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    Proteomic analysis and quantification of cytokines and chemokines from biomaterial surface-adherent macrophages and foreign body giant cells. Jones Jacqueline A,Chang David T,Meyerson Howard,Colton Erica,Kwon Il Keun,Matsuda Takehisa,Anderson James M Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Implantation of biomaterial devices results in the well-known foreign body reaction consisting of monocytes, macrophages, and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) at the material/tissue interface. We continue to address the hypothesis that material surface chemistry modulates the phenotypic expression of these cells. Utilizing our human monocyte culture system, we have used surface-modified polymers displaying hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and/or ionic chemistries to determine the cytokines/chemokines released from biomaterial-adherent macrophages/FBGCs. This study broadens our approach by using proteomic analysis to identify important factors expressed by these cells and further quantifies these molecules with ELISAs. Proteomic profiles changed over time suggesting that the adherent macrophages underwent a phenotypic switch. Macrophage/FBGC-derived proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and IL-6, decreased with time, while the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, gradually increased with time. Resolution of the inflammatory response was also demonstrated by a decrease in chemoattractant IL-8 and MIP-1beta production with time. Material-dependent macrophage/FBGC activation was analyzed using cytokine/chemokine production and cellular adhesion. Monocyte/macrophage adhesion was similar on all surfaces, except for the hydrophilic/neutral surfaces that showed a significant decrease in cellular density and minimal FBGC formation. Normalizing the ELISA data based on the adherent cell population provided cytokine/chemokine concentrations produced per cell. This analysis showed that although there were fewer cells on the hydrophilic/neutral surface, these adherent cells were further activated to produce significantly greater amounts of each cytokine/chemokine tested than the other surfaces. This study clearly presents evidence that material surface chemistry can differentially affect monocyte/macrophage/FBGC adhesion and cytokine/chemokine profiles derived from activated macrophages/FBGCs adherent to biomaterial surfaces. 10.1002/jbm.a.31221
    Toll-like receptor-2 mediates diet and/or pathogen associated atherosclerosis: proteomic findings. Madan Monika,Amar Salomon PloS one BACKGROUND:Accumulating evidence implicates a fundamental link between the immune system and atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptors are principal sensors of the innate immune system. Here we report an assessment of the role of the TLR2 pathway in atherosclerosis associated with a high-fat diet and/or bacteria in ApoE(+/-) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:To explore the role of TLR2 in inflammation- and infection-associated atherosclerosis, 10 week-old ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/+), ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/-) and ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(-/-) mice were fed either a high fat diet or a regular chow diet. All mice were inoculated intravenously, once per week for 24 consecutive weeks, with 50 microl live Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) (10(7) CFU) or vehicle (normal saline). Animals were euthanized 24 weeks after the first inoculation. ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/+) mice showed a significant increase in atheromatous lesions in proximal aorta and aortic tree compared to ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/-) and ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(-/-) mice for all diet conditions. They also displayed profound changes in plaque composition, as evidenced by increased macrophage infiltration and apoptosis, increased lipid content, and decreased smooth muscle cell mass, all reflecting an unstable plaque phenotype. SAA levels from ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/+) mice were significantly higher than from ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/-) and ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(-/-) mice. Serum cytokine analysis revealed increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/+) mice compared to ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/-) and TLR2(-/-) mice, irrespective of diet or bacterial challenge. ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/+) mice injected weekly for 24 weeks with FSL-1 (a TLR2 agonist) also demonstrated significant increases in atherosclerotic lesions, SAA and serum cytokine levels compared to ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(-/-) mice under same treatment condition. Finally, mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of aortic samples analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis differential display, identified 6 proteins upregulated greater than 2-fold in ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/+) mice fed the high fat diet and inoculated with P.g compared to any other group. CONCLUSION:Genetic deficiency of TLR2 reduces diet- and/or pathogen-associated atherosclerosis in ApoE(+/-) mice, along with differences in plaque composition suggesting greater structural stability while TLR-2 ligand-specific activation triggers atherosclerosis. The present data offers new insights into the pathophysiological pathways involved in atherosclerosis and paves the way for new pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing atherosclerosis. 10.1371/journal.pone.0003204
    Characterization of anti-inflammatory compounds using transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis. Verhoeckx Kitty C M,Bijlsma Sabina,Jespersen Sonja,Ramaker Raymond,Verheij Elwin R,Witkamp Renger F,van der Greef Jan,Rodenburg Richard J T International immunopharmacology The discovery of new anti-inflammatory drugs is often based on an interaction with a specific target, although other pathways often play a primary or secondary role. Anti-inflammatory drugs can be categorized into classes, based on their mechanism of action. In this article we investigate the possibility to characterize novel anti-inflammatory compounds by three holistic methods. For this purpose, we make use of macrophage-like U937 cells which are stimulated with LPS in the absence or presence of an anti-inflammatory compound. Using micro-arrays, 2-D gel electrophoresis and a LC-MS method for lipids the effects on the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of the exposed cells is investigated. The expression patterns are subsequently analyzed using in-house developed pattern recognition tools. Using the methods described above, we have examined the effects of six anti-inflammatory compounds. Our results demonstrate that different classes of anti-inflammatory compounds show distinct and characteristic mRNA, protein, and lipid expression patterns, which can be used to categorise known molecules and to discover and classify new leads. The potential of our approach is illustrated by the analysis of several beta (2)-adrenergic agonists (beta2-agonists). In addition to their primary pharmacological target, beta2-agonists posses certain anti-inflammatory properties. We were able to show that zilpaterol, a poorly characterized beta2-agonist, gives rise to an almost identical expression pattern as the beta2-agonists clenbuterol and salbutamol. Furthermore we have identified specific mRNA, protein and lipid markers for the anti-inflammatory compounds investigated in this study. 10.1016/j.intimp.2004.07.008
    Proteome profiling of interleukin-12 treated human T helper cells. Rosengren Arsi T,Nyman Tuula A,Lahesmaa Riitta Proteomics Selective activation of T helper subsets 1 (Th1) and 2 (Th2) plays a crucial role in different pathological conditions. Th1 cell response is involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis, and Th2 cell response in pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. Cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) is one of the key factors in the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Th1 cells. In this study we used 2-DE and MS to find and identify IL-12 regulated proteins in human CD4(+) T cells. In total, 42 protein spots were found to be differentially expressed following IL-12 stimulation, of which 22 were up- and 20 down-regulated. Among the upregulated proteins there are a multifunctional cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor and a known IL-12 target gene Programmed cell death 4. Downregulated proteins include p21-activated kinase 2 and its upstream GTPase Cdc42. Compared to previous reports our analysis provides a new view on the IL-12 induced changes on CD4(+) T cells underscoring the importance of creating and combining the data generated at various levels to build a comprehensive view of a given biological process of the cell. 10.1002/pmic.200401151
    Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS: a new tool to assess the multifaceted activation of macrophages. Ouedraogo Richard,Daumas Aurélie,Ghigo Eric,Capo Christian,Mege Jean-Louis,Textoris Julien Journal of proteomics Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS is routinely used to identify bacterial species in clinical samples. This technique has also proven to allow identification of intact mammalian cells, including macrophages. Here, we wondered whether this approach enabled the assessment human macrophages plasticity. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF spectra of macrophages stimulated with IFN-γ and IL-4, two inducers of M1 and M2 macrophage polarisation, consisted of peaks ranging from 2 to 12 kDa. The spectra of unstimulated and stimulated macrophages were clearly different. The fingerprints induced by the M1 agonists, IFN-γ, TNF, LPS and LPS+IFN-γ, and the M2 agonists, IL-4, TGF-β1 and IL-10, were specific and readily identifiable. Thus, whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS was able to characterise M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes. In addition, the fingerprints induced by extracellular (group B Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus) or intracellular (BCG, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii) bacteria were bacterium-specific. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS fingerprints therefore revealed the multifaceted activation of human macrophages. This approach opened a new avenue of studies to assess the immune response in the clinical setting, by monitoring the various activation patterns of immune cells in pathological conditions. 10.1016/j.jprot.2012.07.046
    Quantitative proteomics reveals the induction of mitophagy in tumor necrosis factor-α-activated (TNFα) macrophages. Bell Christina,English Luc,Boulais Jonathan,Chemali Magali,Caron-Lizotte Olivier,Desjardins Michel,Thibault Pierre Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Macrophages play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity as professional phagocytes capable of internalizing and degrading pathogens to derive antigens for presentation to T cells. They also produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) that mediate local and systemic responses and direct the development of adaptive immunity. The present work describes the use of label-free quantitative proteomics to profile the dynamic changes of proteins from resting and TNF-α-activated mouse macrophages. These analyses revealed that TNF-α activation of macrophages led to the down-regulation of mitochondrial proteins and the differential regulation of several proteins involved in vesicle trafficking and immune response. Importantly, we found that the down-regulation of mitochondria proteins occurred through mitophagy and was specific to TNF-α, as other cytokines such as IL-1β and IFN-γ had no effect on mitochondria degradation. Furthermore, using a novel antigen presentation system, we observed that the induction of mitophagy by TNF-α enabled the processing and presentation of mitochondrial antigens at the cell surface by MHC class I molecules. These findings highlight an unsuspected role of TNF-α in mitophagy and expanded our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for MHC presentation of self-antigens. 10.1074/mcp.M112.025775
    A combined omics study on activated macrophages--enhanced role of STATs in apoptosis, immunity and lipid metabolism. Dinasarapu Ashok Reddy,Gupta Shakti,Ram Maurya Mano,Fahy Eoin,Min Jun,Sud Manish,Gersten Merril J,Glass Christopher K,Subramaniam Shankar Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) BACKGROUND:Macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharide and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been studied extensively because this model system mimics the physiological context of bacterial infection and subsequent inflammatory responses. Previous studies on macrophages elucidated the biological roles of caspase-1 in post-translational activation of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 in inflammation and apoptosis. However, the results from these studies focused only on a small number of factors. To better understand the host response, we have performed a high-throughput study of Kdo2-lipid A (KLA)-primed macrophages stimulated with ATP. RESULTS:The study suggests that treating mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with KLA and ATP produces 'synergistic' effects that are not seen with treatment of KLA or ATP alone. The synergistic regulation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism is observed in a time-dependent manner. The synergistic effects are produced by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) and activator protein (AP)-1 through regulation of their target cytokines. The synergistically regulated cytokines then activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) factors that result in enhanced immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism; STAT1 enhances immunity by promoting anti-microbial factors; and STAT3 contributes to downregulation of cell cycle and upregulation of apoptosis. STAT1 and STAT3 also regulate glycerolipid and eicosanoid metabolism, respectively. Further, western blot analysis for STAT1 and STAT3 showed that the changes in transcriptomic levels were consistent with their proteomic levels. In summary, this study shows the synergistic interaction between the toll-like receptor and purinergic receptor signaling during macrophage activation on bacterial infection. AVAILABILITY:Time-course data of transcriptomics and lipidomics can be queried or downloaded from http://www.lipidmaps.org. CONTACT:shankar@ucsd.edu. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btt469
    Time-varying causal inference from phosphoproteomic measurements in macrophage cells. Masnadi-Shirazi Maryam,Maurya Mano Ram,Subramaniam Shankar IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems Cellular signaling circuitry in eukaryotes can be studied by analyzing the regulation of protein phosphorylation and its impact on downstream mechanisms leading to a phenotype. A primary role of phosphorylation is to act as a switch to turn "on" or "off" a protein activity or a cellular pathway. Specifically, protein phosphorylation is a major leit motif for transducing molecular signals inside the cell. Errors in transferring cellular information can alter the normal function and may lead to diseases such as cancer; an accurate reconstruction of the "true" signaling network is essential for understanding the molecular machinery involved in normal and pathological function. In this study, we have developed a novel framework for time-dependent reconstruction of signaling networks involved in the activation of macrophage cells leading to an inflammatory response. Several signaling pathways have been identified in macrophage cells, but the time-varying causal relationship that can produce a dynamic directed graph of these molecules has not been explored in detail. Here, we use the notion of Granger causality, and apply a vector autoregressive model to phosphoprotein time-course data in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Through the reconstruction of the phosphoprotein network, we were able to estimate the directionality and the dynamics of information flow. Significant interactions were selected through statistical hypothesis testing ( t-test) of the coefficients of a linear model and were used to reconstruct the phosphoprotein signaling network. Our approach results in a three-stage phosphoprotein network that represents the evolution of the causal interactions in the intracellular signaling pathways. 10.1109/TBCAS.2013.2288035
    Phosphoproteome profiling of the macrophage response to different toll-like receptor ligands identifies differences in global phosphorylation dynamics. Sjoelund Virginie,Smelkinson Margery,Nita-Lazar Aleksandra Journal of proteome research Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are among the first sensors that detect infection and drive immune response. Macrophages encountering a pathogen are usually stimulated not by one TLR, but by a combination of TLRs engaged by distinct microbe ligands. To understand the integrated signaling under complex conditions, we investigated the differences in the phosphoprotein signaling cascades triggered by TLR2, TLR4, and TLR7 ligands using a single responding cell population. We performed a global, quantitative, early poststimulation kinetic analysis of the mouse macrophage phosphoproteome using stable isotope labeling with amino acids coupled to phosphopeptide enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry. For each TLR ligand, we found marked elevation of phosphorylation of cytoskeleton components, GTPases of the Rho family, and phospholipase C signaling pathway proteins. Phosphorylation of proteins involved in phagocytosis was only seen in response to TLR2 and TLR4 but not to TLR7 activation. Changes in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in endocytosis were delayed in response to TLR2 as compared to TLR4 ligands. These findings reveal that the phosphoproteomic response to stimulation of distinct TLRs varies both in the major modification targets and the phosphorylation dynamics. These results advance the understanding of how macrophages sense and respond to a diverse set of TLR stimuli. 10.1021/pr5002466
    Human monocyte-derived macrophages are heterogenous: Proteomic profile of different phenotypes. Eligini S,Brioschi M,Fiorelli S,Tremoli E,Banfi C,Colli S Journal of proteomics Tissue macrophages play a key role in many aspects of human physiology and pathology. These cells are heterogeneous both in term of morphology and function. As an example, heterogeneity has been reported within the atherosclerotic lesions where distinct populations exert opposite functions driving plaque progression or stability. Tissue macrophages are not easily obtained and differentiated blood-derived monocytes are largely used as surrogate model. We previously reported that human macrophages spontaneously differentiated from adherent monocytes show two dominant subsets, distinct for morphology (spindle and round) and functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intracellular proteome of these two macrophage subsets by means of a microproteomic workflow properly set up to simultaneously identify and quantify proteins from a minimal number of morphotypically heterogeneous cells in culture. We report two distinct proteomic profiles that distinguish round from spindle macrophages. In particular, differential abundances were observed for proteins involved in membrane traffic regulation, lipid handling, efferocytosis, and protection against stress conditions. Results reinforce and extend previous data on the functional and antigenic profile of these macrophage phenotypes strengthening the suitability of our model to focus on macrophage heterogeneity. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE:Tissue macrophages patrol homeostatic functions, immune surveillance, and resolution of inflammation. The spectrum of macrophage activation states is, therefore, wide and gives ground for the heterogeneity of these cells, documented in health and disease. This study provides knowledge of the distinct proteome that characterises the two dominant morphotypes (round and spindle) of human macrophages that, in our culture condition, are generated by spontaneous differentiation from blood-derived monocytes. Results extend previous data about the different antigenic, transcriptional, and functional profiles of these morphotypes and further strengthen the suitability of this in vitro model to study macrophage heterogeneity and to address the effects of environmental challenges and drugs. 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.03.026
    Quantitative proteomics analyses of activation states of human THP-1 macrophages. Meijer Kees,Weening Desiree,de Vries Marcel P,Priebe Marion G,Vonk Roel J,Roelofsen Han Journal of proteomics Macrophages display large functional and phenotypical plasticity. They can adopt a broad range of activation states depending on their microenvironment. Various surface markers are used to characterize these differentially polarized macrophages. However, this is not informative for the functions of the macrophage. In order to have a better understanding of the functional changes of macrophages upon differential polarization, we studied differences in LPS- and IL4-stimulated macrophages. The THP-1 human monocytic cell line, was used as a model system. Cells were labeled, differentiated and stimulated with either LPS or IL-4 in a quantitative SILAC proteomics set-up. The resulting sets of proteins were functionally clustered. LPS-stimulated macrophages show increased secretion of proinflammatory peptides, leading to increased pressure on protein biosynthesis and processing. IL4-stimulated macrophages show upregulation of cell adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling. Our approach provides an integrated view of polarization-induced functional changes and proves useful for studying functional differences between subsets of macrophages. Moreover, the identified polarization specific proteins may contribute to a better characterization of different activation states in situ and their role in various inflammatory processes. 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.07.013
    Chromatin proteomics reveals novel combinatorial histone modification signatures that mark distinct subpopulations of macrophage enhancers. Soldi Monica,Mari Tommaso,Nicosia Luciano,Musiani Daniele,Sigismondo Gianluca,Cuomo Alessandro,Pavesi Giulio,Bonaldi Tiziana Nucleic acids research The integrated activity of cis-regulatory elements fine-tunes transcriptional programs of mammalian cells by recruiting cell type-specific as well as ubiquitous transcription factors (TFs). Despite their key role in modulating transcription, enhancers are still poorly characterized at the molecular level, and their limited DNA sequence conservation in evolution and variable distance from target genes make their unbiased identification challenging. The coexistence of high mono-methylation and low tri-methylation levels of lysine 4 of histone H3 is considered a signature of enhancers, but a comprehensive view of histone modifications associated to enhancers is still lacking. By combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with mass spectrometry, we investigated cis-regulatory regions in macrophages to comprehensively identify histone marks specifically associated with enhancers, and to profile their dynamics after transcriptional activation elicited by an inflammatory stimulation. The intersection of the proteomics data with ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses revealed the existence of novel subpopulations of enhancers, marked by specific histone modification signatures: specifically, H3K4me1/K36me2 marks transcribed enhancers, while H3K4me1/K36me3 and H3K4me1/K79me2 combinations mark distinct classes of intronic enhancers. Thus, our MS analysis of functionally distinct genomic regions revealed the combinatorial code of histone modifications, highlighting the potential of proteomics in addressing fundamental questions in epigenetics. 10.1093/nar/gkx821
    Extracellular vesicles from mice with alcoholic liver disease carry a distinct protein cargo and induce macrophage activation through heat shock protein 90. Saha Banishree,Momen-Heravi Fatemeh,Furi Istvan,Kodys Karen,Catalano Donna,Gangopadhyay Anwesha,Haraszti Reka,Satishchandran Abhishek,Iracheta-Vellve Arvin,Adejumo Adeyinka,Shaffer Scott A,Szabo Gyongyi Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) A salient feature of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is Kupffer cell (KC) activation and recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages (MØs). These key cellular events of ALD pathogenesis may be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs transfer biomaterials, including proteins and microRNAs, and have recently emerged as important effectors of intercellular communication. We hypothesized that circulating EVs from mice with ALD have a protein cargo characteristic of the disease and mediate biological effects by activating immune cells. The total number of circulating EVs was increased in mice with ALD compared to pair-fed controls. Mass spectrometric analysis of circulating EVs revealed a distinct signature for proteins involved in inflammatory responses, cellular development, and cellular movement between ALD EVs and control EVs. We also identified uniquely important proteins in ALD EVs that were not present in control EVs. When ALD EVs were injected intravenously into alcohol-naive mice, we found evidence of uptake of ALD EVs in recipient livers in hepatocytes and MØs. Hepatocytes isolated from mice after transfer of ALD EVs, but not control EVs, showed increased monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting a biological effect of ALD EVs. Compared to control EV recipient mice, ALD EV recipient mice had increased numbers of F4/80 cluster of differentiation 11b (CD11b) KCs and increased percentages of tumor necrosis factor alpha-positive/interleukin 12/23-positive (inflammatory/M1) KCs and infiltrating monocytes (F4/80 CD11b ), while the percentage of CD206 CD163 (anti-inflammatory/M2) KCs was decreased. In vitro, ALD EVs increased tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1β production in MØs and reduced CD163 and CD206 expression. We identified heat shock protein 90 in ALD EVs as the mediator of ALD-EV-induced MØ activation. CONCLUSION:Our study indicates a specific protein signature of ALD EVs and demonstrates a functional role of circulating EVs containing heat shock protein 90 in mediating KC/MØ activation in the liver. (Hepatology 2018;67:1986-2000). 10.1002/hep.29732
    Inflammatory Proteomic Network Analysis of Statin-treated and Lipopolysaccharide-activated Macrophages. Kamal Abu Hena M,Chakrabarty Jayanta K,Udden S M Nashir,Zaki Md Hasan,Chowdhury Saiful M Scientific reports A significant component of immune biology research is the investigation of protein encoding genes that play central roles in contributing inflammatory response. A gel-free quantitative bottom-up proteomics study was performed on immune cell macrophages after the combined treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and statin drugs using mass spectrometry and a detailed bioinformatics analyses were conducted. Systematic bioinformatics analysis was applied for discovering novel relationships among proteins and effects of statin and lipopolysaccharide in macrophage cells. Based on gene ontology, majority of protein encoding genes was involved in metabolic and cellular processes and are actively associated with binding, structural molecular, and catalytic activity. Notably, proteomic data analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), discovered the plectin and prohibitin 2 protein interactions network and inflammatory-disease based protein networks. Two up-regulated proteins, plectin and prohibitin 2, were further validated by immunoblotting. Plectin was also cross-validated by immunocytochemistry, since its expression was highly modulated by statin but inhibited during LPS-stimulation. Collectively, the significant up-regulation of plectin due to the treatment of statin, suggests that statin has a significant impact on the cytoskeletal networks of cells. Plectin might have a significant role in the intermediate filament assembly and dynamics, and possibly stabilizing and crosslinking intermediate filament networks. 10.1038/s41598-017-18533-1
    XINA: A Workflow for the Integration of Multiplexed Proteomics Kinetics Data with Network Analysis. Lee Lang Ho,Halu Arda,Morgan Stephanie,Iwata Hiroshi,Aikawa Masanori,Singh Sasha A Journal of proteome research Quantitative proteomics experiments, using for instance isobaric tandem mass tagging approaches, are conducive to measuring changes in protein abundance over multiple time points in response to one or more conditions or stimulations. The aim is often to determine which proteins exhibit similar patterns within and across experimental conditions, since proteins with coabundance patterns may have common molecular functions related to a given stimulation. In order to facilitate the identification and analyses of coabundance patterns within and across conditions, we previously developed a software inspired by the isobaric mass tagging method itself. Specifically, multiple data sets are tagged in silico and combined for subsequent subgrouping into multiple clusters within a single output depicting the variation across all conditions, converting a typical inter-data-set comparison into an intra-data-set comparison. An updated version of our software, XINA, not only extracts coabundance profiles within and across experiments but also incorporates protein-protein interaction databases and integrative resources such as KEGG to infer interactors and molecular functions, respectively, and produces intuitive graphical outputs. In this report, we compare the kinetics profiles of >5600 unique proteins derived from three macrophage cell culture experiments and demonstrate through intuitive visualizations that XINA identifies key regulators of macrophage activation via their coabundance patterns. 10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00615
    Comparative Characterization of Osteoclasts Derived From Murine Bone Marrow Macrophages and RAW 264.7 Cells Using Quantitative Proteomics. Ng Andrew Yh,Tu Chengjian,Shen Shichen,Xu Ding,Oursler Merry J,Qu Jun,Yang Shuying JBMR plus Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells differentiated from macrophage/monocyte precursors in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). models are principally based on primary bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), but RAW 264.7 cells are frequently used because they are widely available, easy to culture, and more amenable to genetic manipulation than primary cells. Increasing evidence, however, has shown that the vastly different origins of these two cell types may have important effects on cell behavior. In particular, M-CSF is a prerequisite for the differentiation of BMMs, by promoting survival and proliferation and priming the cells for RANKL induction. RAW 264.7 cells readily form osteoclasts in the presence of RANKL, but M-CSF is not required. Based on these key differences, we sought to understand their functional implications and how it might affect osteoclast differentiation and related signaling pathways. Using a robust and high-throughput proteomics strategy, we quantified the global protein changes in osteoclasts derived from BMMs and RAW 264.7 cells at 1, 3, and 5 days of differentiation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD009610. Correlation analysis of the proteomes demonstrated low concordance between the two cell types ( ≈ 0.13). Bioinformatics analysis indicate that RANKL-dependent signaling was intact in RAW 264.7 cells, but biological processes known to be dependent on M-CSF were significantly different, including cell cycle control, cytoskeletal organization, and apoptosis. RAW 264.7 cells exhibited constitutive activation of Erk and Akt that was dependent on the activity of Abelson tyrosine kinase, and the timing of Erk and Akt activation was significantly different between BMMs and RAW 264.7 cells. Our findings provide the first evidence for major discrepancies between BMMs and RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that careful consideration is needed when using the RAW 264.7 cell line for studying M-CSF-dependent signaling and functions. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2018 The Authors. published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 10.1002/jbm4.10058
    A Pathogen and a Non-pathogen Spotted Fever Group Trigger Differential Proteome Signatures in Macrophages. Curto Pedro,Santa Cátia,Allen Paige,Manadas Bruno,Simões Isaura,Martinez Juan J Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology We have previously reported that and have distinct intracellular fates within THP-1 macrophages, suggesting that the ability to proliferate within macrophages may be a distinguishable factor between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Spotted fever group (SFG) members. To start unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the capacity (or not) of SFG to establish their replicative niche in macrophages, we have herein used quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS to profile the alterations resulted by the challenge of THP-1 macrophages with and . We show that the pathogenic, , and the non-pathogenic, , member of SFG trigger differential proteomic signatures in macrophage-like cells upon infection. specifically induced the accumulation of several enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid -oxidation, and glutaminolysis, as well as of several inner and outer membrane mitochondrial transporters. These results suggest a profound metabolic rewriting of macrophages by toward a metabolic signature of an M2-like, anti-inflammatory activation program. Moreover, several subunits forming the proteasome and immunoproteasome are found in lower abundance upon infection with both rickettsial species, which may help bacteria to escape immune surveillance. -infection specifically induced the accumulation of several host proteins implicated in protein processing and quality control in ER, suggesting that this pathogenic may be able to increase the ER protein folding capacity. This work reveals novel aspects of macrophage- interactions, expanding our knowledge of how pathogenic rickettsiae explore host cells to their advantage. 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00043
    Distinct Protein Expression Networks are Activated in Microglia Cells after Stimulation with IFN-γ and IL-4. Vergara Daniele,Nigro Annamaria,Romano Alessandro,De Domenico Stefania,Damato Marina,Franck Julien,Coricciati Chiara,Wistorski Maxence,Cardon Tristan,Fournier Isabelle,Quattrini Angelo,Salzet Michel,Furlan Roberto,Maffia Michele Cells Microglia cells are the primary immune population of the central nervous system with a role in the regulation of several physiological and pathological conditions. Upon appropriate stimulation, microglia cells can be polarized in a pro-inflammatory M1-like or anti-inflammatory M2-like status. Biological processes and pathways engaged in microglia polarization are starting to be elucidated. To help clarify this, we used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) label free approach to characterize the proteomic profile of human microglia cell line (CHME-5) stimulated with gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) to induce a M1 or M2 phenotype, respectively. Outside the classical M1/M2 polarization markers, the M1 status appears to center around the activation of a classical inflammatory response and through the activation of multiple signaling pathways. M2 polarization resulted in a different pattern of protein modulation related to RNA and cellular metabolic processes. Together, our findings provide information regarding the protein changes specific to M1 and M2 activation states, and potentially link the polarization of microglia cells to the acquisition of a specific proteomic profile. 10.3390/cells8060580
    Proteomic Analysis Reveals a Predominant NFE2L2 (NRF2) Signature in Canonical Pathway and Upstream Regulator Analysis of -Infected Macrophages. de Menezes Juliana Perrone Bezerra,Khouri Ricardo,Oliveira Camila Victoria Sousa,Petersen Antonio Luis de Oliveira Almeida,de Almeida Tais Fontoura,Mendes Flávia R L,Rebouças Amanda do Amor Divino,Lorentz Amanda Lopes,Luz Nívea Farias,Lima Jonilson Berlink,Ramos Pablo Ivan Pereira,Soares Rodrigo Pedro,Rugani Jeronimo Nunes,Buck Gregory A,Krieger Marco Aurélio,Marchini Fabrício Klerynton,Vivarini Áislan de Carvalho,Lopes Ulisses Gazos,Borges Valéria de Matos,Veras Patricia Sampaio Tavares Frontiers in immunology CBA mice macrophages (MØ) control infection by and are susceptive to , suggesting that both parasite species induce distinct responses that play important roles in infection outcome. To evaluate the MØ responses to infection arising from these two species, a proteomic study using a Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) approach with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was carried out on CBA mice bone-marrow MØ (BMMØ). Following SEQUEST analysis, which revealed 2,838 proteins detected in BMMØ, data mining approach found six proteins significantly associated with the tested conditions. To investigate their biological significance, enrichment analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). A three steps IPA approach revealed 4 Canonical Pathways (CP) and 7 Upstream Transcriptional Factors (UTFs) strongly associated with the infection process. NRF2 signatures were present in both CPs and UTFs pathways. Proteins involved in iron metabolism, such as heme oxigenase 1 (HO-1) and ferritin besides sequestosome (SQSMT1 or p62) were found in the NRF2 CPs and the NRF2 UTFs. Differences in the involvement of iron metabolism pathway in infection was revealed by the presence of HO-1 and ferritin. Noteworty, HO-1 was strongly associated with infection, while ferritin was regulated by both species. As expected, higher HO-1 and p62 expressions were validated in -infected BMMØ, in addition to decreased expression of ferritin and nitric oxide production. Moreover, BMMØ incubated with LPG also expressed higher levels of HO-1 in comparison to those stimulated with LPG. In addition, -induced uptake of holoTf was higher than that induced by in BMMØ, and holoTf was also detected at higher levels in vacuoles induced by . Taken together, these findings indicate that NRF2 pathway activation and increased HO-1 production, together with higher levels of holoTf uptake, may promote permissiveness to s infection. In this context, differences in protein signatures triggered in the host by and infection could drive the outcomes in distinct clinical forms of leishmaniasis. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01362
    Decrease of the pro-inflammatory M1-like response by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidases 8/9 in THP-1 macrophages - quantitative proteomics of the proteome and secretome. Suski Maciej,Wiśniewska Anna,Kuś Katarzyna,Kiepura Anna,Stachowicz Aneta,Stachyra Kamila,Czepiel Klaudia,Madej Józef,Olszanecki Rafał Molecular immunology BACKGROUND:Cellular peptidases are an emerging target of novel pharmacological strategies in inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this context, the dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9 (DPP8/9) have gained special attention due to their activities in the immune cells. However, in spite of more than hundred protein substrates identified to date by mass spectrometry-based analysis, the cellular DPP8/9 functions are still elusive. METHODS:We applied the proteomic approach (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS) to comprehensively analyze the role of DPP8/9 in the regulation of macrophage activation by in-depth protein quantitation of THP-1 proteome and secretome. RESULTS:Cells pre-incubated with DPP8/9 inhibitor (1G244) prior activation (LPS or IL-4/IL-13) diminished the expression levels of M1-like response markers, but not M2-like phenotype features. This was accompanied by multiple intra- and extra-cellular protein abundance changes in THP-1 cells, related to cellular metabolism, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum function, as well as those engaged with inflammatory and apoptotic processes, including previously reported and novel DPP8/9 targets. CONCLUSIONS:Inhibition of DPP 8/9 had a profound effect on the THP-1 macrophage proteome and secretome, evidencing the decrease of the pro-inflammatory M1-like response. Presented results are to our best knowledge the first which, among others, highlight the metabolic effects of DPP8/9 inhibition in macrophages. 10.1016/j.molimm.2020.09.005
    Direct proteomic quantification of the secretome of activated immune cells. Meissner Felix,Scheltema Richard A,Mollenkopf Hans-Joachim,Mann Matthias Science (New York, N.Y.) Protein secretion allows communication of distant cells in an organism and controls a broad range of physiological functions. We describe a quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometric workflow to detect and quantify proteins that are released from immune cells upon receptor ligation. We quantified the time-resolved release of 775 proteins, including 52 annotated cytokines from only 150,000 primary Toll-like receptor 4-activated macrophages per condition. Achieving low picogram sensitivity, we detected secreted proteins whose abundance increased by a factor of more than 10,000 upon stimulation. Secretome to transcriptome comparisons revealed the transcriptionally decoupled release of lysosomal proteins. From genetic models, we defined secretory profiles that depended on distinct intracellular signaling adaptors and showed that secretion of many proinflammatory proteins is safeguarded by redundant mechanisms, whereas signaling adaptor synergy promoted the release of anti-inflammatory proteins. 10.1126/science.1232578
    Lipopolysaccharide Upregulates Palmitoylated Enzymes of the Phosphatidylinositol Cycle: An Insight from Proteomic Studies. Sobocińska Justyna,Roszczenko-Jasińska Paula,Zaręba-Kozioł Monika,Hromada-Judycka Aneta,Matveichuk Orest V,Traczyk Gabriela,Łukasiuk Katarzyna,Kwiatkowska Katarzyna Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that induces strong proinflammatory reactions of mammals. These processes are triggered upon sequential binding of LPS to CD14, a GPI-linked plasma membrane raft protein, and to the TLR4/MD2 receptor complex. We have found earlier that upon LPS binding, CD14 triggers generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P], a lipid controlling subsequent proinflammatory cytokine production. Here we show that stimulation of RAW264 macrophage-like cells with LPS induces global changes of the level of fatty-acylated, most likely palmitoylated, proteins. Among the acylated proteins that were up-regulated in those conditions were several enzymes of the phosphatidylinositol cycle. Global profiling of acylated proteins was performed by metabolic labeling of RAW264 cells with 17ODYA, an analogue of palmitic acid functionalized with an alkyne group, followed by detection and enrichment of labeled proteins using biotin-azide/streptavidin and their identification with mass spectrometry. This proteomic approach revealed that 154 fatty-acylated proteins were up-regulated, 186 downregulated, and 306 not affected in cells stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 60 min. The acylated proteins affected by LPS were involved in diverse biological functions, as found by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Detailed studies of 17ODYA-labeled and immunoprecipitated proteins revealed that LPS induces -palmitoylation, hence activation, of type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KII) β, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate, a PI(4,5)P precursor. Silencing of PI4KIIβ and PI4KIIα inhibited LPS-induced expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines, especially in the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of TLR4. Reciprocally, this LPS-induced signaling pathway was significantly enhanced after overexpression of PI4KIIβ or PI4KIIα; this was dependent on palmitoylation of the kinases. However, the -palmitoylation of PI4KIIα, hence its activity, was constitutive in RAW264 cells. Taken together the data indicate that LPS triggers -palmitoylation and activation of PI4KIIβ, which generates PI(4)P involved in signaling pathways controlling production of proinflammatory cytokines. 10.1074/mcp.RA117.000050
    Profiling post-translational modifications of histones in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Olszowy Pawel,Donnelly Maire Rose,Lee Chanho,Ciborowski Pawel Proteome science BACKGROUND:Histones and their post-translational modifications impact cellular function by acting as key regulators in the maintenance and remodeling of chromatin, thus affecting transcription regulation either positively (activation) or negatively (repression). In this study we describe a comprehensive, bottom-up proteomics approach to profiling post-translational modifications (acetylation, mono-, di- and tri-methylation, phosphorylation, biotinylation, ubiquitination, citrullination and ADP-ribosylation) in human macrophages, which are primary cells of the innate immune system. As our knowledge expands, it becomes more evident that macrophages are a heterogeneous population with potentially subtle differences in their responses to various stimuli driven by highly complex epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. METHODS:To profile post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones in macrophages we used two platforms of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. One platform was based on Sciex5600 TripleTof and the second one was based on VelosPro Orbitrap Elite ETD mass spectrometers. RESULTS:We provide side-by-side comparison of profiling using two mass spectrometric platforms, ion trap and qTOF, coupled with the application of collisional induced and electron transfer dissociation. We show for the first time methylation of a His residue in macrophages and demonstrate differences in histone PTMs between those currently reported for macrophage cell lines and what we identified in primary cells. We have found a relatively low level of histone PTMs in differentiated but resting human primary monocyte derived macrophages. CONCLUSIONS:This study is the first comprehensive profiling of histone PTMs in primary human MDM. Our study implies that epigenetic regulatory mechanisms operative in transformed cell lines and primary cells are overlapping to a limited extent. Our mass spectrometric approach provides groundwork for the investigation of how histone PTMs contribute to epigenetic regulation in primary human macrophages. 10.1186/s12953-015-0080-7
    Quantification of Dynamic Protein Interactions and Phosphorylation in LPS Signaling Pathway by SWATH-MS. Wu Xiurong,Yang Daowei,Zhao Fu,Yang Zhang-Hua,Wang Dazheng,Qiao Muzhen,Fang Yuan,Li Wanyun,Wu Rui,He Peng,Cong Yu,Chen Chang'an,Hu Lichen,Yan Yihua,Xie Changchuan,Wu Yaying,Han Jiahuai,Zhong Chuan-Qi Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation is a prototype of innate immune response. Although key effector proteins in LPS signaling pathway have been revealed, the map of dynamic protein interactions and phosphorylation as well as the stoichiometry of protein complexes are lacking. Here we present a dynamic map of protein interactions and phosphorylation in MyD88, TRAF6 and NEMO complexes obtained by SWATH-MS. The comprehensive MS measurement leads to quantification of up to about 3,000 proteins across about 21-40 IP samples. We detected and quantified almost all known interactors of MyD88, TRAF6 and NEMO. By analyzing these quantitative data, we uncovered differential recruitment of IRAK family proteins to LPS-induced signaling complexes and determined the stoichiometry of the Myddosome complex. In addition, quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis identified a number of unreported high-confidence phosphosites on the key proteins in LPS signaling pathway. Collectively, data of dynamic protein interactions and phosphorylation presented by this study could be a resource for further study of the LPS signaling pathway. 10.1074/mcp.RA119.001380
    The endosomal proteome of macrophage and dendritic cells. Duclos Sophie,Clavarino Giovanna,Rousserie Gilles,Goyette Guillaume,Boulais Jonathan,Camossetto Voahirana,Gatti Evelina,LaBoissière Sylvie,Pierre Philippe,Desjardins Michel Proteomics The essential roles of the endovacuolar system in health and disease call for the development of new tools allowing a better understanding of the complex molecular machinery involved in endocytic processes. We took advantage of the floating properties of small latex beads (sLB) on a discontinuous sucrose gradient to isolate highly purified endosomes following internalization of small latex beads in J774 macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). We particularly focused on the isolation of macrophages early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LYS) as well as the isolation of LE/LYS from immature and lipopolysaccharide-activated (mature) DC. We subsequently performed a comparative analysis of their respective protein contents by MS. As expected, proteins already known to localize to the early endosomes were enriched in the earliest fraction of J774 endosomes, while proteins known to accumulate later in the process, such as hydrolases, were significantly enriched in the LE/LYS preparations. We next compared the LE/LYS protein contents of immature DC and mature DC, which are known to undergo massive reorganization leading to potent immune activation. The differences between the protein contents of endocytic organelles from macrophages and DC were underlined by focusing on previously poorly characterized biochemical pathways, which could have an unexpected but important role in the endosomal functions of these highly relevant immune cell types. 10.1002/pmic.201000577
    Analysis and Characterization of Immune Cells and Their Activation Status by Whole-Cell MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Ouedraogo Richard,Textoris Julien,Gorvel Laurent,Daumas Aurélie,Capo Christian,Mege Jean-Louis Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) For 40 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been widely used in proteomics and biochemistry. It has been demonstrated in the last decade that MALDI-TOF MS can be used routinely to identify and classify numerous bacterial species or subspecies. We applied MALDI-TOF MS directly to intact mammalian cells, and we found that this method is valuable to identify human circulating cells and cells involved in the immune response including macrophages. We then stimulated human macrophages with cytokines, bacterial products, and a variety of bacteria. We found that MALDI-TOF MS discriminated unstimulated and stimulated macrophages and also detected multifaceted activation of macrophages. We conclude that whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS is an accurate method to identify various cell types and to detect subtle modifications in cell activity and therefore it can be beneficial in clinical practices for a rapid patient classification based on their immune profile. 10.1007/978-1-4939-9597-4_23
    Quantitative proteomic characterization of ethanol-responsive pathways in rat microglial cells. Bell-Temin Harris,Zhang Ping,Chaput Dale,King Michael A,You Min,Liu Bin,Stevens Stanley M Journal of proteome research Long-term exposure to alcohol can have profound effects on the central nervous system including pathophysiological consequences associated with neuroinflammation. Along with astroglia, microglia play an important role in the neuroinflammatory response. Using a SILAC-labeled rat microglial cell line, an expression profile of 2994 proteins was identified in ethanol-treated microglial cells, where 160 and 69 protein groups were determined to be significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively. In addition, SILAC-based proteomic analysis of lipopolysaccharide-treated microglial cells was performed in order to generate a reference data set representing a "classical" (M1) macrophage activation response in order to compare to the differential protein expression profile of ethanol-treated microglia. On the basis of this comparison as well as other validation experiments performed in this study, ethanol appears to induce partial activation of microglia that is devoid of conventional markers that indicate an M1 phenotype. This study is the first comprehensive proteomic analysis to assess the impact of acute ethanol exposure on microglial function and will provide a significant foundation that includes novel protein markers for future work aimed to characterize the molecular mechanisms associated with ethanol-induced microglial activation and its role in neurodegeneration. 10.1021/pr301038f
    Proteomic analysis identifies highly antigenic proteins in exosomes from M. tuberculosis-infected and culture filtrate protein-treated macrophages. Giri Pramod K,Kruh Nicole A,Dobos Karen M,Schorey Jeff S Proteomics Exosomes are small 30-100 nm membrane vesicles released from hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells and function to promote intercellular communication. They are generated through fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane and release of interluminal vesicles. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that macrophages infected with Mycobacterium release exosomes that promote activation of both innate and acquired immune responses; however, the components present in exosomes inducing these host responses were not defined. This study used LC-MS/MS to identify 41 mycobacterial proteins present in exosomes released from M. tuberculosis-infected J774 cells. Many of these proteins have been characterized as highly immunogenic. Further, since most of the mycobacterial proteins identified are actively secreted, we hypothesized that macrophages treated with M. tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins (CFPs) would release exosomes containing mycobacterial proteins. We found 29 M. tuberculosis proteins in exosomes released from CFP-treated J774 cells, the majority of which were also present in exosomes isolated from M. tuberculosis-infected cells. The exosomes from CFP-treated J774 cells could promote macrophage and dendritic cell activation as well as activation of naïve T cells in vivo. These results suggest that exosomes containing M. tuberculosis antigens may be alternative approach to developing a tuberculosis vaccine. 10.1002/pmic.200900840
    Cortisol is a potent modulator of lipopolysaccharide-induced interferon signaling in macrophages. Billing Anja M,Fack Fred,Turner Jonathan D,Muller Claude P Innate immunity The effects of cortisol (CORT) on resting and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were investigated by proteomics. Forty-seven proteins were found to be modulated, 20 by CORT, 11 by LPS, and 16 by CORT and LPS. Cortisol-sensitive chaperones and cytoskeletal proteins were mostly repressed. HCLS1, MGN, and MX1 were new proteins identified to be under the transcriptional control of this steroid and new CORT-sensitive variants of MX1, SYWC and IFIT3 were found. FKBP51, a known CORT target gene, showed the strongest response to CORT and synergism with LPS. In resting THP-1 macrophages, 18 proteins were modulated by CORT, with 15 being down-regulated. Activation of macrophages by LPS was associated with enhanced expression of immune response and metabolic proteins. In activated macrophages, CORT had a more equilibrated effect and almost all metabolism-related proteins were up-regulated, whereas immune response proteins were mostly down-regulated. The majority of the LPS up-regulated immune response-related proteins are known interferon (IFN) target genes (IFIT3, MX1, SYWC, PSME2) suggesting activation of the IRF3 signaling pathway. They were all suppressed by CORT. This is the first proteomics study to investigate the effects of CORT on activated immune cells. 10.1177/1753425910369269
    An Integrated Proteomics and Bioinformatics Approach Reveals the Anti-inflammatory Mechanism of Carnosic Acid. Wang Li-Chao,Wei Wen-Hui,Zhang Xiao-Wen,Liu Dan,Zeng Ke-Wu,Tu Peng-Fei Frontiers in pharmacology Drastic macrophages activation triggered by exogenous infection or endogenous stresses is thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. Carnosic acid (CA), a natural phenolic diterpene extracted from plant, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, its role in macrophages activation as well as potential molecular mechanism is largely unexplored. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the anti-inflammatory property of CA using an integrated approach based on unbiased proteomics and bioinformatics analysis. CA significantly inhibited the robust increase of nitric oxide and TNF-α, downregulated COX2 protein expression, and lowered the transcriptional level of inflammatory genes including , , 2, and 1 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, a murine model of peritoneal macrophage cell line. The LC-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomics analysis showed CA negatively regulated 217 LPS-elicited proteins which were involved in multiple inflammatory processes including MAPK, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and FoxO signaling pathways. A further molecular biology analysis revealed that CA effectually inactivated IKKβ/IκB-α/NF-κB, ERK/JNK/p38 MAPKs, and FoxO1/3 signaling pathways. Collectively, our findings demonstrated the role of CA in regulating inflammation response and provide some insights into the proteomics-guided pharmacological mechanism study of natural products. 10.3389/fphar.2018.00370
    iTRAQ-based secretome reveals that SiO induces the polarization of RAW264.7 macrophages by activation of the NOD-RIP2-NF-κB signaling pathway. Fu Rong,Li Qian,Fan Rong,Zhou Qinye,Jin Xiaohan,Cao Jin,Wang Jiabao,Ma Yongqiang,Yi Tailong,Zhou Maobin,Yao Sanqiao,Gao Hongsheng,Xu Zhongwei,Yang Zhen Environmental toxicology and pharmacology Silicosis is characterized by inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis due to long-term inhalation of crystalline silica (SiO). To clarify the role of macrophage polarization in the inflammatory response of silicosis, we used iTRAQ-coupled 2D LC-MS/MS to study the change in the secretome in RAW264.7 macrophages. We successfully screened 330 differentially expressed proteins, including 120 proteins with upregulated expression and 210 proteins with down-regulated expression (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in biological processes, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and acute inflammatory response. In particular, the expression levels of mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins, such as AKT1, BAX, HSPD1, TNF, CASP8 and DAP, were increased after SiO exposure. Taken together, our study indicated that SiO could induce macrophage polarization by activation of the NOD-RIP2-NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW264.7 macrophages. This may represent a potential mechanism in the development of silicosis. 10.1016/j.etap.2018.08.010
    Activation of Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils by Cytokines in a Comparative Time-Course Proteomic/Phosphoproteomic Study. Soman Kizhake V,Stafford Susan J,Pazdrak Konrad,Wu Zheng,Luo Xuemei,White Wendy I,Wiktorowicz John E,Calhoun William J,Kurosky Alexander Journal of proteome research Activated eosinophils contribute to airway dysfunction and tissue remodeling in asthma and thus are considered to be important factors in asthma pathology. We report here comparative proteomic and phosphoproteomic changes upon activation of eosinophils using eight cytokines individually and in selected cytokine combinations in time-course reactions. Differential protein and phosphoprotein expressions were determined by mass spectrometry after 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) and by LC-MS/MS. We found that each cytokine-stimulation produced significantly different changes in the eosinophil proteome and phosphoproteome, with phosphoproteomic changes being more pronounced and having an earlier onset. Furthermore, we observed that IL-5, GM-CSF, and IL-3 showed the greatest change in protein expression and phosphorylation, and this expression differed markedly from those of the other five cytokines evaluated. Comprehensive univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to evaluate the comparative results. We also monitored eosinophil activation using flow cytometry (FC) analysis of CD69. In agreement with our proteomic studies, FC indicated that IL-5, GM-CSF, and IL-3 were more effective than the other five cytokines studied in stimulating a cell surface CD69 increase indicative of eosinophil activation. Moreover, selected combinations of cytokines revealed proteomic patterns with many proteins in common with single cytokine expression patterns but also showed a greater effect of the two cytokines employed, indicating a more complex signaling pathway that was reflective of a more typical inflammatory pathology. 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00367
    Notch signaling regulates the phosphorylation of Akt and survival of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages via regulator of G protein signaling 19 (RGS19). Sangphech Naunpun,Osborne Barbara A,Palaga Tanapat Immunobiology Macrophages play critical roles in innate immune defense by sensing microbes using pattern-recognition receptors. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages via TLR, which leads to activation of downstream signaling cascades. In this study, we investigated the roles of a conserved signaling pathway, Notch signaling, in regulating the downstream signaling cascades of the LPS/TLR4 pathways in macrophages. Using a phospho-proteomic approach and a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to suppress the processing and activation of Notch signaling, we identified regulator of G protein signaling 19 (RGS19) as a target protein whose phosphorylation was affected by GSI treatment. RGS19 is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein that functions to negatively regulate G protein-coupled receptors via Gαi/Gαq-linked signaling. Stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with LPS increased the level of the phosphorylated form of RGS19, while LPS stimulation in the presence of GSI decreased its level. GSI treatment did not alter the mRNA level of rgs19. Treatment with GSI or silencing of rgs19 in macrophages impaired the phosphorylation of Akt Thr(308) upon LPS stimulation. Furthermore, targeted deletion of a DNA-binding protein and binding partner of the Notch receptor, RBP-Jκ/CSL, in macrophages resulted in delayed and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Because the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates cell survival in various cell types, the cell cycle and cell death were assayed upon GSI treatment, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor treatment or silencing of rgs19. GSI treatment resulted in decreased cell populations in the G1 and S phases, while it increased the cell population of cell death. Similarly, silencing of rgs19 resulted in a decreased cell population in the G1 phase and an increased cell population in the subG1 phase. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by PI3K inhibitor in LPS-stimulated macrophages increased cell population in G1 phase, suggesting a possible cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these results indicate that Notch signaling positively regulates phosphorylation of Akt, possibly via phosphorylation of RGS19, and inhibition of both molecules affects the cell survival and cell cycle of macrophages upon LPS stimulation. 10.1016/j.imbio.2014.03.020
    Proteomics Reveals a Role for Attachment in Monocyte Differentiation into Efficient Proinflammatory Macrophages. Tarasova Nataliya K,Ytterberg A Jimmy,Lundberg Karin,Zhang Xing-Mei,Harris Robert A,Zubarev Roman A Journal of proteome research Monocytes are blood-borne cells of the innate immune system. They can be differentiated and activated into proinflammatory macrophages that might be employed in tumor immune therapy. Monocyte exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a standard method to induce a proinflammatory macrophage state, with the resultant population comprising both adherent and nonadherent cells. In the current study, we aimed to identify the differences in proteomes of these monocyte subpopulations, which addresses a more general question about the role of attachment in monocyte differentiation. Label-free proteomics of a model of human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) revealed that the cells remaining in suspension upon LPS treatment were activated by cytokines and primed for rapid responsiveness to pathogens. In terms of proteome change, the adhesion process was orthogonal to activation. Adherent cells exhibited signs of differentiation and enhanced innate immune responsivity, being closer to macrophages. These findings indicate that adherent, LPS-treated cells would be more appropriate for use in tumor therapeutic applications. 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00659
    Quantitative proteomic analysis of LPS-induced differential immune response associated with TLR4 Polymorphisms by multiplex amino acid coded mass tagging. Gu Sheng,Wang Tianyi,Chen Xian Proteomics Polymorphisms at toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene have been found to be associated with immune disorders. A murine macrophage cell line GG2EE derived from C3H/HeJ mice with a polymorphism site at TLR4 is hyposensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To study the molecular base of diverse TLR4-mediated immune responses, the proteomic changes in both TLR4-deficient and wild-type cell lines in response to the same LPS challenge were quantitatively compared by using multiplex amino acid coded mass tagging (AACT)/SILAC-assisted MS. This strategy allows encoding of two distinct cell populations with different stable isotope-tagged lysine residues as the "in-spectra" quantitative markers. In MS analysis of tryptic peptides derived from the equally mixed three cell populations, the lysine-containing peptides originated from two LPS-stimulated cell populations can be clearly distinguished by their different mass shifts from the unstimulated and unlabeled counterpart. The LPS-induced differential protein expression in TLR4-deficient and wild-type proteomes were obtained by comparing the intensities of isotopically encoded peptides. Among the more than 900 proteins identified, 35 were found to be deregulated at different levels in these two cell lines stimulated by LPS. This multiplex mass-tagging methodology can be readily extended to other comparative proteomic quantitation of different cell populations. 10.1002/pmic.200700715
    Proteomic analysis of macrophages: a potential way to identify novel proteins associated with activation of macrophages for tumor cell killing. Zhang Lingbing,Zhu Haoxuan,Lun Yanni,Yan Dongmei,Yu Leyang,Du Bairong,Zhu Xun Cellular & molecular immunology One major mechanism through which macrophages effectively kill tumor cells requires cell to cell contact, indicating that certain molecules expressed on cell surface of activated macrophages may mediate the tumoricidal capability. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO) are the two classical mediators of tumor cell death. However, evidence of discrepancy is accumulating indicating these known mediators do not appear to account for the broad and potent tumoricidal activity of macrophages. To obtain a full repertoire of tumoricidal activation-associated membrane proteins, we combined one-dimensional SDS-PAGE with capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using this technique, we identified 454 activated macrophage specifically expressed proteins with extremely high confidence, including most known activation markers of macrophages, such as NO synthase (iNOS), Ym1, cyclooxygenase, etc. Membrane bound TNF-alpha was also identified on activated macrophages. However, it was also detected on thioglycolate elicited macrophages, indicating this molecule may not play a key role in conjugation-dependent tumor cell killing. In contrast, although NO has not been assigned as an effector molecule of conjugation-dependent tumoricidal pathway, iNOS was identified from membrane fraction of activated macrophages, suggesting NO may be involved in conjugation-dependent tumoricidal mechanism, because iNOS association with plasma membrane is ideally suited to deliver NO directly into the contacted tumor cells. This research provides not only new insights into macrophage conjugation-dependent tumoricidal mechanisms, but also a valuable data set of macrophage activation associated membrane proteins, thus providing better understanding of the functional mechanisms of macrophages in anti-tumor and other biological processes.
    Defining the Innate Immune Responses for SARS-CoV-2-Human Macrophage Interactions. Abdelmoaty Mai M,Yeapuri Pravin,Machhi Jatin,Olson Katherine E,Shahjin Farah,Kumar Vikas,Zhou You,Liang Jingjing,Pandey Kabita,Acharya Arpan,Byrareddy Siddappa N,Mosley R Lee,Gendelman Howard E Frontiers in immunology Host innate immune response follows severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and it is the driver of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) amongst other inflammatory end-organ morbidities. Such life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is heralded by virus-induced activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs; monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells). MPs play substantial roles in aberrant immune secretory activities affecting profound systemic inflammation and end-organ malfunctions. All follow the presence of persistent viral components and virions without evidence of viral replication. To elucidate SARS-CoV-2-MP interactions we investigated transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of human monocyte-derived macrophages. While expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, paralleled monocyte-macrophage differentiation, it failed to affect productive viral infection. In contrast, simple macrophage viral exposure led to robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression but attenuated type I interferon (IFN) activity. Both paralleled dysregulation of innate immune signaling pathways, specifically those linked to IFN. We conclude that the SARS-CoV-2-infected host mounts a robust innate immune response characterized by a pro-inflammatory storm heralding end-organ tissue damage. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.741502
    Host-pathogen dynamics through targeted secretome analysis of stimulated macrophages. Khan Mohd M,Koppenol-Raab Marijke,Kuriakose Minna,Manes Nathan P,Goodlett David R,Nita-Lazar Aleksandra Journal of proteomics The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) facilitate an organism's first line of defense against interlopers and shape the overall innate immune response through sensing and sampling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is the prototypic PRR family. Upon recognition of PAMPs, TLRs promote MyD88 dependent and independent responses. Understanding how different PAMPs are recognized by their specific TLRs and how pathogen recognition initiates immune activation is an intense area of research. Previously, we have reported the discovery of the temporal changes in signaling cascades of macrophage proteome and secretome post-stimulation with three different PAMPs. To extend our global proteomics approach to targeted protein abundance quantification, we describe the macrophage secretome targeted proteomics assay. We chose three different pathogens that specifically stimulate diverse TLRs (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR7). Using a simple targeted proteomics approach, combining data-dependent acquisition with an inclusion list, an array of cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors can be profiled for their secretome abundance. This strategy facilitates the profiling and validation of pathogen-specific temporal changes in the macrophage secretome. 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.03.016
    Comprehensive proteome analysis of lysosomes reveals the diverse function of macrophages in immune responses. Gao Yanpan,Chen Yanyu,Zhan Shaohua,Zhang Wenhao,Xiong Feng,Ge Wei Oncotarget Phagocytosis and autophagy in macrophages have been shown to be essential to both innate and adaptive immunity. Lysosomes are the main catabolic subcellular organelles responsible for degradation and recycling of both extracellular and intracellular material, which are the final steps in phagocytosis and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lysosomal functions after infection remain obscure. In this study, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of the changes in constitution and glycosylation of proteins in lysosomes derived from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells treated with different types of pathogens comprising examples of bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, L. m), DNA viruses (herpes simplex virus type-1, HSV-1) and RNA viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV). In total, 3,704 lysosome-related proteins and 300 potential glycosylation sites on 193 proteins were identified. Comparative analysis showed that the aforementioned pathogens induced distinct alterations in the proteome of the lysosome, which is closely associated with the immune functions of macrophages, such as toll-like receptor activation, inflammation and antigen-presentation. The most significant changes in proteins and fluctuations in glycosylation were also determined. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that the changes in expression of these proteins were undetectable at the whole cell level. Thus, our study provides unique insights into the function of lysosomes in macrophage activation and immune responses. 10.18632/oncotarget.14558
    Identification of Novel Natural Substrates of Fibroblast Activation Protein-alpha by Differential Degradomics and Proteomics. Zhang Hui Emma,Hamson Elizabeth J,Koczorowska Maria Magdalena,Tholen Stefan,Chowdhury Sumaiya,Bailey Charles G,Lay Angelina J,Twigg Stephen M,Lee Quintin,Roediger Ben,Biniossek Martin L,O'Rourke Matthew B,McCaughan Geoffrey W,Keane Fiona M,Schilling Oliver,Gorrell Mark D Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) is a cell-surface transmembrane-anchored dimeric protease. This unique, constitutively active serine protease has both dipeptidyl aminopeptidase and endopeptidase activities and can hydrolyze the post-proline bond. FAP expression is very low in adult organs but is upregulated by activated fibroblasts in sites of tissue remodeling, including fibrosis, atherosclerosis, arthritis and tumors. To identify the endogenous substrates of FAP, we immortalized primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from FAP gene knockout embryos and then stably transduced them to express either enzymatically active or inactive FAP. The MEF secretomes were then analyzed using degradomic and proteomic techniques. Terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS)-based degradomics identified cleavage sites in collagens, many other extracellular matrix (ECM) and associated proteins, and lysyl oxidase-like-1, CXCL-5, CSF-1, and C1qT6, that were confirmed In addition, differential metabolic labeling coupled with quantitative proteomic analysis also implicated FAP in ECM-cell interactions, as well as with coagulation, metabolism and wound healing associated proteins. Plasma from FAP-deficient mice exhibited slower than wild-type clotting times. This study provides a significant expansion of the substrate repertoire of FAP and provides insight into the physiological and potential pathological roles of this enigmatic protease. 10.1074/mcp.RA118.001046
    Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Polarized Human THP-1 and Mouse RAW264.7 Macrophages. Li Pengfei,Hao Zhifang,Wu Jingyu,Ma Chen,Xu Yintai,Li Jun,Lan Rongxia,Zhu Bojing,Ren Pengyu,Fan Daidi,Sun Shisheng Frontiers in immunology Macrophages can be polarized into classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) in the immune system, performing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions, respectively. Human THP-1 and mouse RAW264.7 cell line models have been widely used in various macrophage-associated studies, while the similarities and differences in protein expression profiles between the two macrophage models are still largely unclear. In this study, the protein expression profiles of M1 and M2 phenotypes from both THP-1 and RAW264.7 macrophages were systematically investigated using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. By quantitatively analyzing more than 5,000 proteins among different types of macrophages (M0, M1 and M2) from both cell lines, we identified a list of proteins that were uniquely up-regulated in each macrophage type and further confirmed 43 proteins that were commonly up-regulated in M1 macrophages of both cell lines. These results revealed considerable divergences of each polarization type between THP-1 and RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of CMPK2, RSAD2, DDX58, and DHX58 were strongly up-regulated in M1 macrophages for both macrophage models. These data can serve as important resources for further studies of macrophage-associated diseases in experimental pathology using human and mouse cell line models. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.700009
    Precision N-Glycoproteomic Profiling of Murine Peritoneal Macrophages After Different Stimulations. Yang Lujie,Gong Tianqi,Shen Huali,Pei Jiangnan,Zhang Lei,Zhang Quanqing,Huang Yuanyu,Hu Zuojian,Pan Ziyue,Yang Pengyuan,Lin Ling,Yu Hongxiu Frontiers in immunology Macrophages are important immune cells that participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses, such as phagocytosis, recognition of molecular patterns, and activation of the immune response. In this study, murine peritoneal macrophages were isolated and then activated by LPS, HSV and VSV. Integrative proteomic and precision N-glycoproteomic profiling were conducted to assess the underlying macrophage activation. We identified a total of 587 glycoproteins, including 1239 glycopeptides, 526 monosaccharide components, and 8326 intact glycopeptides in glycoproteomics, as well as a total of 4496 proteins identified in proteomic analysis. These glycoproteins are widely involved in important biological processes, such as antigen presentation, cytokine production and glycosylation progression. Under the stimulation of the different pathogens, glycoproteins showed a dramatic change. We found that receptors in the Toll-like receptor pathway, such as Tlr2 and CD14, were increased under LPS and HSV stimulation. Glycosylation of those proteins was proven to influence their subcellular locations. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.722293
    Immune induction identified by TMT proteomics analysis in autoinducer-2 treated macrophages. Wu Jiao,Wang Yunpeng,Jiang Zheng Expert review of proteomics : The immune-inducing effect of the quorum sensing (QS) molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) on macrophages has not been previously comprehensively studied.: We performed proteomic analysis on macrophages cocultured with purified () AI-2 and performed western blot analysis to verify the differential protein expression. We further used the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource databases to analyze the expression of differentially expressed proteins in microbial-associated digestive tract tumors.: Based on proteomic analysis, we identified 46 upregulated proteins and 11 downregulated proteins. The upregulated proteins were mostly inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 9 (TNFSF9). These proteins have a range of biological functions associated with the regulation of inflammatory responses, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. TNFSF9 is highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) tissues and is associated with M1 polarization of macrophages.: Our data indicated that AI-2 induced inflammatory responses and activated multiple signaling pathways in macrophages. TNFSF9 is the most significantly differentially expressed protein induced by AI-2 and is involved in regulating immune cell infiltration in PAAD. Thus, AI-2 may become a new focus for studying the relationship between bacteria and cancer. 10.1080/14789450.2020.1738223
    Proteomic Analysis of Human Macrophage Polarization Under a Low Oxygen Environment. Court Magali,Malier Marie,Millet Arnaud Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Macrophages are innate immune cells involved in a number of physiological functions ranging from responses to infectious pathogens to tissue homeostasis. The various functions of these cells are related to their activation states, which is also called polarization. The precise molecular description of these various polarizations is a priority in the field of macrophage biology. It is currently acknowledged that a multidimensional approach is necessary to describe how polarization is controlled by environmental signals. In this report, we describe a protocol designed to obtain the proteomic signature of various polarizations in human macrophages. This protocol is based on a label-free quantification of macrophage protein expression obtained from in-gel fractionated and Lys C/trypsin-digested cellular lysis content. We also provide a protocol based on in-solution digestion and isoelectric focusing fractionation to use as an alternative. Because oxygen concentration is a relevant environmental parameter in tissues, we use this protocol to explore how atmospheric composition or a low oxygen environment affects the classification of macrophage polarization. 10.3791/58727
    Single-cell proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of macrophage heterogeneity using SCoPE2. Specht Harrison,Emmott Edward,Petelski Aleksandra A,Huffman R Gray,Perlman David H,Serra Marco,Kharchenko Peter,Koller Antonius,Slavov Nikolai Genome biology BACKGROUND:Macrophages are innate immune cells with diverse functional and molecular phenotypes. This diversity is largely unexplored at the level of single-cell proteomes because of the limitations of quantitative single-cell protein analysis. RESULTS:To overcome this limitation, we develop SCoPE2, which substantially increases quantitative accuracy and throughput while lowering cost and hands-on time by introducing automated and miniaturized sample preparation. These advances enable us to analyze the emergence of cellular heterogeneity as homogeneous monocytes differentiate into macrophage-like cells in the absence of polarizing cytokines. SCoPE2 quantifies over 3042 proteins in 1490 single monocytes and macrophages in 10 days of instrument time, and the quantified proteins allow us to discern single cells by cell type. Furthermore, the data uncover a continuous gradient of proteome states for the macrophages, suggesting that macrophage heterogeneity may emerge in the absence of polarizing cytokines. Parallel measurements of transcripts by 10× Genomics suggest that our measurements sample 20-fold more protein copies than RNA copies per gene, and thus, SCoPE2 supports quantification with improved count statistics. This allowed exploring regulatory interactions, such as interactions between the tumor suppressor p53, its transcript, and the transcripts of genes regulated by p53. CONCLUSIONS:Even in a homogeneous environment, macrophage proteomes are heterogeneous. This heterogeneity correlates to the inflammatory axis of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Our methodology lays the foundation for automated and quantitative single-cell analysis of proteins by mass spectrometry and demonstrates the potential for inferring transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation from variability across single cells. 10.1186/s13059-021-02267-5
    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 alleviates steatosis and macrophage activation in murine alcoholic liver injury. Ambade Aditya,Catalano Donna,Lim Arlene,Kopoyan Andre,Shaffer Scott A,Mandrekar Pranoti Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is an emerging therapeutic target in chronic liver diseases. Hsp90 plays an important role in liver immune cell activation; however its role in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains elusive. Here we hypothesize that hsp90 is crucial in alcohol induced steatosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To test this hypothesis, we employed a pharmacological inhibitor of hsp90, 17-DMAG (17-Dimethylamino-ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) in an in vivo mouse model of acute and chronic alcoholic liver injury. METHODS:C57BL/6 mice were given either a single dose of ethanol via oral gavage (acute) or chronically fed alcohol for 2 weeks followed by oral gavage (chronic-binge). 17-DMAG was administered during or at the end of feeding. Liver injury parameters, inflammatory cytokines and lipid metabolism genes were analysed. RESULTS:Our results reveal increased expression of hsp90 in human and mouse alcoholic livers. In vivo inhibition of hsp90, using 17-DMAG, not only prevented but also alleviated alcoholic liver injury, determined by lower serum ALT, AST and reduced hepatic triglycerides. Mechanistic analysis showed that 17-DMAG decreased alcohol mediated oxidative stress, reduced serum endotoxin, decreased inflammatory cells, and diminished sensitization of liver macrophages to LPS, resulting in downregulation of CD14, NFκB inhibition, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Hsp90 inhibition decreased fatty acid synthesis genes via reduced nuclear SREBP-1 and favoured fatty acid oxidation genes via PPARα. CONCLUSIONS:Inhibition of hsp90 decreased alcohol induced steatosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited alcoholic liver injury. Hsp90 is therefore relevant in human alcoholic cirrhosis and a promising therapeutic target in ALD. 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.05.024
    Macrophage Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals MINCLE-dependent and -independent Mycobacterial Cord Factor Signaling. Hansen Madlen,Peltier Julian,Killy Barbara,Amin Bushra,Bodendorfer Barbara,Härtlova Anetta,Uebel Sebastian,Bosmann Markus,Hofmann Jörg,Büttner Christian,Ekici Arif B,Kuttke Mario,Franzyk Henrik,Foged Camilla,Beer-Hammer Sandra,Schabbauer Gernot,Trost Matthias,Lang Roland Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Immune sensing of relies on recognition by macrophages. Mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), is the most abundant cell wall glycolipid and binds to the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) MINCLE. To explore the kinase signaling linking the TDM-MINCLE interaction to gene expression, we employed quantitative phosphoproteome analysis. TDM caused upregulation of 6.7% and suppressed 3.8% of the 14,000 phospho-sites identified on 3727 proteins. MINCLE-dependent phosphorylation was observed for canonical players of CLR signaling ( PLCγ, PKCδ), and was enriched for PKCδ and GSK3 kinase motifs. MINCLE-dependent activation of the PI3K-AKT-GSK3 pathway contributed to inflammatory gene expression and required the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α. Unexpectedly, a substantial fraction of TDM-induced phosphorylation was MINCLE-independent, a finding paralleled by transcriptome data. Bioinformatics analysis of both data sets concurred in the requirement for MINCLE for innate immune response pathways and processes. In contrast, MINCLE-independent phosphorylation and transcriptome responses were linked to cell cycle regulation. Collectively, our global analyses show substantial reprogramming of macrophages by TDM and reveal a dichotomy of MINCLE-dependent and -independent signaling linked to distinct biological responses. 10.1074/mcp.RA118.000929
    Proteomics Network Analysis of Polarized Macrophages. Chakrabarty Jayanta K,Kamal Abu Hena Mostafa,Shahinuzzaman A D A,Chowdhury Saiful M Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Macrophages play a critical role in innate immunity through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a ligand of microbial origin that can trigger cell signaling in macrophages through TLRs and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Statin, a hypercholesterolemia drug, on the contrary, can reduce inflammatory cytokine production, and inflammation at large. Discovery-based quantitative proteomics is a useful method for unraveling complex protein networks and inter-protein interactions. Here, we describe protocols for studying the inflammatory proteomics network in RAW 264.7 cells (a model murine macrophage cell line) with the singular or sequential treatment of LPS and statin. We provide detailed protocols, including a quantitative proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry data, a protein network analysis by bioinformatics, and a validation of target through biochemical methods (e.g., immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, gene silencing, and real-time PCR). 10.1007/978-1-0716-0802-9_5
    Proteomics to study macrophage response to viral infection. Nyman Tuula A,Matikainen Sampsa Journal of proteomics Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses. Macrophages and other host cells respond to viral infection by modulating their protein expression levels, proteins' posttranslational modifications, as well as proteins' intracellular localization and secretion. Therefore the detailed characterization how viruses dynamically manipulate host proteome is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral infection. It is critical to identify cellular host factors which are exploited by different viruses, and which are less prone for mutations and could serve as potential targets for novel antiviral compounds. Here, we review how proteomics studies have enhanced our understanding of macrophage response to viral infection with special focus on Influenza A and Human immunodeficiency viruses, and virus infections of swine. SIGNIFICANCE:Influenza A viruses (IAVs) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) infect annually millions of people worldwide and they form a severe threat to human health. Both IAVs and HIV-1 can efficiently antagonize host response and develop drug-resistant variants. Most current antiviral drugs are directed against viral proteins, and there is a constant need to develop new next-generation drugs targeting host proteins that are essential for viral replication. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are economically important swine pathogens. Both PRRSV and PCV2 cause severe respiratory tract illnesses in swine. IAVs, HIV-1, and swine viruses infect macrophages activating antiviral response against these viruses. Macrophages also have a central role in the replication and spread of these viruses. However, macrophage response to these viruses is incompletely understood. Current proteomics methods can provide a global view of host-response to viral infection which is needed for in-depth understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral infection. Here we review the current proteomics studies on macrophage response to viral infection and provide insight into the global host proteome changes upon viral infection. 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.06.018
    Proteomic analysis of microtubule-associated proteins during macrophage activation. Patel Prerna C,Fisher Katherine H,Yang Eric C C,Deane Charlotte M,Harrison Rene E Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Classical activation of macrophages induces a wide range of signaling and vesicle trafficking events to produce a more aggressive cellular phenotype. The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is crucial for the regulation of immune responses. In the current study, we used a large scale proteomics approach to analyze the change in protein composition of the MT-associated protein (MAP) network by macrophage stimulation with the inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma and the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. Overall the analysis identified 409 proteins that bound directly or indirectly to MTs. Of these, 52 were up-regulated 2-fold or greater and 42 were down-regulated 2-fold or greater after interferon-gamma/lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Bioinformatics analysis based on publicly available binary protein interaction data produced a putative interaction network of MAPs in activated macrophages. We confirmed the up-regulation of several MAPs by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis. More detailed analysis of one up-regulated protein revealed a role for HSP90beta in stabilization of the MT cytoskeleton during macrophage activation. 10.1074/mcp.M900190-MCP200
    Proteomic Signature Reveals Modulation of Human Macrophage Polarization and Functions Under Differing Environmental Oxygen Conditions. Court Magali,Petre Graciane,Atifi Michèle El,Millet Arnaud Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Macrophages are innate immune cells which can react to a large number of environmental stimuli thanks to a high degree of plasticity. These cells are involved in a variety of tissue functions in homeostasis, and they play essential roles in pathological contexts. Macrophages' activation state, which determines their functional orientation, is strongly influenced by the cellular environment. A large body of macrophage literature is devoted to better defining polarizations from a molecular viewpoint. It is now accepted that a multidimensional model of polarization is needed to grasp the broad phenotype repertoire controlled by environmental signals. The study presented here aimed, among other goals, to provide a molecular signature of various polarizations in human macrophages at the protein level to better define the different macrophage activation states. To study the proteome in human monocyte-derived macrophages as a function of their polarization state, we used a label-free quantification approach on in-gel fractionated and LysC/Trypsin digested proteins. In total, 5102 proteins were identified and quantified for all polarization states. New polarization-specific markers were identified and validated. Because oxygen tension is an important environmental parameter in tissues, we explored how environmental oxygen tension, at either atmospheric composition (18.6% O) or "tissue normoxia" (3% O), affected our classification of macrophage polarization. The comparative results revealed new polarization-specific makers which suggest that environmental oxygen levels should be taken into account when characterizing macrophage activation states. The proteomic screen revealed various polarization-specific proteins and oxygen sensors in human macrophages. One example is arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15), an IL4/IL13 polarization-specific protein, which was upregulated under low oxygen conditions and is associated with an increase in the rate of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. These results illustrate the need to consider physicochemical parameters like oxygen level when studying macrophage polarization, so as to correctly assess their functions in tissue. 10.1074/mcp.RA117.000082
    Model-driven multi-omic data analysis elucidates metabolic immunomodulators of macrophage activation. Bordbar Aarash,Mo Monica L,Nakayasu Ernesto S,Schrimpe-Rutledge Alexandra C,Kim Young-Mo,Metz Thomas O,Jones Marcus B,Frank Bryan C,Smith Richard D,Peterson Scott N,Hyduke Daniel R,Adkins Joshua N,Palsson Bernhard O Molecular systems biology Macrophages are central players in immune response, manifesting divergent phenotypes to control inflammation and innate immunity through release of cytokines and other signaling factors. Recently, the focus on metabolism has been reemphasized as critical signaling and regulatory pathways of human pathophysiology, ranging from cancer to aging, often converge on metabolic responses. Here, we used genome-scale modeling and multi-omics (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) analysis to assess metabolic features that are critical for macrophage activation. We constructed a genome-scale metabolic network for the RAW 264.7 cell line to determine metabolic modulators of activation. Metabolites well-known to be associated with immunoactivation (glucose and arginine) and immunosuppression (tryptophan and vitamin D3) were among the most critical effectors. Intracellular metabolic mechanisms were assessed, identifying a suppressive role for de-novo nucleotide synthesis. Finally, underlying metabolic mechanisms of macrophage activation are identified by analyzing multi-omic data obtained from LPS-stimulated RAW cells in the context of our flux-based predictions. Our study demonstrates metabolism's role in regulating activation may be greater than previously anticipated and elucidates underlying connections between activation and metabolic effectors. 10.1038/msb.2012.21
    Rapid temporal dynamics of transcription, protein synthesis, and secretion during macrophage activation. Eichelbaum Katrin,Krijgsveld Jeroen Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Macrophages provide the first line of host defense with their capacity to react to an array of cytokines and bacterial components requiring tight regulation of protein expression and secretion to invoke a properly tuned innate immune response. To capture the dynamics of this system, we introduce a novel method combining pulsed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with pulse labeling using the methionine analog azidohomoalanine that allows the enrichment of newly synthesized proteins via click-chemistry followed by their identification and quantification by mass spectrometry. We show that this permits the analysis of proteome changes on a rapid time scale, as evidenced by the detection of 4852 newly synthesized proteins after only a 20-min SILAC pulse. We have applied this methodology to study proteome response during macrophage activation in a time-course manner. We have combined this with full proteome, transcriptome, and secretome analyses, producing an integrative analysis of the first 3 h of lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation. We observed the rapid induction of multiple processes well known to TLR4 signaling, as well as anti-inflammatory proteins and proteins not previously associated with immune response. By correlating transcriptional, translational, and secretory events, we derived novel mechanistic principles of processes specifically induced by lipopolysaccharides, including ectodomain shedding and proteolytic processing of transmembrane and extracellular proteins and protein secretion independent of transcription. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the combination of pulsed azidohomoalanine and pulsed SILAC permits the detailed characterization of proteomic events on a rapid time scale. We anticipate that this approach will be very useful in probing the immediate effects of cellular stimuli and will provide mechanistic insight into cellular perturbation in multiple biological systems. The data have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000600. 10.1074/mcp.M113.030916
    Context-enriched interactome powered by proteomics helps the identification of novel regulators of macrophage activation. Halu Arda,Wang Jian-Guo,Iwata Hiroshi,Mojcher Alexander,Abib Ana Luisa,Singh Sasha A,Aikawa Masanori,Sharma Amitabh eLife The role of pro-inflammatory macrophage activation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complex one amenable to network approaches. While an indispensible tool for elucidating the molecular underpinnings of complex diseases including CVD, the interactome is limited in its utility as it is not specific to any cell type, experimental condition or disease state. We introduced context-specificity to the interactome by combining it with co-abundance networks derived from unbiased proteomics measurements from activated macrophage-like cells. Each macrophage phenotype contributed to certain regions of the interactome. Using a network proximity-based prioritization method on the combined network, we predicted potential regulators of macrophage activation. Prediction performance significantly increased with the addition of co-abundance edges, and the prioritized candidates captured inflammation, immunity and CVD signatures. Integrating the novel network topology with transcriptomics and proteomics revealed top candidate drivers of inflammation. In vitro loss-of-function experiments demonstrated the regulatory role of these proteins in pro-inflammatory signaling. 10.7554/eLife.37059
    Quantitative proteomics analysis of macrophage rafts reveals compartmentalized activation of the proteasome and of proteasome-mediated ERK activation in response to lipopolysaccharide. Dhungana Suraj,Merrick B Alex,Tomer Kenneth B,Fessler Michael B Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a potent initiator of the innate immune response of the macrophage. LPS triggers downstream signaling by selectively recruiting and activating proteins in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains called lipid rafts. We applied proteomics analysis to macrophage detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) during an LPS exposure time course in an effort to identify and validate novel events occurring in macrophage rafts. Following metabolic incorporation in cell culture of heavy isotopes of amino acids arginine and lysine ([(13)C(6)]Arg and [(13)C(6)]Lys) or their light counterparts, a SILAC (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture)-based quantitative, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics approach was used to profile LPS-induced changes in the lipid raft proteome of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Unsupervised network analysis of the proteomics data set revealed a marked representation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system as well as changes in proteasome subunit composition following LPS challenge. Functional analysis of DRMs confirmed that LPS causes selective activation of the proteasome in macrophage rafts and proteasome inactivation outside of rafts. Given previous reports of an essential role for proteasomal degradation of IkappaB kinase-phosphorylated p105 in LPS activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase, we tested for a role of rafts in compartmentalization of these events. Immunoblotting of DRMs revealed proteasome-dependent activation of MEK and ERK specifically occurring in lipid rafts as well as proteasomal activity upon raft-localized p105 that was enhanced by LPS. Cholesterol extraction from the intact macrophage with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin was sufficient to activate ERK, recapitulating the LPS-IkappaB kinase-p105-MEK-ERK cascade, whereas both it and the alternate raft-disrupting agent nystatin blocked subsequent LPS activation of the ERK cascade. Taken together, our findings indicate a critical, selective role for raft compartmentalization and regulation of proteasome activity in activation of the MEK-ERK pathway. 10.1074/mcp.M800286-MCP200