American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and a larger number of spinal levels included in the surgery were correlated with increased dysphagia in the later postoperative periods. CONCLUSION:Dysphagia is common following ACDF. Factors associated with longer-term dysphagia seem to be more associated with pre-existing medical comorbidities. Understanding risk factors that correlate with increased rates of dysphagia has the potential to improve preoperative patient counseling and changes in operative management. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:4. 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002770
    The impact of the difference in O-C2 angle in the development of dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion: a simulation study in normal volunteers combined with a case-control study. Meng Yang,Wu Tingkui,Liu Ziyang,Wen Daguang,Rong Xin,Chen Hua,Lou Jigang,Liu Hao The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society BACKGROUND CONTEXT:Dysphagia has been recognized as one of the most serious complications after occipitocervical fusion (OCF), and the difference between postoperative and preoperative O-C2 angle (dO-C2A) was proposed to be an indicator in predicting and preventing dysphagia. Therefore, to prevent postoperative dysphagia, previous studies recommend that surgeons should correct the O-C2 angle (O-C2A) during surgery if the occipitocervical alignment was in an excessively flexed position. However, until now, there was no explicit indicator of the condition in which surgeons should adjust the patient's O-C2A during surgery. PURPOSE:One of the purposes of this study was to explore the threshold of dO-C2A between dysphagia and normal swallowing by a simulation study. The other aim was to evaluate the validity of the threshold of dO-C2A in predicting dysphagia after OCF via a case-control study. STUDY DESIGN:This is a simulation study combined with a retrospective case-control study. PATIENT SAMPLE:Thirty volunteers were enrolled in the simulation study. Thirty-four consecutive patients who underwent OCF between September 2011 and September 2016 were included in the case-control study. OUTCOME MEASURES:The outcome measures included O-C2A, C2-7 angle (C2-7A), atlantodental interval (ADI), the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (nPAS), the rate of change in dnPAS (%dnPAS), and the prevalence of postoperative dysphagia. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In the simulation study, each volunteer received two lateral x-rays of their cervical spine in neutral position and dysphagia position, respectively. We compared the radiographic parameters in neutral and dysphagia positions. The cumulative frequency diagram of dO-C2A in the dysphagia position was analyzed to identify the threshold of dO-C2A in the development of dysphagia. In the case-control study, these 34 patients were divided into two groups according to the threshold of dO-C2A identified in the simulation study. The impact of radiographic parameters on nPAS was analyzed. The prevalence of postoperative dysphagia between the two groups was compared to evaluate the validity of the threshold of dO-C2A in predicting dysphagia after OCF. RESULTS:In the simulation study, the mean O-C2A and nPAS in the dysphagia position were significantly smaller than in the neutral position (p<.05). There was no significant difference between the mean C2-7A in the neutral and dysphagia positions (p>.05). There was a significant positive correlation between dO-C2A and dnPAS (p<.05). A dO-C2A of -5° delineated the threshold between normal swallowing and dysphagia. In the case-control study, multiple regression analysis showed that dO-C2A was the only significant variable correlated with dnPAS (β=0.769, p<.001). Among the reviewed 34 patients, the incidence of dysphagia was 17.6% (6/34) at 2 weeks after surgery and decreased over time to 11.8% (4 of 34) at the last follow-up. There was also a significant positive correlation between the dO-C2A and dnPAS (p<.05). The prevalence of dysphagia after OCF in patients with dO-C2A<-5° was as high as 66.7% (6/9). However, there was no patient suffering from dysphagia in patients with dO-C2A≥-5°. CONCLUSION:The present study showed that the dO-C2A should be a key factor in the development of postoperative dysphagia after OCF. A dO-C2A of -5° could be the threshold between dysphagia and normal swallowing. Furthermore, to avoid dysphagia, surgeons should correct the O-C2A just before the final occipitocervical fixation if the checked dO-C2A during surgery is less than -5°. 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.01.005
    Does cervical disc arthroplasty have lower incidence of dysphagia than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion? A meta-analysis. Zhong Zhao-Ming,Li Mo,Han Zhi-Min,Zeng Ji-Huan,Zhu Shi-Yuan,Wu Qian,Chen Jian-Ting Clinical neurology and neurosurgery OBJECTIVE:Dysphagia is a common occurrence after anterior cervical spine surgery. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the incidence of dysphagia after ervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). MATERIAL AND METHODS:The electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were searched to identify the randomized controlled trials comparing CDA with ACDF. Studies were included only if the incidence of postoperative dysphagia was investigated. Study selection, "risk of bias" assessment, and data extraction were independently performed by two investigators. Data analyses were conducted with RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS:Ten studies involving 2711 patients (CDA group, n=1512; ACDF group, n=1199) were identified. All studies were determined to have a low risk of bias. Pooling analysis of these studies showed that the incidence of dysphagia was 9.46% (143/1512) after CDA versus 12.09% (145/1199) after ACDF. Meta-analysis showed the statistical difference between two groups with regards to the incidence of dysphagia (risk ratio 0.76; 95% confidence interval [0.61, 0.94]; P=0.01). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis indicates that patients have a significantly lower incidence of dysphagia after CDA than after ACDF. Additional studies are needed. 10.1016/j.clineuro.2016.04.002
    Preliminary Evaluation of the Pathomechanisms of Dysphagia After Occipitospinal Fusion: Kinematic Analysis by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study. Kaneyama Shuichi,Sumi Masatoshi,Takabatake Masato,Kasahara Koichi,Kanemura Aritetsu,Koh Akihiro,Hirata Hiroaki Spine STUDY DESIGN:Kinematic analysis of swallowing function using videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). OBJECTIVES:The aims of this study were to analyze swallowing process in the patients who underwent occipitospinal fusion (OSF) and elucidate the pathomechanism of dysphagia after OSF. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Although several hypotheses about the pathomechanisms of dysphagia after OSF were suggested, there has been little tangible evidence to support these hypotheses since these hypotheses were based on the analysis of static radiogram or CT. Considering that swallowing is a compositive motion of oropharyngeal structures, the etiology of postoperative dysphagia should be investigated through kinematic approaches. METHODS:Each four patients with or without postoperative dysphagia (group D and N, respectively) participated in this study. For VFSS, all patients were monitored to swallow 5-mL diluted barium solution by fluoroscopy, and then dynamic passing pattern of the barium solution was analyzed. Additionally, O-C2 angle (O-C2A) was measured for the assessment of craniocervical alignment. RESULTS:O-C2A in group D was -7.5 degrees, which was relatively smaller than 10.3 degrees in group N (P = 0.07). In group D, all cases presented smooth medium passing without any obstruction at the upper cervical level regardless of O-C2A, whereas the obstruction to the passage of medium was detected at the apex of mid-lower cervical ocurvature, where the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine compressed directly the pharyngeal space. In group N, all cases showed smooth passing of medium through the whole process of swallowing. CONCLUSION:This study presented that postoperative dysphagia did not occur at the upper cervical level even though there was smaller angle of O-C2A and demonstrated the narrowing of the oropharyngeal space towing to direct compression by the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine was the etiology of dysphagia after OSF. Therefore, surgeon should pay attention to the alignment of mid-cervical spine as well as craniocervical junction during OSF. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:4. 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001805
    Dysphagia and Dysphonia Assessment Tools After Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery. Rosenthal Brett D,Nair Rueben,Hsu Wellington K,Patel Alpesh A,Savage Jason W Clinical spine surgery The Smith-Robinson approach to the anterior cervical spine is being increasingly used, but it is not without complication. Dysphagia and dysphonia are the most common complications of the procedure. Many classification systems have been developed to stage and grade postoperative dysphagia and dysphonia, but inconsistent usage and lack of consensus adoption has limited research progress. A discussion of the merits and limitations of the most common classification systems is outlined within this review. Broad adoption of comprehensive and simple classification metrics is needed, but, first, prospective reliability and validity must be established in the anterior cervical fusion population. 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000373
    The Dysphagia Short Questionnaire: an instrument for evaluation of dysphagia: a validation study with 12 months' follow-up after anterior cervical spine surgery. Skeppholm Martin,Ingebro Catarina,Engström Therese,Olerud Claes Spine STUDY DESIGN:Prospective clinical validation study of questionnaire to assess dysphagia. OBJECTIVE:To test validity and reliability of Dysphagia Short Questionnaire (DSQ), and also to determine levels of dysphagia over time after anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Dysphagia is common after ACSS but reports on the incidence vary widely between 1% and 79%, indicating an evaluation problem. Several tools for evaluation of dysphagia exist but common features are that they are cumbersome to use and usually are designed for patients with neurological or malignant diseases in the neck region. Others are not validated, for example, the Bazaz score. There is, thus, a need for a more adapted tool to evaluate dysphagia in patients undergoing ACSS. METHODS:The DSQ was constructed in collaboration with a group of ear-nose-and-throat specialists. In a first validation study, 45 patients with stationary dysphagia for various reasons completed the DSQ twice 2 weeks apart, the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), the Bazaz score, and a quality-of-life score, the EQ-5D. To evaluate the utility of the DSQ, a second validation study was performed, where 111 subjects undergoing ACSS for degenerative disk disease completed the form preoperatively and at 4 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. RESULTS:In the first study, the DSQ correlated to MDADI (r = 0.59) and showed good reproducibility. The Bazaz score did not correlate to the DSQ, the MDADI, or the EQ-5 D. In the second study, dysphagia was present in a few patients already preoperatively. At 4 weeks, 85% of the patients reported dysphagia. The level had dropped significantly at 3 months and had returned to baseline levels at 1 year. CONCLUSION:We consider the DSQ to be a validated tool for the assessment of dysphagia in ACSS patients. Dysphagia after ACSS for cervical spondylosis is common but the symptoms on a group level are not very severe and are also temporary. 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31823a7a5b
    Evaluation of dysphagia after cervical surgery using laryngeal electromyography. Ryu Ju Seok,Lee Ji Hyun,Kang Jin Young,Kim Min Young,Shin Dong Eun,Shin Dong Ah Dysphagia The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of dysphagia after cervical surgery using laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and the effect of laryngeal neuropathy on the severity of dysphagia. Seventeen patients with dysphagia evident after cervical surgery were included. Video fluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) parameters evaluated included the volume of residue in the vallecular pouch and the pyriform sinus, the Rosenbek penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and the swallowing function scoring system (SFSS). By VFSS findings, patients were classified into a mild or severe dysphagia group. Nine of 17 patients showed voice change. SFSS scores were 0 in 2 patients, 3 in 1 patient, 4 in 1 patient, 5 in 1 patient, and 6 in 12 patients. PAS scores were 1 in 8 patients, 2 in 5 patients, 7 in 3 patients, and 8 in 1 patient. Laryngeal neuropathy was evident in seven patients (41.2%). Of these, all patients exhibited recurrent laryngeal neuropathy and 28.6% had superior laryngeal neuropathy. When we evaluated LEMG findings with respect to the severity of dysphagia, the severe dysphagia group showed significant association with the presence of laryngeal neuropathy (p = 0.006). Although the level of residue in the vallecular pouch was not associated with the presence of laryngeal neuropathy (p = 0.442), the amount of residue in the pyriform sinus did show a significant association (p = 0.020). 10.1007/s00455-011-9368-7
    Dysphagia 27 years after cervical disc arthroplasty. Lemaire E,Ciftci S,Debry C European annals of otorhinolaryngology, head and neck diseases INTRODUCTION:Dysphagia is a frequent postoperative symptom after anterior cervical disc arthroplasty. However, onset of dysphagia and neck pain a long time after surgery should suggest a diagnosis of prosthesis dislocation. CARE REPORT:A 65-year-old man with a history of cervical disc arthroplasty 27 years previously consulted for rapidly progressive dysphagia with no other associated symptoms. Physical examination and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of anterior dislocation of the prosthesis with no signs of perforation. Surgical extraction via a neck incision allowed resolution of the symptoms. DISCUSSION:Prosthesis dislocation should be considered in a patient with a history of cervical disc arthroplasty presenting with dysphagia and neck pain. The clinical and radiological assessment confirmed the diagnosis and early surgical management allowed resolution of the symptoms and avoided complications such as pharyngo-oesophageal perforation. 10.1016/j.anorl.2018.04.010
    Influence of Postoperative O-C2 Angle on the Development of Dysphagia After Occipitocervical Fusion Surgery: Results from a Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Validation. Wang Xingwen,Chou Dean,Jian Fengzeng World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Postoperative dysphagia is a known complication of anterior cervical surgery, but its incidence and possible mechanisms are seldom reported after occipitocervical fusion (OCF). Our objective was to study the relationship between craniocervical alignment and the development of dysphagia after OCF for the treatment of basilar invagination with atlantoaxial instability. METHODS:The study consisted of a retrospective series and a prospective series. Seventy-eight patients who underwent OCF (30 male, 48 female) were reviewed in the retrospective series. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded with an in-person questionnaire or telephone interview. Sagittal reconstructed computed tomography images before and after the procedure were collected. The O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were measured. The relationship of these parameters and their influence to the incidence of dysphagia were analyzed. The patients were grouped according to whether they developed postoperative dysphagia (group A) or not (group B). A prospective case series of 27 patients (group C) were reported to verify the influence of O-C2 angle on postoperative dysphagia. RESULTS:In the retrospective case series, 19 patients (24.4%) complained of postoperative dysphagia after OCF. The change in the O-C2 angle was significantly lower in group A than in group B (P < 0.001). In the prospective case series, only 1 patient (3.7%) complained of postoperative dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS:O-C2 angle plays an important role in the development of postoperative dysphagia after OCF procedure. Careful intraoperative alignment of the O-C2 angle may help to reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative dysphagia after OCF. 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.05.047
    Dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: a prospective study using the swallowing-quality of life questionnaire and analysis of patient comorbidities. Siska Peter A,Ponnappan Ravi K,Hohl Justin B,Lee Joon Y,Kang James D,Donaldson William F Spine STUDY DESIGN:Prospective study of 29 patients who underwent anterior cervical (AC) or posterior lumbar (PL) spinal surgery. A validated measure of dysphagia, the Swallowing-Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) survey, was used to assess the degree of postoperative dysphagia. OBJECTIVE:To determine the degree of dysphagia preoperatively and postoperatively in patients undergoing AC surgery compared with a control group that underwent PL surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Dysphagia is a well-known complication of AC spine surgery and has been shown to persist for up to 24 months or longer. METHODS:A total of 18 AC patients and a control group of 11 PL patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and were assessed preoperatively and at 3 weeks and 1.5 years postoperatively using a 14-item questionnaire from the SWAL-QOL survey to determine degree of dysphagia. Other patient factors and anesthesia records were examined to evaluate their relationship to dysphagia. RESULTS:There were no significant differences between the AC and PL groups with respect to age, sex, body mass index, or length of surgery. The SWAL-QOL scores at 3 weeks were significantly lower for the AC group than for the PL group (76 vs. 96; P = 0.001), but there were no differences between the groups preoperatively or at final follow-up. Smokers, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and women had lower SWAL-QOL scores at one or more time point. CONCLUSION:Patients undergoing AC surgery had a significant increase in the degree of dysphagia 3 weeks after surgery compared with patients undergoing PL surgery. By final follow-up, swallowing in the AC group recovered to a level similar to preoperative and comparable to that in patients undergoing lumbar surgery at 1.5 years. Smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and female sex are possible factors in the development of postoperative dysphagia. 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31822340f2
    Incidence of Dysphagia and Serial Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Findings After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Prospective Study. Min Yusun,Kim Won-Seok,Kang Sung Shik,Choi Jin Man,Yeom Jin S,Paik Nam-Jong Clinical spine surgery STUDY DESIGN:Prospective study. OBJECTIVE:To prospectively assess the incidence of dysphagia and to present the serial changes of each finding in the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:The reported incidence of dysphagia after ACDF has varied widely, and the serial changes of dysphagia using VFSS have not been clearly determined yet. METHODS:Data of 47 patients preoperatively and at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively were used for the analyses. The Bazaz dysphagia score and VFSS were checked preoperatively and at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. The presence of aspiration or penetration, amount of vallecular and pyriform sinus residues, functional dysphagia scale, temporal parameters of oral transit time, pharyngeal transit time, and pharyngeal delay time (PDT) were evaluated from the VFSS data. RESULTS:Incidences of dysphagia measured by the Bazaz dysphagia score were 83.0% at 1 week and 59.6% at 1 month after ACDF. Although the incidence of aspiration was 4.3% and the incidence of penetration was 36.2% at 1 week and 25.5% at 1 month after surgery, none of the patients had aspiration pneumonia. The number of patients with vallecular and pyriform sinus residues significantly increased after ACDF. Further, there were no statistically significant changes at all time points in terms of oral transit time, pharyngeal transit time, and pharyngeal delay time. CONCLUSIONS:Dysphagia is common until 1 month after ACDF. Although the incidence of aspiration or penetration in VFSS after ACDF was high, no patient had aspiration pneumonia, which may be because of the intact neurological swallowing mechanism. The typical pattern of dysphagia after ACDF included vallecular and pyriform sinuses filled with postswallow residue, which may result from soft tissue edema and weak constriction of pharyngeal muscles after ACDF. 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000060
    Dysphagia After Occipitothoracic Fusion is Caused by Direct Compression of Oropharyngeal Space Due to Anterior Protrusion of Mid-cervical Spine. Kaneyama Shuichi,Sumi Masatoshi,Kasahara Koichi,Kanemura Aritetsu,Takabatake Masato,Yano Tomonori Clinical spine surgery STUDY DESIGN:This was a retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship among the craniocervical alignment, the oropharyngeal space, and the incidence of dysphagia after occipitothoracic fusion (OTF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Craniocervical malalignment after OTF is one of a trigger of dysphagia. However, there has been no logical explanation for the etiology yet. METHODS:A total of 32 patients who underwent OTF (5 male, 27 female) were reviewed. Following 4 parameters on the lateral cervical radiogram, pharyngeal tilt angle (PTA); the angle between the McGregor's line and the line that links the center of C2 pedicle and the center of vertebral body at the apex of cervical sagittal curvature, diameter of oropharyngeal airway space (dPS), O-C2 angle, and C2-C7 angle were measured at follow-up and then the relationship of these parameters and their influence to the incidence of dysphagia were analyzed. RESULTS:Six of 32 cases (18.8%) exhibited postoperative dysphagia. ROC curves showed that PTA and dPS had moderate accuracy for the predictor of the dysphagia after OTF with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 and 0.86 respectively, whereas O-C2 angle had low accuracy with AUC of 0.69 and C2-C7 angle was almost useless for prediction of postoperative dysphagia with AUC of 0.51. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that only PTA was significantly correlated with dPS (β=0.822, P=0.014), whereas the O-C2 angle (β=0.101, P=0.779) and C2-C7 angle (β=0.352, P=0.157) had negligibly small influence on dPS. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated strong relationships between PTA and the value of dPS, and the incidence of dysphagia. As PTA reflects anterior protrusion of mid-cervical spine, these results indicated that dysphagia after OTF is caused by narrowing of oropharyngeal space due to direct compression from anteirorly protruded mid-cervical spine. 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000190
    Dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: incidence and risk factors. Kalb Samuel,Reis Marco T,Cowperthwaite Matthew C,Fox Douglas J,Lefevre Richard,Theodore Nicholas,Papadopoulos Stephen M,Sonntag Volker K H World neurosurgery OBJECTIVE:To evaluate risk factors for the development of dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery. METHODS:The records of 249 patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery were reviewed. The presence and severity of dysphagia were assessed with the Dysphagia Disability Index 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Age; sex; ethnicity; cigarette smoking; previous cervical surgeries; reoperation for same pathology; type of procedure, incision, and instrumentation; number and levels involved; side of procedure, length of surgery; and use of postoperative bracing were analyzed. RESULTS:During the first 6 months after surgery, 27 (10.8%) patients developed dysphagia. From these patients the presence of dysphagia at 6 weeks and at 3 and 6 months was 88.8%, 29.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. By 12 months, dysphagia had resolved in all cases. The mean age of patients with dysphagia was 55 years (SD 12.98) and 50 years (SD 12.07) in patients without dysphagia (P = 0.05). Dysphagic patients had an average of 2.2 (SD 1.15) levels operated compared with 1.84 (SD 0.950) in nondysphagic patients (P = 0.05). Patients who developed dysphagia were most often treated at C4-5 (67%) and C5-6 (81%: P < 0.001). Although mean operative time was slightly longer in patients with dysphagia (186 minutes) compared with those without (169 minutes), the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS:In our patients, the incidence of dysphagia was low, and it had completely resolved at 12 months in all cases. Risk factors for dysphagia were multilevel procedures, involvement of C4-5 and C5-6, and age. 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.07.004
    Dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery: a systematic review. Cho S K,Lu Y,Lee D-H The bone & joint journal Dysphagia is a common complication of anterior surgery of the cervical spine. The incidence of post-operative dysphagia may be as high as 71% within the first two weeks after surgery, but gradually decreases during the following months. However, 12% to 14% of patients may have some persistent dysphagia one year after the procedure. It has been shown that female gender, advanced age, multilevel surgery, longer operating time and severe pre-operative neck pain may be risk factors. Although the aetiology remains unclear and is probably multifactorial, proposed causes include oesophageal retraction, prominence of the cervical plate and prevertebral swelling. Recently, pre-operative tracheal traction exercises and the use of retropharyngeal steroids have been proposed as methods of reducing post-operative dysphagia. We performed a systematic review to assess the incidence, aetiology, risk factors, methods of assessment and management of dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. 10.1302/0301-620X.95B7.31029
    Reduced Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure to Assess Dysphagia After Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery. Kowalczyk Izabela,Ryu Won Hyung A,Rabin Doron,Arango Miguel,Duggal Neil Journal of spinal disorders & techniques STUDY DESIGN:This was a prospective, randomized control pilot study. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine whether continuous monitoring and adjustment of the endotracheal tube cuff pressure (ETTCP) to 15 mm Hg during ACSS would alter the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Postoperative dysphagia is a recognized potential complication of anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). Recent findings on preventive measures suggest that certain intraoperative practices may minimize this complication. METHODS:Fifty patients undergoing ACSS, arthroplasty, or fusion, completed routine lateral cervical preoperative plain films and questionnaires [Dysphagia Disability Index (DDI), Bazaz-Yoo Dysphagia Score (BYDS), and Short Form (36) Health Survey]. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: treatment group with ETTCP maintained at 15 mm Hg and control group with cuff pressure monitored without manipulation. Radiographs and questionnaires were obtained at 24 hours, 6 weeks, and 3 and 6 months postsurgery to assess soft tissue thickness and rates of dysphagia. RESULTS:There were no significant differences between the groups in the soft tissue thickness or questionnaire scores at any timepoint (P>0.05). Within-group analysis revealed treatment and control groups had a significantly higher 24-hour postoperative soft tissue thickness and questionnaire scores compared with follow-up measurements (P<0.05). In the pooled group (n=50), the 24-hour postoperative DDI, BYDS, and soft tissue thickness were significantly higher compared with all other timepoints (P<0.01). DDI scores ≥10 related to dysphagia were in 59% of patients at 24 hours, 35% at 6 weeks, 24% at 3 months, and 18% at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests decreased ETTCP has no effect on the prevalence of dysphagia. The incidence of dysphagia decreases over time and normalizes by 6 months postsurgery. 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000033
    Risk factors for persistent dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery. Olsson Erik C,Jobson Meghan,Lim Moe R Orthopedics Dysphagia is a relatively common complication of anterior cervical spine surgery. Smoking has not been definitively assessed as a risk factor for dysphagia. This study examined risk factors for dysphagia, including smoking and pain severity. The authors performed a cross-sectional cohort study of 100 patients who underwent anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Dysphagia was assessed with the Yoo-Bazaz questionnaire. Clinical notes were reviewed for demographic information, diagnosis, preoperative pain severity, preoperative smoking status, and operative details. The dysphagia questionnaire was administered via telephone. The rate of dysphagia at an average of 2.75 years (33 months) was 26%. Rare and mild dysphagia were reported by 2% and 7% of patients, respectively. Moderate dysphagia was reported by 12% patients, and severe dysphagia was reported by 5% of patients. Smokers were more likely to report dysphagia symptoms, and their dysphagia scores were more severe than those in nonsmokers (1.17 vs 0.54; P=.02). Patients undergoing revision surgery (n=7) had dysphagia at a rate of 71% compared with 23% of patients undergoing primary surgery (P<.004). Age, sex, diagnosis, severity of preoperative pain, and number of levels treated did not reach statistical significance. The prevalence of persistent dysphagia at an average of 33 months after ACDF was 23% in primary cases. To the authors' knowledge, the severity of dysphagia in smokers has not been reported previously. These data confirm previous reports that dysphagia symptoms persist in a significant proportion of patients more than 1 year after anterior cervical spine surgery. 10.3928/01477447-20150402-61
    Dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion - prospective study with 1-year follow-up. Opsenak R,Kolarovszki B,Benco M,Richterová R,Snopko P,Varga K,Hanko M Rozhledy v chirurgii : mesicnik Ceskoslovenske chirurgicke spolecnosti INTRODUCTION:Dysphagia is a common finding after anterior cervical discectomy. The incidence and severity of swallowing disorders are variable and depend on many factors. METHODS:73 patients after 1- or 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion /ACDF/ were enrolled in prospective, single-center study. The severity of dysphagia was evaluated by the Bazaz-Yoo dysphagia score before surgery and 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. The impact of factors such as sex, age, number of operated segments, smoking, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertension, duration of surgery and pre-existing dysphagia on the incidence of dysphagia after surgery was verified. The correlation between the duration of surgery and severity of postoperative dysphagia, and similarly between the age and severity of preoperative and postoperative dysphagia was studied. RESULTS:Dysphagia was present in 22% patients within 12 months after surgery. No patient reported severe dysphagia. No significant relationship was demonstrated between sex, age, number of operated segments, pre-existing dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertension and the incidence of dysphagia after surgery. Smokers showed a significantly lower incidence of dysphagia before surgery and within 12 months after ACDF (p.
    The incidences and risk factors related to early dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: A prospective study. Liu Jia-Ming,Tong Wei-Lai,Chen Xuan-Yin,Zhou Yang,Chen Wen-Zhao,Huang Shan-Hu,Liu Zhi-Li PloS one Dysphagia is a common complication following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). The incidences of dysphagia were variable and controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of early dysphagia after ACSS with a new scoring system, and to identify the risk factors of it. A prospective study was carried out and patients who underwent ACSS from March 2014 to August 2014 in our hospital were included in this study. A self-designed dysphagia questionnaire was delivered to all of the patients from the first day to the fifth day after ACSS. Perioperative characteristics of patients were recorded, and incidences and risk factors of dysphagia were analyzed. A total of 104 patients who underwent ACSS were included and incidences of dysphagia from the first to the fifth day after ACSS was 87.5%, 79.81%, 62.14%, 50% and 44.23%, respectively. There was a good correlation between the new dysphagia scoring system and Bazaz scoring system (P < 0.001). Operative time and body mass index (BMI) were the risk factors for dysphagia during the first to the second day postoperatively. However, the dC2-C7angle was the main risk factor for dysphagia from the third to the fifth day after surgery. There were comparatively high incidences of early dysphagia after ACSS, which may be ascribed to operative time, BMI and the dC2-C7 angle. 10.1371/journal.pone.0173364
    Dysphagia, short-term outcomes, and cost of care after anterior cervical disc surgery. Starmer Heather M,Riley Lee H,Hillel Alexander T,Akst Lee M,Best Simon R A,Gourin Christine G Dysphagia Dysphonia and dysphagia are common complications of anterior cervical discectomy (ACD). We sought to determine the relationship between dysphagia and in-hospital mortality, complications, speech therapy/dysphagia training, length of hospitalization, and costs associated with ACD. Discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 1,649,871 patients who underwent ACD of fewer than four vertebrae for benign acquired disease between 2001 and 2010 were analyzed using cross-tabulations and multivariate regression modeling. Dysphagia was reported in 32,922 cases (2.0 %). Speech therapy/dysphagia training was reported in less than 0.1 % of all cases and in only 0.2 % of patients with dysphagia. Dysphagia was significantly associated with age ≥65 years (OR = 1.5 [95 % CI 1.4-1.7], P < 0.001), advanced comorbidity (OR = 2.3 [2.0-2.6], P < 0.001), revision surgery (OR = 2.7 [2.3-3.1], P < 0.001), disc prosthesis placement (OR = 1.5 [1.0-2.0], P = 0.029), and vocal cord paralysis (OR = 11.6 [8.3-16.1], P < 0.001). Dysphagia was a significant predictor of aspiration pneumonia (OR = 8.6 [6.7-10.9], P < 0.001), tracheostomy (OR = 2.3 [1.6-3.3], P < 0.001), gastrostomy (OR = 30.9 [25.3-37.8], P < 0.001), and speech therapy/dysphagia training (OR = 32.0 [15.4-66.4], P < 0.001). Aspiration pneumonia was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR = 15.9 [11.0-23.1], P < 0.001). Dysphagia, vocal cord paralysis, and aspiration pneumonia were significant predictors of increased length of hospitalization and hospital-related costs, with aspiration pneumonia having the single largest impact on length of hospitalization and costs. Dysphagia is significantly associated with increased morbidity, length of hospitalization, and hospital-related costs in ACD patients. Despite the known risk of dysphagia in ACD patients and an established role for the speech-language pathologist in dysphagia management, speech-language pathology intervention appears underutilized in this population. 10.1007/s00455-013-9482-9
    What is the incidence of dysphagia after posterior cervical surgery? Radcliff Kristen E,Koyonos Loukas,Clyde Corey,Sidhu Gursukhman S,Fickes Michael,Hilibrand Alan S,Albert Todd J,Vaccaro Alexander R,Rihn Jeffrey A Spine STUDY DESIGN:Prospective comparative study. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether dysphagia is a unique complication of anterior neck dissection or whether it occurs after any cervical surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Dysphagia is a common complication after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. However, current literature is scarce whether dysphagia occurs as a direct result of the anterior approach (dissection or instrumentation) or because of cervical spine surgery itself. METHODS:Patients undergoing posterior cervical surgery were prospectively evaluated for dysphagia up to 6 months after surgery. Patients were evaluated for dysphagia preoperatively, at 2 weeks and 6 weeks postoperatively using the dysphagia numeric rating scale. The data was compared with a previously published cohort of anterior cervical and lumbar surgical procedures from the same institution. Statistical significance was evaluated using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS:Eighty-five patients were included who underwent posterior cervical surgery. Baseline dysphagia was present in 11% (10/85) of patients. The incidence of new dysphagia was 10 of 85 (11%) at 2 weeks, 8 of 85 (8%) at 6 weeks, 13 of 85 (13%) at 12 weeks, and 5 of 85 (6%) at 24 weeks. The incidence of new dysphagia was significantly less than that of anterior cervical surgery at 2 weeks (posterior [P] 11% vs. anterior [A] 61.5%, P = 0.0001), 6 weeks (P 8% vs. A 44%, P = 0.0001), but not 12 weeks (P 13% vs. A 11%, P = 1). The incidence of dysphagia after posterior cervical surgery was significantly increased compared with that of lumbar surgery at 2 weeks (P 11% vs. lumbar surgery [L] 9%, P = 0.78), 6 weeks (P 8% vs. L 0%, P = 0.02), and 12 weeks (P 13% vs. L 0%, P = 0.007). At 12 weeks postoperatively, there was a statistically significant increase in postoperative neck pain (P = 0.008), tightness (P = 0.032), and peripheral pain/numbness (P = 0.032) in patients with dysphagia. CONCLUSION:Both anterior and posterior cervical surgery may result in long-term dysphagia in a small number of patients, perhaps due to loss of motion or postoperative pain. Surgeons should counsel their patients about possibility for dysphagia prior to all cervical spine surgery. 10.1097/BRS.0b013e318287ec9f
    Manual preoperative tracheal retraction exercise decreases the occurrence of postoperative oropharyngeal dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Chaudhary Surendra Kumar,Yu Bin,Pan Fumin,Li Xinhua,Wang Shanjin,Shaikh Imran I,Wu Desheng Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) OBJECTIVE:Preoperative tracheal retraction exercise (TRE) to minimize the occurrence of postoperative oropharyngeal dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery. METHODS:A total of 220 patients admitted for elective anterior cervical spine surgery from January 2013 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were allocated into two groups: TRE group and control group (without TRE). Modified dysphagia scoring system (MDSS) was used for evaluating the presence and severity of dysphagia symptoms at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Demographics such as age, gender, smoking, type of procedure, number of levels operated, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, and instrumentation were analyzed. The clinical outcomes in both groups were compared with Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for arm and neck pain, and Odom's criteria for global outcome. RESULTS:In the first week postoperatively, 86 patients (39.1%) developed dysphagia, which decreased to 72 (32.7%), 5 (2.3%), and 4 (1.8%) after 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The patients who received the TRE prior to surgery had significantly better MDSS scores ( p = 0.032 for second-level, 0.022 for third-level, and 0.009 for fourth-level fusions) than control group patients who did not receive TRE at the first week of surgery. At the 1-month follow-up, the followed-up patients for second- to fourth-level fusions in the TRE group had improved MDSS scores than those in the control group ( p = 0.041 for second-level, 0.025 for third-level, and 0.0011 for fourth-level fusions). MDSS scores showed no significant difference between both the groups at 1 and 3 months postoperatively for single level anterior cervical fusion. NDI and VAS scores didn't yield any significant difference. Global outcome by Odom's criteria was 88.6%. CONCLUSION:Preoperative TRE can significantly reduce the occurrence of postoperative dysphagia after ACDF surgery. During follow-up, the incidence of postoperative dysphagia was significantly lower and had resolved at 3 months in all patients. 10.1177/2309499017731446
    Risk Factors for and Clinical Outcomes of Dysphagia After Anterior Cervical Surgery for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Results from the AOSpine International and North America Studies. Nagoshi Narihito,Tetreault Lindsay,Nakashima Hiroaki,Arnold Paul M,Barbagallo Giuseppe,Kopjar Branko,Fehlings Michael G The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume BACKGROUND:Although dysphagia is a common complication after anterior cervical decompression and fusion, important risk factors have not been rigorously evaluated. Furthermore, the impact of dysphagia on neurological and quality-of-life outcomes is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for dysphagia, and the impact of this complication on short and long-term clinical outcomes, in patients treated with anterior cervical decompression and fusion. METHODS:Four hundred and seventy patients undergoing a 1-stage anterior or 2-stage anteroposterior cervical decompression and fusion were enrolled in the prospective AOSpine CSM (Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy) North America or International study at 26 global sites. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine important clinical and surgical predictors of perioperative dysphagia. Preoperatively and at each follow-up visit, patients were evaluated using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA), Nurick score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to evaluate differences in outcomes at 6 and 24 months between patients with and those without dysphagia, while controlling for relevant baseline characteristics and surgical factors. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of dysphagia was 6.2%. Bivariate analysis showed the major risk factors for perioperative dysphagia to be a higher comorbidity score, older age, a cardiovascular or endocrine disorder, a lower SF-36 Physical Component Summary score, 2-stage surgery, and a greater number of decompressed levels. Multivariable analysis showed patients to be at an increased risk of perioperative dysphagia if they had an endocrine disorder, a greater number of decompressed segments, or 2-stage surgery. Both short and long-term improvements in functional, disability, and quality-of-life scores were comparable between patients with and those without dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS:The most important predictors of dysphagia are an endocrine disorder, a greater number of decompressed levels, and 2-stage surgery. At the time of both short and long-term follow-up, patients with perioperative dysphagia exhibited improvements in functional, disability, and quality-of life scores that were similar to those of patients without dysphagia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.2106/JBJS.16.00325
    Risk Factors for Dysphagia After Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery. Li Zhikun,Li Gengwu,Chen Chao,Li Yifan,Yang Changwei,Xu Wei,Zhu Xiaodong Orthopedics This study evaluated the risk factors for dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery by multidimensional analysis and investigated the predictive values of these risk factors for dysphagia. The patients underwent anterior cervical spine surgery and were followed for at least 6 months. Sex, age, tracheal mobility, smoking history, implant type, C3 anterior vertebral soft tissue swelling, narrowest esophageal distance before internal fixation, cervical curvature, operative time, occurrence of fusion, number of operative segments, and highest vertebral segment were recorded. Chi-square test and logistic regression were performed to analyze the predictive value of each dimension for dysphagia. A total of 158 patients were included in this study. The mean C3 anterior vertebral soft tissue swelling was 8.8±4.5 mm, the mean narrowest esophageal distance before internal fixation was 6.9±4.4 mm, and the mean operative time was 78.5±39.2 minutes. Chi-square test results showed that age 60 years and older, female sex, internal fixation with titanium plate/titanium mesh, narrowest esophageal distance before internal fixation of less than 5 mm, and 3 operative segments indicated a relatively high incidence of dysphagia. Logistic regression analyses showed that age, sex, implant type, narrowest esophageal distance before internal fixation, and number of operative segments were all risk factors predictive of postoperative dysphagia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.872. Age 60 years and older, female sex, internal fixation with titanium plate/titanium mesh, narrowest esophageal distance before internal fixation of less than 5 mm, and 3 operative segments were risk factors for dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery. The regression equation may be used to predict the occurrence of dysphagia. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(1):e110-e116.]. 10.3928/01477447-20171213-04
    The Role of C2-C7 Angle in the Development of Dysphagia After Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery. Tian Wei,Yu Jie Clinical spine surgery STUDY DESIGN:This is a retrospective clinical study. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the relationship between cervical alignment and the development of dysphagia after anterior and posterior cervical (PC) spine surgery [anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical disk replacement (CDR), and PC]. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Dysphagia is a known complication of cervical surgery and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. A previous study showed dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion was caused by oropharyneal stenosis resulting from O-C2 (upper cervical lordosis) fixation in a flexed position. However, there have been few reports analyzing the association between the C2-C7 angle (middle-lower cervical lordosis) and postoperative dysphagia. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In total, 452 patients were reviewed in this study, including 172 patients who underwent the ACDF procedure, 98 patients who had the CDR procedure, and 182 patients who had the PC procedure between June 2007 and May 2010. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded via face-to-face questioning or telephone interview performed at least 1 year after the procedure. Plain cervical radiographs before and after surgery were collected. The O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were measured. The change of O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were defined as dO-C2 angle=postoperative O-C2 angle-preoperative O-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle=postoperative C2-C7 angle-preoperative C2-C7 angle. The association between postoperative dysphagia with dO-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle was studied. RESULTS:A total of 12.8% ACDF, 5.1% CDR, and 9.4% PC patients reported dysphagia after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle has considerable impact on postoperative dysphagia. When dC2-C7 angle is >5 degrees, the chance of developing postoperative dysphagia of this patient is significantly greater. The dO-C2 angle, age, sex, body mass index, operative time, blood loss, procedure type, revision surgery, most cephalic operative level, and number of operative levels did not significantly influence the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. No relationship was found between the dC2-C7 angle and the degree of dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS:Postoperative dysphagia is common after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle may play an important role in the development of dysphagia in both anterior and PC spine surgery. Overenlargement of cervical lordosis should be avoided to reduce the development of postoperative dysphagia. 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000493
    The role of C2-C7 and O-C2 angle in the development of dysphagia after cervical spine surgery. Tian Wei,Yu Jie Dysphagia Dysphagia is a known complication of cervical surgery and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. A previous study showed that dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion was caused by oropharyngeal stenosis resulting from O-C2 (upper cervical lordosis) fixation in a flexed position. However, there have been few reports analyzing the association between the C2-C7 angle (middle-lower cervical lordosis) and postoperative dysphagia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between cervical lordosis and the development of dysphagia after anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery (AC and PC). Three hundred fifty-four patients were reviewed in this retrospective clinical study, including 172 patients who underwent the AC procedure and 182 patients who had the PC procedure between June 2007 and May 2010. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded via face-to-face questioning or telephone interview performed at least 1 year after the procedure. Plain cervical radiographs before and after surgery were collected. The O-C2 angle and the C2-C7 angle were measured. Changes in the O-C2 angle and the C2-C7 angle were defined as dO-C2 angle = postoperative O-C2 angle - preoperative O-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle = postoperative C2-C7 angle - preoperative C2-C7 angle. The association between postoperative dysphagia with dO-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle was studied. Results showed that 12.8 % of AC and 9.4 % of PC patients reported dysphagia after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle has considerable impact on postoperative dysphagia. When the dC2-C7 angle is greater than 5°, the chance of developing postoperative dysphagia is significantly greater. The dO-C2 angle, age, gender, BMI, operative time, blood loss, procedure type, revision surgery, most cephalic operative level, and number of operative levels did not significantly influence the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. No relationship was found between the dC2-C7 angle and the degree of dysphagia. We conclude that postoperative dysphagia is common after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle may play an important role in the development of dysphagia in both anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery. Intraoperative measurement of the dC2-C7 angle is practical and essential in avoiding inadvertent postoperative dysphagia. 10.1007/s00455-012-9421-1
    Dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review of potential preventative measures. Joaquim Andrei F,Murar Jozef,Savage Jason W,Patel Alpesh A The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society BACKGROUND CONTEXT:Anterior cervical spine surgery is one of the most common spinal procedures performed around the world, but dysphagia is a frequent postoperative complication. Many factors have been associated with an increased risk of swallowing difficulties, including multilevel surgery, revision surgery, and female gender. PURPOSE:The objective of this study was to review and define potential preventative measures that can decrease the incidence of dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery. STUDY DESIGN:This was a systematic literature review. METHODS:A systematic review in the Medline database was performed. Articles related to dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery and potential preventative measures were included. RESULTS:Twenty articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles reported several potential preventative measures to avoid postoperative dysphagia. Preoperative measures include performing tracheal exercises before the surgical procedure. Intraoperative measures can be summarized as avoiding a prolonged operative time and the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein in routine anterior cervical spine surgery, using small and smoother cervical plates, using anchored spacers instead of plates, application of steroid before wound closure, performing arthroplasty instead of anterior cervical fusion for one-level disease, decreasing tracheal cuff pressure during medial retraction, using specific retractors, and changing the dissection plan. CONCLUSIONS:Current literature supports several preventative measures that may decrease the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. Although the evidence is limited and weak, most of these measures did not appear to increase other complications and can be easily incorporated into a surgical practice, especially in patients who are at high risk for postoperative dysphagia. 10.1016/j.spinee.2014.03.030
    Risk factors for dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: A meta-analysis. Liu Feng-Yu,Yang Da-Long,Huang Wen-Zheng,Huo Li-Shuang,Ma Lei,Wang Hui,Yang Si-Dong,Ding Wen-Yuan Medicine BACKGROUND:Dysphagia is a well-known complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Although risk factors for dysphagia have been reported in the literature, they still remain controversial. This study aims to investigate the risk factors associated with dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2016 for studies examining dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. Risk factors associated with dysphagia were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for outcomes. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0. RESULTS:The final analysis includes a total of 18 distinct studies. The pooled analysis reveals that there are significant differences in female gender (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.76-2.99, P < 0.001), the use of anterior cervical plate (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05-2.62, P = 0.03), more than 1 surgical level (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.62-2.66, P < 0.001), the upper surgical level at C3/4 (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.44-6.55, P = 0.004), and the use of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (OR = 5.52, 95% CI: 2.16-14.10, P < 0.001). However, no significant difference is found in revision surgery (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 0.60-4.68, P = 0.33), the type of fusion (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.62-1.67, P = 0.95), and cervical disc arthroplasty (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.75-2.51, P = 0.30). CONCLUSION:Female gender, the use of anterior cervical plate, more than 1 surgical level, the upper surgical level at C3/4, and the use of rhBMP-2 are the risk factors for dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. However, revision surgery, the type of fusion, and cervical disc arthroplasty are unassociated with dysphagia. Considering the limited number of studies, this conclusion should be interpreted cautiously, and larger scale studies are required. 10.1097/MD.0000000000006267
    Factors predicting dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery: A multicenter retrospective study for 2 years of follow-up. Wang Tao,Ma Lei,Yang Da-Long,Wang Hui,Bai Zhi-Long,Zhang Li-Jun,Ding Wen-Yuan Medicine A multicenter retrospective study.The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors of dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery and factors affecting rehabilitation of dysphagia 2 years after surgery.Patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery at 3 centers from January 2010 to January 2013 were included. The possible factors included 3 aspects: demographic variables-age, sex, body mass index (BMI): hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, smoking, alcohol use, diagnose (cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament), preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), surgical-related variables-surgical option (ACDF, ACCF, ACCDF, or Zero profile), operation time, blood loss, operative level, superior fusion segment, incision length, angle of C2 to C7, height of C2 to C7, cervical circumference, cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7.The results of our study indicated that the rate of dysphagia at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery was 20%, 5.4%, 2.4%, 1.1%, and 0.4%, respectively. Our results showed that age (58.8 years old), BMI (27.3 kg/m), course of disease (11.6 months), operation time (103.2 min), blood loss (151.6 mL), incision length (9.1 cm), cervical circumference (46.8 cm), angle of C2 to C7 (15.3°), cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7 (4.8), preoperative VAS (7.5), and ODI (0.6) in dysphagia group were significantly higher than those (52.0, 24.6, 8.6, 88.2, 121.6, 8.6, 42.3, 12.6, 3.7, 5.6, and 0.4, respectively) in nondysphagia group; however, height of C2 to C7 (9.9 vs 11.7 cm) and preoperative JOA (8.3 vs 10.7) had opposite trend between 2 groups. We could also infer that female, smoking, diabetes, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, ACCDF, multilevel surgery, and superior fusion segment including C2 to C3 or C6 to C7 were the risk factors for dysphagia after surgery immediately. However, till 2 years after surgery, only 2 risk factors, smoking and diabetes, could slow rehabilitation of dysphagia.Many factors could significantly increase rate of dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery. Operation time as a vital factor markedly increases immediate postoperative dysphagia and smoking, as the most important factor, lower recovery of dysphagia. Further study is needed to prove if these factors could influence dysphagia. 10.1097/MD.0000000000007916
    Risk factors and preventative measures of early and persistent dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review. Liu Jingwei,Hai Yong,Kang Nan,Chen Xiaolong,Zhang Yangpu European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society PURPOSE:To conduct a systematic review of literature to determine risk factors and preventative measures of early and persistent dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). METHODS:On March 2017, we searched the database PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, Clinical key, Springer link and Wiley Online Library without time restriction using the term 'dysphagia', 'swallowing disorders', and 'anterior cervical spine surgery'. Selected papers were examined for the level of evidence by published guidelines as level I, level II, level III, level IV studies. We investigated risk factors and preventative measures of early or persistent dysphagia after ACSS from these papers. RESULTS:The initial search yielded 515 citations. Fifty-nine of these studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three of them were level I evidence studies, 29 were level II evidence studies, 22 were level III evidence studies, and 3 were level IV evidence studies. Preventable risk factors included prolonged operative time, use of rhBMP, endotracheal tube cuff pressure, cervical plate type and position, dC2-C7 angle, psychiatric factors, tobacco usage, prevertebral soft tissue swelling, SLN or RLN palsy or injury of branches. Preventative measures included preoperative tracheal traction exercise, maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure at 20 mm Hg, avoiding routine use of rhBMP-2, use of zero-profile implant, use of Zephir plate, use of new cervical retractor, steroid application, avoiding prolonged operating time, avoiding overenlargement of cervical lordosis, decreasing surgical levels, ensuring knowledge of anatomy of superior laryngeal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve, to comfort always, patients quitting smoking and doctors ensuring improved skills. Unpreventable risk factors included age, gender, multilevel surgery, revision surgery, duration of preexisting pain, BMI, blood loss, upper levels, preoperative comorbidities and surgical type. CONCLUSION:Adequate preoperative preparation of the patients including preoperative tracheal traction exercise and quitting smoking, proper preventative measures during surgery including maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure at 20 mm Hg, avoiding routine use of rhBMP-2, use of zero-profile implant, use of Zephir plate, use of new cervical retractor, steroid application, avoiding prolonged operating time, avoiding overenlargement of cervical lordosis and decreasing surgical levels, doctors ensuring knowledge of anatomy, improved surgical techniques and to comfort always are essential for preventing early and persistent dysphagia after ACSS. 10.1007/s00586-017-5311-4
    Reasons of Dysphagia After Operation of Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion. Wu Bing,Song Fei,Zhu Shourong Clinical spine surgery STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the reasons, clinical manifestation, risk factors, prevention, and treatment of dysphagia after operation of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Dysphagia is one of severe complications after ACDF. There were a few studies about reasons and prevention of dysphagia. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of patients who underwent ACDF in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2012. Clinical symptom of dysphagia was recorded at the perioperative period and at the third and sixth month of the follow-up after surgery and assigned according to the Bazaz dysphagia score. We analyzed the reasons and risk factors leading to dysphagia and tried to find effective programs of prevention and treatment. RESULTS:There were 358 patients who underwent ACDF. Of 358 patients, 39 patients including 14 men and 25 women complained of dysphagia. The mean age was 46.8 years, with an age range of 38-67 years. Clinical manifestation of dysphagia included difficulty to swallow, pain during swallowing, sticky throat feeling, and choking. All the patients were followed up over 6 months. The incidences of dysphagia were 10.9%, 6.4%, and 2.7%, respectively, at 1-5 days, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. There was no severe dysphagia at 3 months after surgery. Mild or moderate dysphagia slightly affected the quality of life. Logistic regression showed multilevel cervical spine, and high-level cervical spine surgeries are high-risk factors for postoperative dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS:Dysphagia is a common complication of ACDF. Causes of dysphagia include multilevel cervical spine and upper cervical spine surgeries. Use of methylprednisolone and careful operation can reduce the incidence and result in good prognosis. 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000180
    Incidence and Factors Predictive of Dysphagia and Dysphonia After Anterior Operation With Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Yu Shunzhi,Chen Zhi,Yan Ning,Hou Tiesheng,He Shisheng Clinical spine surgery STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective database analysis. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:The objective of the study was to quantify the incidence of dysphagia and dysphonia and assess the associated risk factors after multilevel cervical anterior operation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Anterior approach for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy has been developed and obtained favorable outcomes. As number of fused levels increased, the operation difficulty, invasiveness and operative risks are higher. Meanwhile, the 2 most common postoperative complications described in the literature are dysphonia and dysphagia. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two hundred thirty-six multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients between October 2004 and June 2012 were included in the study. All patients undergoing anterior operation, and incidences of dysphagia were identified. Risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS:At a minimum of 1 year after operation, 70.6% (n=156) were 3-level anterior operation and 29.4% (n=65) were 4-level anterior operation. The overall dysphagia rate was 23.1% (51 patients). The overall dysphonia rate was 28.5% (63 patients). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that risk factors for dysphagia included age, operation time and lack of tracheal traction exercise. Age, operation time were 2 factors significantly related to dysphonia. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of postoperative dysphagia and dysphonia is relative higher after multilevel anterior operation. Age and operation time carry a greater risk of postoperative dysphagia and dysphonia. Tracheal traction exercise might help patients reduce postoperative dysphagia. Sufficient preoperative preparation and evaluation combining with proficient and precise operation technique are suggested when multilevel anterior fusion is performed. 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000492