Molecular Mechanism Involved in the Pathogenesis of Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy.
Vitaliti Giovanna,Pavone Piero,Marino Silvia,Saporito Marco Andrea Nicola,Corsello Giovanni,Falsaperla Raffaele
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience
Recent studies have shown that neurologic inflammation may both precipitate and sustain seizures, suggesting that inflammation may be involved not only in epileptogenesis but also in determining the drug-resistant profile. Extensive literature data during these last years have identified a number of inflammatory markers involved in these processes of "neuroimmunoinflammation" in epilepsy, with key roles for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as: IL-6, IL-17 and IL-17 Receptor (IL-17R) axis, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and Transforming-Growth-Factor Beta (TGF-β), all responsible for the induction of processes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and inflammation of the Central Nervous System (CNS) itself. Nevertheless, many of these inflammatory biomarkers have also been implicated in the pathophysiologic process of other neurological diseases. Future studies will be needed to identify the disease-specific biomarkers in order to distinguish epilepsies from other neurological diseases, as well as recognize different epileptic semiology. In this context, biological markers of BBB disruption, as well as those reflecting its integrity, can be useful tools to determine the pathological process of a variety of neurological diseases. However; how these molecules may help in the diagnosis and prognostication of epileptic disorders remains yet to be determined. Herein, authors present an extensive literature review on the involvement of both, systemic and neuronal immune systems, in the early onset of epileptic encephalopathy.
Regulation of Synaptosomal GLT-1 and GLAST during Epileptogenesis.
Peterson Allison R,Binder Devin K
Astrocytes regulate extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the central nervous system through the Na-dependent glutamate transporters glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Impaired astrocyte glutamate uptake could contribute to the development of epilepsy but the regulation of glutamate transporters in epilepsy is not well understood. In this study, we investigate the expression of GLT-1 and GLAST in the mouse intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We used immunohistochemistry, synaptosomal fractionation and Western blot analysis at 1, 3, 7 and 30 days post-IHKA induced status epilepticus (SE) to examine changes in GLT-1 and GLAST immunoreactivity and synaptosomal expression during the development of epilepsy. We found a significant upregulation in GLT-1 immunoreactivity at 1 and 3 days post-IHKA in the ipsilateral dorsal hippocampus. However, GLT-1 immunoreactivity and synaptosomal protein levels were significantly downregulated at 7 days post-IHKA in the ipsilateral hippocampus, a time point corresponding to the onset of spontaneous seizures in this model. GLAST immunoreactivity was increased in specific layers at 1 and 3 days post-IHKA in the ipsilateral hippocampus. GLAST synaptosomal protein levels were significantly elevated at 30 days compared to 7 days post-IHKA in the ipsilateral hippocampus. Our findings suggest that astrocytic glutamate transporter dysregulation could contribute to the development of epilepsy.
MicroRNAs as biomarkers and treatment targets in status epilepticus.
Brindley Elizabeth,Hill Thomas D M,Henshall David C
Epilepsy & behavior : E&B
Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are short noncoding ribonucleic acids (RNAs) that have been proposed as potential biomarkers for epilepsy, acute seizures, and status epilepticus. Various properties support their potential in this regard, including relative stability and amenability to rapid quantitation in biofluids. Several miRNAs are enriched in the brain and within specific cell types. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been reported in brain regions damaged by status epilepticus and in resected brain tissue from patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Silencing miRNAs using antisense-like oligonucleotides termed antagomirs has been reported to suppress evoked and spontaneous seizures in animal models, indicating therapeutic applications. The prospect of miRNAs as mechanistic biomarkers is supported by recent studies showing blood levels of brain-enriched miRNAs increase after status epilepticus in rodents, and clinical studies have identified miRNAs upregulated in human cerebrospinal fluid after status epilepticus. It remains unproven, however, whether there are miRNAs that uniquely identify acute seizures, chronic epilepsy, or the process of epileptogenesis. Finally, efforts have turned to the challenge of proving that some of the circulating miRNAs actually originate from the brain. New models that feature a biochemically-labeled protein involved in miRNA function and restricted to specific brain cell types offer opportunities to resolve this issue. This review summarizes recent progress on miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers of status epilepticus and considers some of the unanswered questions and future directions. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures.
Altered expression of signaling pathways regulating neuronal excitability in hippocampal tissue of temporal lobe epilepsy patients with low and high seizure frequency.
Hammer Michael F,Sprissler Ryan,Bina Robert W,Lau Branden,Johnstone Laurel,Walter Christina M,Labiner David M,Weinand Martin E
Despite recent advances in our understanding of synaptic transmission associated with epileptogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that control seizure frequency in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remain obscure. RNA-Seq was performed on hippocampal tissue resected from 12 medically intractable TLE patients with pre-surgery seizure frequencies ranging from 0.33 to 120 seizures per month. Differential expression (DE) analysis of individuals with low (LSF, mean = 4 seizure/month) versus high (HSF, mean = 60 seizures/month) seizure frequency identified 979 genes with ≥2-fold change in transcript abundance (FDR-adjusted p-value ö0.05). Comparisons with post-mortem controls revealed a large number of downregulated genes in the HSF (1676) versus LSF (399) groups. More than 50 signaling pathways were inferred to be deactivated or activated, with Signal Transduction as the central hub in the pathway network. While neuroinflammation pathways were activated in both groups, key neuronal system pathways were systematically deactivated in the HSF group, including calcium, CREB and Opioid signaling. We also infer that enhanced expression of a signaling cascade promoting synaptic downscaling may have played a key role in maintaining a higher seizure threshold in the LSF cohort. These results suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting synaptic scaling pathways may aid in the treatment of seizures in TLE.
A Hit, a Hit-A Very Palpable Hit: Mild TBI and the Development of Epilepsy.
Danzer Steve C
Shandra O, Winemiller AR, Heithoff BP, et al. . 2019;39(10):1944-1963. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1067-18.2018. Epub 2019 Jan 21. PMID: 30665946 . Focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces astrogliosis, a process essential to protecting uninjured brain areas from secondary damage. However, astrogliosis can cause loss of astrocyte homeostatic functions and possibly contributes to comorbidities such as posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). Scar-forming astrocytes seal focal injuries off from healthy brain tissue. It is these glial scars that are associated with epilepsy originating in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, the vast majority of human TBIs also present with diffuse brain injury caused by acceleration-deceleration forces leading to tissue shearing. The resulting diffuse tissue damage may be intrinsically different from focal lesions that would trigger glial scar formation. Here, we used mice of both sexes in a model of repetitive mild/concussive closed-head TBI, which only induced diffuse injury, to test the hypothesis that astrocytes respond uniquely to diffuse TBI and that diffuse TBI is sufficient to cause PTE. Astrocytes did not form scars and classic astrogliosis characterized by upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein was limited. Surprisingly, an unrelated population of atypical reactive astrocytes was characterized by the lack of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, rapid and sustained downregulation of homeostatic proteins, and impaired astrocyte coupling. After a latency period, a subset of mice developed spontaneous recurrent seizures reminiscent of PTE in human patients with TBI. Seizing mice had larger areas of atypical astrocytes compared with nonseizing mice, suggesting that these atypical astrocytes might contribute to epileptogenesis after diffuse TBI. Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of acquired epilepsies. Reactive astrocytes have long been associated with seizures and epilepsy in patients, particularly after focal/lesional brain injury. However, most TBIs also include nonfocal, diffuse injuries. Here, we showed that repetitive diffuse TBI is sufficient for the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures in a subset of mice. We identified an atypical response of astrocytes induced by diffuse TBI characterized by the rapid loss of homeostatic proteins and lack of astrocyte coupling while reactive astrocyte markers or glial scar formation was absent. Areas with atypical astrocytes were larger in animals that later developed seizures suggesting that this response may be one root cause of epileptogenesis after diffuse TBI.
Targeting high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) in pediatric traumatic brain injury: Chronic neuroinflammatory, behavioral, and epileptogenic consequences.
Webster Kyria M,Shultz Sandy R,Ozturk Ezgi,Dill Larissa K,Sun Mujun,Casillas-Espinosa Pablo,Jones Nigel C,Crack Peter J,O'Brien Terence J,Semple Bridgette D
High mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) has been implicated as a key mediator of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in a range of neurological conditions including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and epilepsy. To date, however, most studies have examined only acute outcomes, and the adult brain. We have recently demonstrated HMGB1 release after experimental TBI in the pediatric mouse. This study therefore examined the chronic consequences of acute HMGB1 inhibition in the same model, to test the hypothesis that HMGB1 is a pivotal mediator of neuropathological, neurobehavioral, and epilepsy outcomes in pediatric TBI. HMGB1 was inhibited by treatment with 50 mg/kg i.p. Glycyrrhizin (Gly), compared to vehicle controls, commencing 1 h prior to moderate TBI or sham surgery in post-natal day 21 mice. We first demonstrated that Gly reduced brain HMGB1 levels and brain edema at an acute time point of 3 days post-injury. Subsequent analysis over a chronic time course found that pediatric TBI resulted in short-term spatial memory and motor learning deficits alongside an apparent increase in hippocampal microglial reactivity, which was prevented in Gly-treated TBI mice. In contrast, Gly treatment did not reduce the severity of evoked seizures, the proportion of animals exhibiting chronic spontaneous seizure activity, or cortical tissue loss. Together, our findings contribute to a growing appreciation for HMGB1's role in neuropathology and associated behavioral outcomes after TBI. However, further work is needed to fully elucidate the contribution of HMGB1 to epileptogenesis in this context.
Targeting microRNA-134 for seizure control and disease modification in epilepsy.
Morris Gareth,Reschke Cristina R,Henshall David C
MicroRNA-134 is a brain-enriched small noncoding RNA that has been implicated in diverse neuronal functions, including regulating network excitability. Increased expression of microRNA-134 has been reported in several experimental epilepsy models and in resected brain tissue from temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Rodent studies have demonstrated that reducing microRNA-134 expression in the brain using antisense oligonucleotides can increase seizure thresholds and attenuate status epilepticus. Critically, inhibition of microRNA-134 after status epilepticus can potently reduce the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Altered plasma levels of microRNA-134 have been reported in epilepsy patients, suggesting microRNA-134 may have diagnostic value as a biomarker. This review summarises findings on the cellular functions of microRNA-134, as well as the preclinical evidence supporting anti-seizure and disease-modifying effects of targeting microRNA-134 in epilepsy. Finally, we draw attention to unanswered questions and some of the challenges and opportunities involved in preclinical development of a microRNA-based oligonucleotide treatment for epilepsy.
Epileptogenesis-Associated Alterations of Heat Shock Protein 70 in a Rat Post-Status Epilepticus Model.
Gualtieri Fabio,Nowakowska Marta,von Rüden Eva-Lotta,Seiffert Isabel,Potschka Heidrun
Temporal lobe epilepsy is triggered by an initial insult, such as status epilepticus, that initiates the process of epilepsy development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, involved in the inflammatory response that is upregulated after status epilepticus. Hsp70 has been described as an endogenous intracellular ligand of Toll-like receptor 4. It is released from damaged or necrotic tissue and by activated immune cells after an inflammatory event. So far, the time course and the pattern of epileptogenesis-associated alterations in Hsp70 expression have not been described in detail. Thus, we investigated immunohistochemical expression of Hsp70 in hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, and thalamus following status epilepticus in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The impact of status epilepticus on Hsp70 expression varied during different phases of epileptogenesis, displaying a stronger effect in the early post-insult phase, a milder and more localized effect in the latency phase and no relevant effect in the chronic phase. Cellular-level characterization revealed that Hsp70 colocalized with the neuronal marker NeuN and with Toll-like receptor 4. No colocalization with the astrocytic marker GFAP or the microglia marker Iba1 was found. The intense neuronal Hsp70 upregulation during the early post-insult phase might contribute to the onset of excessive inflammation triggering molecular and cellular reorganization and generation of a hyperexcitable epileptic network. Therefore, development of multi-targeting strategies aiming at prevention of epileptogenesis should consider Hsp70 modulation in the early days following an epileptogenic insult.
Targeting BDNF/TrkB pathways for preventing or suppressing epilepsy.
Lin Thiri W,Harward Stephen C,Huang Yang Zhong,McNamara James O
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and status epilepticus (SE) have both been linked to development of human epilepsy. Although distinct etiologies, current research has suggested the convergence of molecular mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis following these insults. One such mechanism involves the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB). In this review, we focus on currently available data regarding the pathophysiologic role of BDNF/TrkB signaling in epilepsy development. We specifically examine the axonal injury and SE epilepsy models, two animal models that recapitulate many aspects of TBI- and SE-induced epilepsy in humans respectively. Thereafter, we discuss aspiring strategies for targeting BDNF/TrkB signaling so as to prevent epilepsy following an insult or suppress its expression once developed. This article is part of the special issue entitled 'New Epilepsy Therapies for the 21st Century - From Antiseizure Drugs to Prevention, Modification and Cure of Epilepsy'.
Biomarkers for epileptogenesis and its treatment.
Engel Jerome,Pitkänen Asla
There are no pharmacological interventions to prevent the development of epilepsy, although many promising compounds have been identified in the animal laboratory. Clinical trials to validate their effectiveness, however, would currently be prohibitively expensive due to the large subject population and duration of follow-up necessary. There is, therefore, the need to identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis that could identify patients at high risk for epilepsy following a potential epileptogenic insult to enrich the subject population, as well as biomarkers that could determine the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention without the need to wait for seizures to occur. Putative biomarkers under investigation for epileptogenesis and its treatment include genetic, molecular, cellular, imaging, and electrophysiological measures that might reliably predict the development or progression of an epileptic condition, the effects of antiepileptogenic treatment, or cure after surgery. To be clinically useful for most purposes, ideal biomarkers should be noninvasive, and it is anticipated that a profile of multiple biomarkers will likely be required. Ongoing animal research involves a number of experimental models of epileptogenesis, with traumatic brain injury, offering the best potential for translational clinical investigations. Collaborative and multicenter research efforts by multidisciplinary teams of basic and clinical neuroscientists with access to robust, well-defined animal models, extensive patient populations, standardized protocols, and cutting-edge analytical methodologies are likely to be most successful. Such biomarker research should also provide insights into fundamental neuronal mechanisms of epileptogenesis suggesting novel targets for antiepileptogenic treatments. This article is part of the special issue entitled 'New Epilepsy Therapies for the 21st Century - From Antiseizure Drugs to Prevention, Modification and Cure of Epilepsy'.
Combination antioxidant therapy prevents epileptogenesis and modifies chronic epilepsy.
Shekh-Ahmad Tawfeeq,Lieb Andreas,Kovac Stjepana,Gola Lukas,Christian Wigley W,Abramov Andrey Y,Walker Matthew C
Many epilepsies are acquired conditions following an insult to the brain such as a prolonged seizure, traumatic brain injury or stroke. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of oxidative stress are common sequelae of such brain insults and have been shown to contribute to neuronal death and the development of epilepsy. Here, we show that combination therapy targeting the generation of ROS through NADPH oxidase inhibition and the endogenous antioxidant system through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation prevents excessive ROS accumulation, mitochondrial depolarisation and neuronal death during in vitro seizure-like activity. Moreover, this combination therapy prevented the development of spontaneous seizures in 40% of animals following status epilepticus (70% of animals were seizure free after 8 weeks) and modified the severity of epilepsy when given to chronic epileptic animals.
Novel SZT2 mutations in three patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies.
Sun Xiaomin,Zhong Xuefei,Li Tingsong
Molecular genetics & genomic medicine
BACKGROUND:The seizure threshold 2 (SZT2) gene encodes a large, highly conserved protein that lowers seizure threshold and may also enhance epileptogenesis. In this study, three patients diagnosed with SZT2-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) were reviewed aiming to expand knowledge of the genotype and phenotype of SZT2 mutations. METHODS:Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to identify pathogenic mutations in 205 cases with DEEs of unknown etiology. Detailed clinical and genetic data were collected from SZT2-associated patients. RESULTS:Four novel mutations were found (c.1626 + 1G>A, c.5772dupA, c.4209C > A, c.7307_7308insG) in three patients. All the variants were inherited from their parents. Two patients were siblings and harbored the same mutations and presented developmental delay prior to the onset of seizures. All the individuals were diagnosed as DEEs, drug refractory epilepsy, and experienced status epilepticus (SE); one patient died of SE. One subject showed subependymal nodules as similar as those of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CONCLUSION:Our results expand the genotype and phenotypes of SZT2-related DEEs, suggesting that SZT2 mutations play a role in developmental delay and epileptic encephalopathy, with high susceptibility to SE and relatively specific MRI findings.
microRNA-132 is overexpressed in glia in temporal lobe epilepsy and reduces the expression of pro-epileptogenic factors in human cultured astrocytes.
Korotkov Anatoly,Broekaart Diede W M,Banchaewa Leyla,Pustjens Ben,van Scheppingen Jackelien,Anink Jasper J,Baayen Johannes C,Idema Sander,Gorter Jan A,van Vliet Erwin A,Aronica Eleonora
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurological disease in humans, which is refractory to pharmacological treatment in about 30% of the patients. Reactive glial cells are thought to play a major role during the development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) via regulation of brain inflammation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These processes can be regulated by microRNAs (miRs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, which can control entire gene networks at a post-transcriptional level. The expression of miRs is known to change dynamically during epileptogenesis. miR-132 is one of the most commonly upregulated miRs in animal TLE models with important roles shown in neurons. However, the possible role of miR-132 in glia remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the cell-type specific expression of miR-132 in the hippocampus of patients with TLE and during epileptogenesis in a rat TLE model. Furthermore, the potential role of miR-132 was investigated by transfection of human primary cultured astrocytes that were stimulated with the cytokines IL-1β or TGF-β1. We showed an increased expression of miR-132 in the human and rat epileptogenic hippocampus, particularly in glial cells. Transfection of miR-132 in human primary astrocytes reduced the expression of pro-epileptogenic COX-2, IL-1β, TGF-β2, CCL2, and MMP3. This suggests that miR-132, particularly in astrocytes, represents a potential therapeutic target that warrants further in vivo investigation.
Adult Neurogenesis in the Development of Epilepsy.
Danzer Steve C
Compelling evidence indicates that hippocampal dentate granule cells are generated throughout human life and into old age. While animal studies demonstrate that these new neurons are important for memory function, animal research also implicates these cells in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Several recent preclinical studies in rodents now suggest that targeting these new neurons can have disease-modifying effects in epilepsy.
Aspects of cAMP Signaling in Epileptogenesis and Seizures and Its Potential as Drug Target.
Mertz Christoffer,Krarup Sara,Jensen Cecilie D,Lindholm Sandy E H,Kjær Christina,Pinborg Lars H,Bak Lasse K
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions. Today, close to 30 different medications to prevent epileptic seizures are in use; yet, far from all patients become seizure free upon medical treatment. Thus, there is a need for new pharmacological approaches including novel drug targets for the management of epilepsy. Despite the fact that a role for cAMP signaling in epileptogenesis and seizures was first suggested some four decades ago, none of the current medications target the cAMP signaling system. The reasons for this are probably many including limited knowledge of the underlying biology and pathology as well as difficulties in designing selective drugs for the different components of the cAMP signaling system. This review explores selected aspects of cAMP signaling in the context of epileptogenesis and seizures including cAMP response element binding (CREB)-mediated transcriptional regulation. We discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting cAMP signaling in epilepsy and point to an increased knowledge of the A-kinase anchoring protein-based signaling hubs as being of seminal importance for future drug discovery within the field. Further, in terms of targeting CREB, we argue that targeting upstream cAMP signals might be more fruitful than targeting CREB itself. Finally, we point to astrocytes as cellular targets in epilepsy since cAMP signals may regulate astrocytic K clearance affecting neuronal excitability.
Amentoflavone Affects Epileptogenesis and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects by Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome.
Rong Shikuo,Wan Ding,Fan Yayun,Liu Shenhai,Sun Kuisheng,Huo Junming,Zhang Peng,Li Xinxiao,Xie Xiaoliang,Wang Feng,Sun Tao
Frontiers in pharmacology
Brain inflammation is one of the main causes of epileptogenesis, a chronic process triggered by various insults, including genetic or acquired factors that enhance susceptibility to seizures. Amentoflavone, a naturally occurring biflavonoid compound that has anti-inflammatory effects, exerts neuroprotective effects against nervous system diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of amentoflavone on epilepsy and and elucidate the underlying mechanism. The chronic epilepsy model and BV2 microglial cellular inflammation model were established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Cognitive dysfunction was tested by Morris water maze while hippocampal neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complexes and inflammatory cytokines were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Amentoflavone reduced seizure susceptibility, minimized PTZ-induced cognitive dysfunction, and blocked the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in PTZ-induced kindling mice. Amentoflavone also inhibited the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of PTZ-induced kindling mice. Additionally, amentoflavone could alleviate the LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that amentoflavone affects epileptogenesis and exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome and, thus, mediating the inflammatory process in PTZ-induced kindling mice and LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells. Therefore, amentoflavone may be a potential treatment option for epilepsy.
Epigenetics and epilepsy prevention: The therapeutic potential of adenosine and metabolic therapies.
Boison Detlev,Rho Jong M
Prevention of epilepsy and its progression remains the most urgent need for epilepsy research and therapy development. Novel conceptual advances are required to meaningfully address this fundamental challenge. Maladaptive epigenetic changes, which include methylation of DNA and acetylation of histones - among other mechanisms, are now well recognized to play a functional role in the development of epilepsy and its progression. The methylation hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that changes in DNA methylation are implicated in the progression of the disease. In this context, global DNA hypermethylation is particularly associated with chronic epilepsy. Likewise, acetylation changes of histones have been linked to epilepsy development. Clinical as well as experimental evidence demonstrate that epilepsy and its progression can be prevented by metabolic and biochemical manipulations that target previously unrecognized epigenetic functions contributing to epilepsy development and maintenance of the epileptic state. This review will discuss epigenetic mechanisms implicated in epilepsy development as well as metabolic and biochemical interactions thought to drive epileptogenesis. Therefore, metabolic and biochemical mechanisms are identified as novel targets for epilepsy prevention. We will specifically discuss adenosine biochemistry as a novel therapeutic strategy to reconstruct the DNA methylome as antiepileptogenic strategy as well as metabolic mediators, such as beta-hydroxybutyrate, which affect histone acetylation. Finally, metabolic dietary interventions (such as the ketogenic diet) which have the unique potential to prevent epileptogenesis through recently identified epigenetic mechanisms will be reviewed. This article is part of the special issue entitled 'New Epilepsy Therapies for the 21st Century - From Antiseizure Drugs to Prevention, Modification and Cure of Epilepsy'.
Disease-modifying effects of a novel T-type calcium channel antagonist, Z944, in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Casillas-Espinosa Pablo M,Shultz Sandy R,Braine Emma L,Jones Nigel C,Snutch Terrance P,Powell Kim L,O'Brien Terence J
Progress in neurobiology
We evaluated whether pharmacologically targeting T-type Ca channels with Z944, a potent and selective antagonist, has disease-modifying effects in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) that exhibits spontaneous recurrent seizures, and manifests behavioral and cognitive comorbidities commonly experienced by patients with this condition. Wistar rats underwent implantation of EEG electrodes and one week later 4 h of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE). Animals were randomly assigned to one of 5 different groups: post-SE + Z944 (60 mg/kg/day, n = 8); post-SE + levetiracetam (200 mg/kg/day, n = 9); post-SE + vehicle (n = 8); sham + vehicle (n = 6) or sham + Z944 (60 mg/kg/day, n = 6). Treatments were delivered by continuous subcutaneous infusion for four weeks during which time continuous video-EEG was acquired. Four weeks after completion of treatment, the animals had two further weeks of continuous video-EEG monitoring to evaluate the effects of the different treatments. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate anxiety, depression, and cognition. On the video-EEG recordings four-week post-treatment, the Z944 group manifest reduced number of seizures (0.01 ± 0.01seizures/day) compared to vehicle (0.8 ± 0.1) and levetiracetam (0.5 ± 0.1) treated animals (p < 0.0001). Post-SE+ vehicle rats showed elevated depressive-like behavior, and deficits in spatial learning and memory compared to sham+vehicle rats, and these behavioral deficits were significantly improved in post-SE rats treated with Z944 (p < 0.05, for all comparisons). The results of this study show that treatment with Z944 has a disease-modifying effects in the post-SE model of TLE, reducing seizures as well as comorbid depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment. This indicates that pharmacologically targeting T-type Ca channels may be an effective disease-modifying treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy.
Interneuron dysfunction in epilepsy: An experimental approach using immature brain insults to induce neuronal migration disorders.
Takano Tomoyuki,Sawai Chihiro
The main elements of the microcircuits in the cerebral cortex are excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal cells and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons. Hypofunction/degeneration of GABAergic interneurons has been hypothesized to be a key to the neural circuit dysfunction that underlies epileptogenesis and the development of recurrent spontaneous seizures. Using two experimental animal models of neuronal migration disorders, this review reports that the insults to the immature developing brain causes interneurons to fail to undergo normal processes such as production, migration, and organization. These results represent critical evidence that supports a link between interneuron dysfunction and epilepsy.
Inflammation and reactive oxygen species as disease modifiers in epilepsy.
Terrone Gaetano,Balosso Silvia,Pauletti Alberto,Ravizza Teresa,Vezzani Annamaria
Neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are rapidly induced in the brain after acute cerebral injuries that are associated with an enhanced risk for epilepsy in humans and related animal models. These phenomena reinforce each others and persist during epileptogenesis as well as during chronic spontaneous seizures. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant drugs transiently administered either before, or shortly after the clinical onset of symptomatic epilepsy, similarly block the progression of spontaneous seizures, and may delay their onset. Moreover, neuroprotection and rescue of cognitive deficits are also observed in the treated animals. Therefore, although these treatments do not prevent epilepsy development, they offer clinically relevant disease-modification effects. These therapeutic effects are mediated by targeting molecular signaling pathways such as the IL-1β-IL-1 receptor type 1 and TLR4, P2X7 receptors, the transcriptional anti-oxidant factor Nrf2, while the therapeutic impact of COX-2 inhibition for reducing spontaneous seizures remains controversial. Some anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant drugs that are endowed of disease modification effects in preclinical models are already in medical use and have a safety profile, therefore, they provide potential re-purposed treatments for improving the disease course and for reducing seizure burden. Markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress can be measured in blood or by neuroimaging, therefore they represent testable prognostic and predictive biomarkers for selecting the patient's population at high risk for developing epilepsy therefore eligible for novel treatments. This article is part of the special issue entitled 'New Epilepsy Therapies for the 21st Century - From Antiseizure Drugs to Prevention, Modification and Cure of Epilepsy'.
DNA methyltransferase isoforms expression in the temporal lobe of epilepsy patients with a history of febrile seizures.
de Nijs Laurence,Choe Kyonghwan,Steinbusch Hellen,Schijns Olaf E M G,Dings Jim,van den Hove Daniel L A,Rutten Bart P F,Hoogland Govert
BACKGROUND:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a common pharmaco-resistant epilepsy referred for adult epilepsy surgery. Though associated with prolonged febrile seizures (FS) in childhood, the neurobiological basis for this relationship is not fully understood and currently no preventive or curative therapies are available. DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), potentially plays a pivotal role in epileptogenesis associated with FS. In an attempt to start exploring this notion, the present cross-sectional pilot study investigated whether global DNA methylation levels (5-mC and 5-hmC markers) and DNMT isoforms (DNMT1, DNMT3a1, and DNMT3a2) expression would be different in hippocampal and neocortical tissues between controls and TLE patients with or without a history of FS. RESULTS:We found that global DNA methylation levels and DNMT3a2 isoform expression were lower in the hippocampus for all TLE groups when compared to control patients, with a more significant decrease amongst the TLE groups with a history of FS. Interestingly, we showed that DNMT3a1 expression was severely diminished in the hippocampus of TLE patients with a history of FS in comparison with control and other TLE groups. In the neocortex, we found a higher expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3a1 as well as increased levels of global DNA methylation for all TLE patients compared to controls. CONCLUSION:Together, the findings of this descriptive cross-sectional pilot study demonstrated brain region-specific changes in DNMT1 and DNMT3a isoform expression as well as global DNA methylation levels in human TLE with or without a history of FS. They highlighted a specific implication of DNMT3a isoforms in TLE after FS. Therefore, longitudinal studies that aim at targeting DNMT3a isoforms to evaluate the potential causal relationship between FS and TLE or treatment of FS-induced epileptogenesis seem warranted.
G protein-coupled receptors in acquired epilepsy: Druggability and translatability.
Yu Ying,Nguyen Davis T,Jiang Jianxiong
Progress in neurobiology
As the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the targets of more than one-third of all modern medicinal drugs. In the central nervous system (CNS), widely distributed GPCRs in neuronal and nonneuronal cells mediate numerous essential physiological functions via regulating neurotransmission at the synapses. Whereas their abnormalities in expression and activity are involved in various neuropathological processes. CNS conditions thus remain highly represented among the indications of GPCR-targeted agents. Mounting evidence from a large number of animal studies suggests that GPCRs play important roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability associated with epilepsy, a common CNS disease afflicting approximately 1-2% of the population. Surprisingly, none of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved (>30) antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) suppresses seizures through acting on GPCRs. This disparity raises concerns about the translatability of these preclinical findings and the druggability of GPCRs for seizure disorders. The currently available AEDs intervene seizures predominantly through targeting ion channels and have considerable limitations, as they often cause unbearable adverse effects, fail to control seizures in over 30% of patients, and merely provide symptomatic relief. Thus, identifying novel molecular targets for epilepsy is highly desired. Herein, we focus on recent progresses in understanding the comprehensive roles of several GPCR families in seizure generation and development of acquired epilepsy. We also dissect current hurdles hindering translational efforts in developing GPCRs as antiepileptic and/or antiepileptogenic targets and discuss the counteracting strategies that might lead to a potential cure for this debilitating CNS condition.
Phosphorylation of the HCN channel auxiliary subunit TRIP8b is altered in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy and modulates channel function.
Foote Kendall M,Lyman Kyle A,Han Ye,Michailidis Ioannis E,Heuermann Robert J,Mandikian Danielle,Trimmer James S,Swanson Geoffrey T,Chetkovich Dane M
The Journal of biological chemistry
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a prevalent neurological disorder with many patients experiencing poor seizure control with existing anti-epileptic drugs. Thus, novel insights into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and identification of new drug targets can be transformative. Changes in ion channel function have been shown to play a role in generating the aberrant neuronal activity observed in TLE. Previous work demonstrates that hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels regulate neuronal excitability and are mislocalized within CA1 pyramidal cells in a rodent model of TLE. The subcellular distribution of HCN channels is regulated by an auxiliary subunit, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b), and disruption of this interaction correlates with channel mislocalization. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for HCN channel dysregulation in TLE are unclear. Here we investigated whether changes in TRIP8b phosphorylation are sufficient to alter HCN channel function. We identified a phosphorylation site at residue Ser of TRIP8b that enhances binding to HCN channels and influences channel gating by altering the affinity of TRIP8b for the HCN cytoplasmic domain. Using a phosphospecific antibody, we demonstrate that TRIP8b phosphorylated at Ser is enriched in CA1 distal dendrites and that phosphorylation is reduced in the kainic acid model of TLE. Overall, our findings indicate that the TRIP8b-HCN interaction can be modulated by changes in phosphorylation and suggest that loss of TRIP8b phosphorylation may affect HCN channel properties during epileptogenesis. These results highlight the potential of drugs targeting posttranslational modifications to restore TRIP8b phosphorylation to reduce excitability in TLE.
Gene networks and microRNAs: Promises and challenges for treating epilepsies and their comorbidities.
Lovisari Francesca,Simonato Michele
Epilepsy & behavior : E&B
Neurobiology research has used an essentially reductionist approach for many years, dissecting out the brain in more simple elements. Recent technical advances, like systems biology, have made now possible to embrace a more holistic vision and try to tackle the complexity of the system. In this short review, we describe how these approaches, in particular analyses or gene networks and of microRNAs, may be useful for epilepsy research. We will describe and discuss recent studies that illustrate how these research approaches can lead to the identification of therapeutic targets and pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat some forms of epilepsy. We aim to show that studying epilepsy and its comorbidities within a complex system framework is a promising integration to the traditional reductionist approaches, and that it will become more and more important in the future for developing new therapies. This article is part of the Special Issue "NEWroscience 2018."
Detrimental Effects of HMGB-1 Require Microglial-Astroglial Interaction: Implications for the Status Epilepticus -Induced Neuroinflammation.
Rosciszewski Gerardo,Cadena Vanesa,Auzmendi Jerónimo,Cieri María Belén,Lukin Jerónimo,Rossi Alicia R,Murta Veronica,Villarreal Alejandro,Reinés Analia,Gomes Flávia C A,Ramos Alberto Javier
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of human epilepsy and available treatments with antiepileptic drugs are not disease-modifying therapies. The neuroinflammation, neuronal death and exacerbated plasticity that occur during the silent period, following the initial precipitating event (IPE), seem to be crucial for epileptogenesis. Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMP) such as HMGB-1, are released early during this period concomitantly with a phenomenon of reactive gliosis and neurodegeneration. Here, using a combination of primary neuronal and glial cell cultures, we show that exposure to HMGB-1 induces dendrite loss and neurodegeneration in a glial-dependent manner. In glial cells, loss of function studies showed that HMGB-1 exposure induces NF-κB activation by engaging a signaling pathway that involves TLR2, TLR4, and RAGE. In the absence of glial cells, HMGB-1 failed to induce neurodegeneration of primary cultured cortical neurons. Moreover, purified astrocytes were unable to fully respond to HMGB-1 with NF-κB activation and required microglial cooperation. In agreement, HMGB-1 blockage with glycyrrhizin, immediately after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), reduced neuronal degeneration, reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis in the long term. We conclude that microglial-astroglial cooperation is required for astrocytes to respond to HMGB-1 and to induce neurodegeneration. Disruption of this HMGB-1 mediated signaling pathway shows beneficial effects by reducing neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after SE. Thus, early treatment strategies during the latency period aimed at blocking downstream signaling pathways activated by HMGB-1 are likely to have a significant effect in the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration that are proposed as key factors in epileptogenesis.
Regression of Epileptogenesis by Inhibiting Tropomyosin Kinase B Signaling following a Seizure.
Krishnamurthy Kamesh,Huang Yang Zhong,Harward Stephen C,Sharma Keshov K,Tamayo Dylan L,McNamara James O
Annals of neurology
OBJECTIVE:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating disease in which seizures persist in 35% of patients despite optimal use of antiseizure drugs. Clinical and preclinical evidence implicates seizures themselves as one factor promoting epilepsy progression. What is the molecular consequence of a seizure that promotes progression? Evidence from preclinical studies led us to hypothesize that activation of tropomyosin kinase B (TrkB)-phospholipase-C-gamma-1 (PLCγ1) signaling induced by a seizure promotes epileptogenesis. METHODS:To examine the effects of inhibiting TrkB signaling on epileptogenesis following an isolated seizure, we implemented a modified kindling model in which we induced a seizure through amygdala stimulation and then used either a chemical-genetic strategy or pharmacologic methods to disrupt signaling for 2 days following the seizure. The severity of a subsequent seizure was assessed by behavioral and electrographic measures. RESULTS:Transient inhibition of TrkB-PLCγ1 signaling initiated after an isolated seizure limited progression of epileptogenesis, evidenced by the reduced severity and duration of subsequent seizures. Unexpectedly, transient inhibition of TrkB-PLCγ1 signaling initiated following a seizure also reverted a subset of animals to an earlier state of epileptogenesis. Remarkably, inhibition of TrkB-PLCγ1 signaling in the absence of a recent seizure did not reduce severity of subsequent seizures. INTERPRETATION:These results suggest a novel strategy for limiting progression or potentially ameliorating severity of TLE whereby transient inhibition of TrkB-PLCγ1 signaling is initiated following a seizure. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:939-950.
Early reduced dopaminergic tone mediated by D3 receptor and dopamine transporter in absence epileptogenesis.
Cavarec Fanny,Krauss Philipp,Witkowski Tiffany,Broisat Alexis,Ghezzi Catherine,De Gois Stéphanie,Giros Bruno,Depaulis Antoine,Deransart Colin
OBJECTIVE:In Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats From Strasbourg (GAERSs), epileptogenesis takes place during brain maturation and correlates with increased mRNA expression of D3 dopamine receptors (D3R). Whether these alterations are the consequence of seizure repetition or contribute to the development of epilepsy remains to be clarified. Here, we addressed the involvement of the dopaminergic system in epilepsy onset in GAERSs. METHODS:Experiments were performed using rats at different stages of brain maturation from three strains according to their increasing propensity to develop absence seizures: nonepileptic control rats (NECs), Wistar Hannover rats, and GAERSs. Changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission were investigated using different behavioral and neurochemical approaches: autoradiography of D3R and dopamine transporter, single photon emission computed tomographic imaging, acute and chronic drug effects on seizure recordings (dopaminergic agonists and antagonists), quinpirole-induced yawns and dopamine synaptosomal uptake, microdialysis, brain tissue monoamines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor quantification. RESULTS:Autoradiography revealed an increased expression of D3R in 14-day-old GAERSs, before absence seizure onset, that persists in adulthood, as compared to age-matched NECs. This was confirmed by increased yawns, a marker of D3R activity, and increased seizures when animals were injected with quinpirole at low doses to activate D3R. We also observed a concomitant increase in the expression and activity of the dopamine transporter in GAERSs before seizure onset, consistent with both lowered dopamine basal level and increased phasic responses. SIGNIFICANCE:Our data show that the dopaminergic system is persistently altered in GAERSs, which may contribute not only to behavioral comorbidities but also as an etiopathogenic factor in the development of epilepsy. The data suggest that an imbalanced dopaminergic tone may contribute to absence epilepsy development and seizure onset, as its reversion by a chronic treatment with a dopamine stabilizer significantly suppressed epileptogenesis. Our data suggest a potential new target for antiepileptic therapies and/or improvement of quality of life of epileptic patients.
Long Non-Coding RNAs and Related Molecular Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy.
Villa Chiara,Lavitrano Marialuisa,Combi Romina
International journal of molecular sciences
Epilepsy represents one of the most common neurological disorders characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Recurrent seizures are the cardinal clinical manifestation. Although it has been reported that the underlying pathological processes include inflammation, changes in synaptic strength, apoptosis, and ion channels dysfunction, currently the pathogenesis of epilepsy is not yet completely understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of long transcripts without protein-coding capacity, have emerged as regulatory molecules that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. A growing number of studies reported that lncRNAs participate in the regulation of pathological processes of epilepsy and they are dysregulated during epileptogenesis. Moreover, an aberrant expression of lncRNAs linked to epilepsy has been observed both in patients and in animal models. In this review, we summarize latest advances concerning the mechanisms of action and the involvement of the most dysregulated lncRNAs in epilepsy. However, the functional roles of lncRNAs in the disease pathogenesis are still to be explored and we are only at the beginning. Additional studies are needed for the complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms and they would result in the use of lncRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets.
Calpain-dependent cleavage of GABAergic proteins during epileptogenesis.
González Marco I
Epileptogenesis is the processes by which a normal brain transforms and becomes capable of generate spontaneous seizures. In acquired epilepsy, it is thought that epileptogenesis can be triggered by a brain injury but the understanding of the cellular or molecular changes unraveling is incomplete. In the CA1 region of hippocampus less GABAergic activity precede the appearance of spontaneous seizures and calpain overactivation has been detected after chemoconvulsant-induced status epilepticus (SE). Inhibition of calpain overactivation following SE ameliorates seizure burden, suggesting a role for calpain dysregulation in epileptogenesis. The current study analyzed if GABAergic proteins (i.e., gephyrin, the vesicular GABA transporter and the potassium chloride co-transporter 2) undergo calpain-dependent cleavage during epileptogenesis. A time-dependent generation of break down products (BDPs) for these proteins was observed in the CA1 region of hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced SE. Generation of these BDPs was partially blocked by treatment with the calpain inhibitor MDL-28170. These findings suggest that calpain-dependent loss of GABAergic proteins might promote the erosion of inhibitory drive and contribute to hyperexcitability during epileptogenesis.
Urokinase receptor and tissue plasminogen activator as immediate-early genes in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in the mouse brain.
Shmakova Anna A,Rubina Kseniya A,Rysenkova Karina D,Gruzdeva Anna M,Ivashkina Olga I,Anokhin Konstantin V,Tkachuk Vsevolod A,Semina Ekaterina V
The European journal of neuroscience
Epileptogenesis progressively leads to the rearrangement of normal neuronal networks into more excitable ones and can be viewed as a form of neuroplasticity, the molecular mechanisms of which still remain obscure. Here, we studied pentylenetetrazole seizure-induced regulation of genes for plasminogen activator system in the mouse brain. We found that expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase receptor (uPAR) mRNA was strongly increased in the mouse cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and amygdala as early as 3 hr after pentylenetetrazole seizures. Such early activity-induced expression of uPAR in the central nervous system has not been demonstrated before. uPAR mRNA accumulation was followed by elevation of uPAR protein, indicating a complete transcription-translation process. Both tPA gene induction and uPAR gene induction were independent of the protein synthesis, suggesting that they are regulated by neural activity as immediate-early genes. In contrast to tPA and uPAR genes, the expression of which returned to the basal level 6 hr following seizures, urokinase and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression showed a delayed activation only at 3 days after seizures. In conclusion, our results suggest an important sensitivity of the brain plasminogen activator system to seizure activity which raises the question of its role in activity-dependent neural tissue remodeling in pathological and normal conditions.
Microglial P2Y12 Receptor Regulates Seizure-Induced Neurogenesis and Immature Neuronal Projections.
Mo Mingshu,Eyo Ukpong B,Xie Manling,Peng Jiyun,Bosco Dale B,Umpierre Anthony D,Zhu Xiaoqin,Tian Dai-Shi,Xu Pingyi,Wu Long-Jun
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Seizures are common in humans with various etiologies ranging from congenital aberrations to acute injuries that alter the normal balance of brain excitation and inhibition. A notable consequence of seizures is the induction of aberrant neurogenesis and increased immature neuronal projections. However, regulatory mechanisms governing these features during epilepsy development are not fully understood. Recent studies show that microglia, the brain's resident immune cell, contribute to normal neurogenesis and regulate seizure phenotypes. However, the role of microglia in aberrant neurogenic seizure contexts has not been adequately investigated. To address this question, we coupled the intracerebroventricular kainic acid model with current pharmacogenetic approaches to eliminate microglia in male mice. We show that microglia promote seizure-induced neurogenesis and subsequent seizure-induced immature neuronal projections above and below the pyramidal neurons between the DG and the CA3 regions. Furthermore, we identify microglial P2Y12 receptors (P2Y12R) as a participant in this neurogenic process. Together, our results implicate microglial P2Y12R signaling in epileptogenesis and provide further evidence for targeting microglia in general and microglial P2Y12R in specific to ameliorate proepileptogenic processes. Epileptogenesis is a process by which the brain develops epilepsy. Several processes have been identified that confer the brain with such epileptic characteristics, including aberrant neurogenesis and increased immature neuronal projections. Understanding the mechanisms that promote such changes is critical in developing therapies to adequately restrain epileptogenesis. We investigated the role of purinergic P2Y12 receptors selectively expressed by microglia, the resident brain immune cells. We report, for the first time, that microglia in general and microglial P2Y12 receptors in specific promote both aberrant neurogenesis and increased immature neuronal projections. These results indicate that microglia enhance epileptogenesis by promoting these processes and suggest that targeting this immune axis could be a novel therapeutic strategy in the clinic.
Hippocampal epileptogenesis in autoimmune encephalitis.
Romoli Michele,Krashia Paraskevi,Sen Arjune,Franciotta Diego,Gastaldi Matteo,Nobili Annalisa,Mancini Andrea,Nardi Cesarini Elena,Nigro Pasquale,Tambasco Nicola,Mercuri Nicola B,Parnetti Lucilla,Di Filippo Massimiliano,D'Amelio Marcello,Irani Sarosh R,Costa Cinzia,Calabresi Paolo
Annals of clinical and translational neurology
OBJECTIVE:Autoantibody-mediated forms of encephalitis (AE) include neurological disorders characterized by subacute memory loss, movement disorders, and, often, frequent, focal epileptic seizures. Yet, the electrophysiological effects of these autoantibodies on neuronal function have received little attention. In this study, we assessed the effects of CSF containing autoantibodies on intrinsic and extrinsic properties of hippocampal neurons, to define their epileptogenic potential. METHODS:We compared the effects of CSF containing leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), and γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B (GABA R) antibodies on ex vivo electrophysiological parameters after stereotactic hippocampal inoculation into mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp and extracellular recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons and CA3-CA1 field recordings in ex vivo murine brain slices were used to study neuronal function. RESULTS:By comparison to control CSF, AE CSFs increased the probability of glutamate release from CA3 neurons. In addition, LGI1- and CASPR2 antibodies containing CSFs induced epileptiform activity at a population level following Schaffer collateral stimulation. CASPR2 antibody containing CSF was also associated with higher spontaneous firing of CA1 pyramidal neurons. On the contrary, GABA R antibody containing CSF did not elicit changes in intrinsic neuronal activity and field potentials. INTERPRETATION:Using patient CSF, we have demonstrated that the AE-associated antibodies against LGI1 and CASPR2 are able to increase hippocampal CA1 neuron excitability, facilitating epileptiform activity. These findings provide in vivo pathogenic insights into neuronal dysfunction in these conditions.
The GR-ANXA1 pathway is a pathological player and a candidate target in epilepsy.
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Immune changes occur in experimental and clinical epilepsy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that during epileptogenesis and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) an impairment of the endogenous anti-inflammatory pathway glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-annexin A1 (ANXA1) occurs. By administrating exogenous ANXA1, we studied whether pharmacological potentiation of the anti-inflammatory response modifies seizure activity and pathophysiology. We used an model of temporal lobe epilepsy based on intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) injection. Video-electroencephalography, molecular biology analyses on brain and peripheral blood samples, and pharmacological investigations were performed in this model. Human epileptic cortices presenting type II focal cortical dysplasia (IIa and b), hippocampi with or without hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and available controls were used to study ANXA1 expression. A decrease of phosphorylated (phospho-) GR and phospho-GR/tot-GR protein expression occurred in the hippocampus during epileptogenesis. Downstream to GR, the anti-inflammatory protein ANXA1 remained at baseline levels while inflammation installed and endured. In peripheral blood, ANXA1 and corticosterone levels showed no significant modifications during disease progression except for an early and transient increase poststatus epilepticus. These results indicate inadequate ANXA1 engagement over time and in these experimental conditions. By analyzing human brain specimens, we found that where significant inflammation exists, the pattern of ANXA1 immunoreactivity was abnormal because the typical perivascular ANXA1 immunoreactivity was reduced. We next asked whether potentiation of the endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanism by ANXA1 administration modifies the disease pathophysiology. Although with varying efficacy, administration of exogenous ANXA1 somewhat reduced the time spent in seizure activity as compared to saline. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory GR-ANXA1 pathway is defective during experimental seizure progression. The prospect of pharmacologically restoring or potentiating this endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanism as an add-on therapeutic strategy for specific forms of epilepsy is proposed.-Zub, E., Canet, G., Garbelli, R., Blaquiere, M., Rossini, L., Pastori, C., Sheikh, M., Reutelingsperger, C., Klement, W., de Bock, F., Audinat, E., Givalois, L., Solito, E., Marchi, N. The GR-ANXA1 pathway is a pathological player and a candidate target in epilepsy.
Functional responses of the hippocampus to hyperexcitability depend on directed, neuron-specific KCNQ2 K channel plasticity.
Carver Chase M,Hastings Shayne D,Cook Mileah E,Shapiro Mark S
M-type (KCNQ2/3) K channels play dominant roles in regulation of active and passive neuronal discharge properties such as resting membrane potential, spike-frequency adaptation, and hyper-excitatory states. However, plasticity of M-channel expression and function in nongenetic forms of epileptogenesis are still not well understood. Using transgenic mice with an EGFP reporter to detect expression maps of KCNQ2 mRNA, we assayed hyperexcitability-induced alterations in KCNQ2 transcription across subregions of the hippocampus. Pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazol chemoconvulsant models of seizure induction were used, and brain tissue examined 48 hr later. We observed increases in KCNQ2 mRNA in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons after chemoconvulsant-induced hyperexcitability at 48 hr, but no significant change was observed in dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells. Using chromogenic in situ hybridization assays, changes to KCNQ3 transcription were not detected after hyper-excitation challenge, but the results for KCNQ2 paralleled those using the KCNQ2-mRNA reporter mice. In mice 7 days after pilocarpine challenge, levels of KCNQ2 mRNA were similar in all regions to those from control mice. In brain-slice electrophysiology recordings, CA1 pyramidal neurons demonstrated increased M-current amplitudes 48 hr after hyperexcitability; however, there were no significant changes to DG granule cell M-current amplitude. Traumatic brain injury induced significantly greater KCNQ2 expression in the hippocampal hemisphere that was ipsilateral to the trauma. In vivo, after a secondary challenge with subconvulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole, control mice were susceptible to tonic-clonic seizures, whereas mice administered the M-channel opener retigabine were protected from such seizures. This study demonstrates that increased excitatory activity promotes KCNQ2 upregulation in the hippocampus in a cell-type specific manner. Such novel ion channel expressional plasticity may serve as a compensatory mechanism after a hyperexcitable event, at least in the short term. The upregulation described could be potentially leveraged in anticonvulsant enhancement of KCNQ2 channels as therapeutic target for preventing onset of epileptogenic seizures.
Role of Adenosine Kinase Inhibitor in Adenosine Augmentation Therapy for Epilepsy: A Potential Novel Drug for Epilepsy.
Wang Xiongfei,Li Tianfu
Current drug targets
Epilepsy, an ancient disease, is defined as an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently used as first-line treatment for patients with epilepsy; however, around 36% of patients are diagnosed with refractory epilepsy, which means two or more AEDs have been considered as failed after sufficiently correct usage. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that the improvement of the efficacy of AEDs will be easily achieved, especially since no AEDs show efficacy in ceasing epileptogenesis. Consequently, several endogenous anticonvulsants attract investigators and epileptologists, such as galanin, cannabis, and adenosine. Astrogliosis is a neuropathological hallmark of epilepsy, whatever the etiology is, and astrogliosis is frequently associated with overexpression of adenosine kinase, which means downregulation of synaptic levels of adenosine. Consequently, adenosine is negatively regulated by adenosine kinase through the astrocyte-based cycle. On the other hand, focal adenosine augmentation therapy, using adenosine kinase inhibitor, has been proved to be effective for reducing seizures in both animal models and in vitro human brain tissue resected from a variety of etiology of refractory epilepsy patients. In addition to reducing seizures, adenosine augmentation therapy can also palliate co-morbidities, like sleep, cognition, or depression. Of importance, transgenic mice with reduced ADK were resistant to epileptogenesis induced by acute brain injury. In terms of translation, based on findings of adenosinerelated epileptogenic mechanisms, the application into clinical practice seems to be feasible by molecular strategies that have been already experimentally implemented, including gene and RNA interference. In the present review, we will focus on the evidence of ADK dysfunction in the epileptic brain from human beings and animals, and review the role of ADK inhibitor in adenosine augmentation therapy and the underlying mechanism of prevention of epileptogenesis.
The Role of High Mobility Group Box-1 in Epileptogenesis.
Fu Li,Nishibori Masahiro
Acta medica Okayama
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone, DNA-binding nuclear protein belonging to the family of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). HMGB1 has been reported to play an important role during epileptogenesis although the mechanisms of its actions are still not clear. Many hypotheses have been suggested especially about the relationship between HMGB1 and inflammation responses and blood-brain barrier disruption during epileptogenesis. In this review, we will mainly discuss the role of HMGB1 in epileptogenesis.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: future therapeutic strategies for epilepsy management.
Rawat Chitra,Kukal Samiksha,Dahiya Ujjwal Ranjan,Kukreti Ritushree
Journal of neuroinflammation
Epilepsy, a common multifactorial neurological disease, affects about 69 million people worldwide constituting nearly 1% of the world population. Despite decades of extensive research on understanding its underlying mechanism and developing the pharmacological treatment, very little is known about the biological alterations leading to epileptogenesis. Due to this gap, the currently available antiepileptic drug therapy is symptomatic in nature and is ineffective in 30% of the cases. Mounting evidences revealed the pathophysiological role of neuroinflammation in epilepsy which has shifted the focus of epilepsy researchers towards the development of neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics for epilepsy management. Markedly increased expression of key inflammatory mediators in the brain and blood-brain barrier may affect neuronal function and excitability and thus may increase seizure susceptibility in preclinical and clinical settings. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme synthesizing the proinflammatory mediators, prostaglandins, has widely been reported to be induced during seizures and is considered to be a potential neurotherapeutic target for epilepsy management. However, the efficacy of such therapy involving COX-2 inhibition depends on various factors viz., therapeutic dose, time of administration, treatment duration, and selectivity of COX-2 inhibitors. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical evidences supporting the role of COX-2 in seizure-associated neuroinflammation in epilepsy and the potential clinical use of COX-2 inhibitors as a future strategy for epilepsy treatment.
Systems-level analysis identifies key regulators driving epileptogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Fu Yingxue,Wu Ziyin,Guo Zihu,Chen Liyang,Ma Yaohua,Wang Zhenzhong,Xiao Wei,Wang Yonghua
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most prevalent and often devastating form of epilepsy. The molecular mechanism underlying the development of TLE remains largely unclear, which hinders the discovery of effective antiepileptogenic drugs. Here we adopted a systems-level approach integrating transcriptomic profiles of three epileptogenesis stages to identify key regulators underlying epilepsy progression. Associating stage-specific gene meta-signatures with brain cell-specialized modules revealed positive regulation of glial migration and adhesion, cytokine production, and neuron death, and downregulation of synaptic transmission and ion transport during epileptogenesis. We identified 265 key regulators driving these processes and 72 of them were demonstrated associating with seizure frequency and/or hippocampal sclerosis in human TLE. Importantly, the upregulation of FAM107A, LAMB2, LTBP1 and TGIF1, which are mainly involved in nervous system development, were found contributing to both conditions. Our findings present the evolution landscape of epileptogenesis and provide candidate regulators that may serve as potential antiepileptogenic targets.
IL-1β-31/IL1-RA genetic markers association with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and treatment response in a cohort of Egyptian population.
Barseem Naglaa Fathy,Khattab Essam Shawky A E H,Mahasab Marwa Mohamed
The International journal of neuroscience
Neuroinflammation is an important feature of epileptogenesis. To investigate the association of Interleukin-1beta-31 (IL-1β-31) and Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-RA) genetic polymorphisms with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and demonstrate their influence on drug resistance in children. One hundred children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy were age and gender-matched with apparently healthy controls. Both groups were genotyped for IL-1β-31, and IL1-RA gene variants, analysis of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was done through restriction digestion of the corresponding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. Genotype frequency of rs1143627 TT of IL-1β-31 and the homozygous IL1RN*I were found to be more prevalent in epileptic patients ( < .05, OR 0.12 and 5.27respectively). Also observed, T allele of IL-1β-31 and IL1-RAI/I were substantially positively correlated with drug resistance against those who responded well to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The significant association with IL-1β-31T and IL1-RAN*I alleles potentiated their useful role as predictive markers for the development of epilepsy and response to medical therapy.
Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in status epileptics: Mechanisms and role in epileptogenesis.
Swissa Evyatar,Serlin Yonatan,Vazana Udi,Prager Ofer,Friedman Alon
Epilepsy & behavior : E&B
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a unique anatomical and physiological interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral circulation, is essential for the function of neural circuits. Interactions between the BBB, cerebral blood vessels, neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and pericytes form a dynamic functional unit known as the neurovascular unit (NVU). The NVU-BBB crosstalk plays a key role in the regulation of blood flow, response to injury, neuronal firing, and synaptic plasticity. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction (BBBD), a hallmark of brain injury, is a prominent finding in status epilepticus. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction is observed within the first hour of status epilepticus, and in epileptogenic brain regions, may last for months. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction was shown to have a role in astroglial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, increasing neural excitability, reduction of seizure threshold, excitatory synaptogenesis, impaired plasticity, and epileptogenesis. A key signaling pathway associated with BBBD-induced neurovascular dysfunction is the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) proinflammatory pathway, activated by the extravasation of serum albumin into the brain when BBB functions are compromised. Specific small molecules blocking TGF-β, and the nonspecific, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved blocker and angiotensin antagonist losartan, were shown to reduce BBBD and block epileptogenesis. With these encouraging preclinical data, we have developed imaging approach to quantitatively assess BBBD as a diagnostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarker after brain injury. Clinical trials in the foreseen future are expected to test the feasibility of BBB-targeted diagnostic coupled therapy in status epileptics and seizure disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures".
TRPV1 translocated to astrocytic membrane to promote migration and inflammatory infiltration thus promotes epilepsy after hypoxic ischemia in immature brain.
Wang Xin,Yang Xing-Liang,Kong Wei-Lin,Zeng Meng-Liu,Shao Lin,Jiang Guang-Tong,Cheng Jing-Jing,Kong Shuo,He Xiao-Hua,Liu Wan-Hong,Chen Tao-Xiang,Peng Bi-Wen
Journal of neuroinflammation
BACKGROUND:Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), a leading cause of neonatal mortality, has intractable sequela such as epilepsy that seriously affected the life quality of HIBD survivors. We have previously shown that ion channel dysfunction in the central nervous system played an important role in the process of HIBD-induced epilepsy. Therefore, we continued to validate the underlying mechanisms of TRPV1 as a potential target for epilepsy. METHODS:Neonatal hypoxic ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were used to simulate HIBD in vivo and in vitro. Primarily cultured astrocytes were used to assess the expression of TRPV1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cytoskeletal rearrangement, and inflammatory cytokines by using Western blot, q-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, brain electrical activity in freely moving mice was recorded by electroencephalography (EEG). TRPV1 current and neuronal excitability were detected by whole-cell patch clamp. RESULTS:Astrocytic TRPV1 translocated to the membrane after OGD. Mechanistically, astrocytic TRPV1 activation increased the inflow of Ca, which promoted G-actin polymerized to F-actin, thus promoted astrocyte migration after OGD. Moreover, astrocytic TRPV1 deficiency decreased the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS) after OGD. It could also dramatically attenuate neuronal excitability after OGD and brain electrical activity in HIBD mice. Behavioral testing for seizures after HIBD revealed that TRPV1 knockout mice demonstrated prolonged onset latency, shortened duration, and decreased seizure severity when compared with wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, TRPV1 promoted astrocyte migration thus helped the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS) from astrocytes into the vicinity of neurons to promote epilepsy. Our study provides a strong rationale for astrocytic TRPV1 to be a therapeutic target for anti-epileptogenesis after HIBD.
Adult Neurogenesis in Epileptogenesis: An Update for Preclinical Finding and Potential Clinical Translation.
Chen Liying,Wang Yi,Chen Zhong
Epileptogenesis refers to the process in which a normal brain becomes epileptic, and is characterized by hypersynchronous spontaneous recurrent seizures involving a complex epileptogenic network. Current available pharmacological treatment of epilepsy is generally symptomatic in controlling seizures but is not disease-modifying in epileptogenesis. Cumulative evidence suggests that adult neurogenesis, specifically in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, is crucial in epileptogenesis. In this review, we describe the pathological changes that occur in adult neurogenesis in the epileptic brain and how adult neurogenesis is involved in epileptogenesis through different interventions. This is followed by a discussion of some of the molecular signaling pathways involved in regulating adult neurogenesis, which could be potential druggable targets for epileptogenesis. Finally, we provide perspectives on some possible research directions for future studies.
Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers for genetic generalized epilepsies: a three microRNA panel.
Martins-Ferreira R,Chaves J,Carvalho C,Bettencourt A,Chorão R,Freitas J,Samões R,Boleixa D,Lopes J,Ramalheira J,da Silva B M,Martins da Silva A,Costa P P,Leal B
European journal of neurology
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) encompass a group of syndromes of mainly genetic causes, characterized by the involvement of both hemispheres. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with a critical role in the regulation of neuronal biological processes through gene expression modulation. Dysregulated miRNA expression has been shown in epilepsy. Due to their stability in biological fluids like serum, miRNAs have assumed a prominent role in biomarker research. Our aim was to evaluate circulating levels of three miRNAs in GGE patients and assess their putative diagnostic value. METHODS:MiR-146a, miR-155 and miR-132 were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the serum of 79 GGE patients (47 women, 32 men, 35.1 ± 12.4 years) and 67 healthy individuals (41 women, 26 men, 42.4 ± 10.1 years). Relative expression values were calculated using the 2 method. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess diagnostic value. MiRNA expression was correlated with clinicopathological features. RESULTS:Serum levels of miR-146a and miR-155 were significantly upregulated in GGE patients relative to controls (3.13 and 6.05, respectively). Combined miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-132 serum levels performed well as a diagnostic biomarker, discriminating GGE patients from controls with an area under the curve of 0.85, 80% specificity and 73% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-132 may partake in GGE epileptogenesis. A panel of three circulating miRNAs with potential value as a GGE biomarker is reported for the first time. Novel biomarkers may help to identify new treatment targets and contribute to improved patients' quality of life through earlier diagnosis and a more precise prognosis.
Connexins-Based Hemichannels/Channels and Their Relationship with Inflammation, Seizures and Epilepsy.
Medina-Ceja Laura,Salazar-Sánchez Juan C,Ortega-Ibarra Jorge,Morales-Villagrán Alberto
International journal of molecular sciences
Connexins (Cxs) are a family of 21 protein isoforms, eleven of which are expressed in the central nervous system, and they are found in neurons and glia. Cxs form hemichannels (connexons) and channels (gap junctions/electric synapses) that permit functional and metabolic coupling between neurons and astrocytes. Altered Cx expression and function is involved in inflammation and neurological diseases. Cxs-based hemichannels and channels have a relevance to seizures and epilepsy in two ways: First, this pathological condition increases the opening probability of hemichannels in glial cells to enable gliotransmitter release, sustaining the inflammatory process and exacerbating seizure generation and epileptogenesis, and second, the opening of channels favors excitability and synchronization through coupled neurons. These biological events highlight the global pathological mechanism of epilepsy, and the therapeutic potential of Cxs-based hemichannels and channels. Therefore, this review describes the role of Cxs in neuroinflammation and epilepsy and examines how the blocking of channels and hemichannels may be therapeutic targets of anti-convulsive and anti-epileptic treatments.
Role of cerebral glutamate in post-stroke epileptogenesis.
Nicolo John-Paul,O'Brien Terence J,Kwan Patrick
Stroke is one of the most important causes of acquired epilepsy in the adult population. While factors such as cortical involvement and haemorrhage have been associated with increased seizure risk, the mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy after stroke remain unclear. One hypothesised mechanism is an excitotoxic effect of abnormal glutamate release following a stroke. Cerebral extracellular glutamate levels are known to rise in the setting of acute stroke, and numerous studies have implicated glutamate in the pathogenesis of seizures and epilepsy, both through direct measurement of glutamate from the epileptic brain and by analysis of receptors and transporters central to glutamate homeostasis. While experimental evidence suggests the cellular injury induced by glutamate exposure may lead to development of an epileptic phenotype, there is little direct data linking the rise in glutamate during stroke with the later development of epilepsy. Clinical research in this field has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive methods to measure cerebral glutamate. However, with the increasing availability of 7T MRI technology, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is able to better resolve glutamate from other chemical species at this field strength, and Glutamate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (GluCEST) imaging has been applied to localise epileptic foci in non-lesional focal epilepsy. This review outlines the evidence implicating a pivotal role for cerebral glutamate in the development of post-stroke epilepsy, and exploring the role of MRI in studying glutamate as a biomarker and therefore its suitability as a molecular target for anti-epileptogenic therapies. We hypothesise that the rise in glutamate levels in the setting of acute stroke is a clinically relevant biomarker for the development of post-stroke epilepsy.
Intra- and Extracellular Pillars of a Unifying Framework for Homeostatic Plasticity: A Crosstalk Between Metabotropic Receptors and Extracellular Matrix.
Cingolani Lorenzo A,Vitale Carmela,Dityatev Alexander
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
In the face of chronic changes in incoming sensory inputs, neuronal networks are capable of maintaining stable conditions of electrical activity over prolonged periods of time by adjusting synaptic strength, to amplify or dampen incoming inputs [homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP)], or by altering the intrinsic excitability of individual neurons [homeostatic intrinsic plasticity (HIP)]. Emerging evidence suggests a synergistic interplay between extracellular matrix (ECM) and metabotropic receptors in both forms of homeostatic plasticity. Activation of dopaminergic, serotonergic, or glutamate metabotropic receptors stimulates intracellular signaling through calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate receptors, and induces changes in expression of ECM molecules and proteolysis of both ECM molecules (lecticans) and ECM receptors (NPR, CD44). The resulting remodeling of perisynaptic and synaptic ECM provides permissive conditions for HSP and plays an instructive role by recruiting additional signaling cascades, such as those through metabotropic glutamate receptors and integrins. The superimposition of all these signaling events determines intracellular and diffusional trafficking of ionotropic glutamate receptors, resulting in HSP and modulation of conditions for inducing Hebbian synaptic plasticity (i.e., metaplasticity). It also controls cell-surface delivery and activity of voltage- and Ca-gated ion channels, resulting in HIP. These mechanisms may modify epileptogenesis and become a target for therapeutic interventions.
Extracellular Vesicles in the Forebrain Display Reduced miR-346 and miR-331-3p in a Rat Model of Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
Gitaí Daniel Leite Góes,Dos Santos Ygor Daniel Ramos,Upadhya Raghavendra,Kodali Maheedhar,Madhu Leelavathi N,Shetty Ashok K
An initial precipitating injury in the brain, such as after status epilepticus (SE), evolves into chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated changes in the miRNA composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the forebrain after the establishment of SE-induced chronic TLE. We induced SE in young Fischer 344 rats through graded intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid, which resulted in consistent spontaneous recurrent seizures at ~ 3 months post-SE. We isolated EVs from the entire forebrain of chronically epileptic rats and age-matched naïve control animals through an ultracentrifugation method and performed miRNA-sequencing studies to discern changes in the miRNA composition of forebrain-derived EVs in chronic epilepsy. EVs from both naïve and epileptic forebrains displayed spherical or cup-shaped morphology, a comparable size range, and CD63 expression but lacked the expression of a deep cellular marker GM130. However, miRNA-sequencing studies suggested downregulation of 3 miRNAs (miR-187-5p, miR-346, and miR-331-3p) and upregulation of 4 miRNAs (miR-490-5p, miR-376b-3p, miR-493-5p, and miR-124-5p) in EVs from epileptic forebrains with fold changes ranging from 1.5 to 2.4 (p < 0.0006; FDR < 0.05). By using geNorm and Normfinder software, we identified miR-487 and miR-221 as the best combination of reference genes for measurement of altered miRNAs found in the epileptic forebrain through qRT-PCR studies. The validation revealed that only miR-346 and miR-331-3p were significantly downregulated in EVs from the epileptic forebrain. The enrichment pathway analysis of these miRNAs showed an overrepresentation of signaling pathways that are linked to molecular mechanisms underlying chronic epilepsy, including GABA-ergic (miR-346 targets) and mTOR (miR-331-3p targets) systems. Thus, the packaging of two miRNAs into EVs in neural cells is considerably altered in chronic epilepsy. Functional studies on these two miRNAs may uncover their role in the pathophysiology and treatment of TLE.
Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Molecular Therapy of Epilepsy and Blood-Brain Barrier Damages.
Zamay Tatiana N,Zamay Galina S,Shnayder Natalia A,Dmitrenko Diana V,Zamay Sergey S,Yushchenko Victoria,Kolovskaya Olga S,Susevski Vanessa,Berezovski Maxim V,Kichkailo Anna S
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids
Epilepsy is the fourth most prevalent brain disorder affecting millions of people of all ages. Epilepsy is divided into six categories different in etiology and molecular mechanisms; however, their common denominator is the inability to maintain ionic homeostasis. Antiepileptic drugs have a broad spectrum of action and high toxicity to the whole organism. In many cases, they could not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reach corresponding targets. Nucleic acid aptamers are a new and promising class of antiepileptic drugs as they are non-toxic, specific, and able to regulate the permeability of ion channels or inhibit inflammatory proteins. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and its interconnection with the BBB and show the potential of aptamers for antiepileptic treatment.
Modulating neuroinflammation and oxidative stress to prevent epilepsy and improve outcomes after traumatic brain injury.
Eastman Clifford L,D'Ambrosio Raimondo,Ganesh Thota
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in young adults worldwide. TBI survival is associated with persistent neuropsychiatric and neurological impairments, including posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). To date, no pharmaceutical treatment has been found to prevent PTE or ameliorate neurological/neuropsychiatric deficits after TBI. Brain trauma results in immediate mechanical damage to brain cells and blood vessels that may never be fully restored given the limited regenerative capacity of brain tissue. This primary insult unleashes cascades of events, prominently including neuroinflammation and massive oxidative stress that evolve over time, expanding the brain injury, but also clearing cellular debris and establishing homeostasis in the region of damage. Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory sequelae of TBI contribute to posttraumatic epileptogenesis. This review will focus on possible roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their interactions with neuroinflammation in posttraumatic epileptogenesis, and emerging therapeutic strategies after TBI. We propose that inhibitors of the professional ROS-generating enzymes, the NADPH oxygenases and myeloperoxidase alone, or combined with selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase mediated signaling may have promise for the treatment or prevention of PTE and other sequelae of TBI. This article is part of the special issue entitled 'New Epilepsy Therapies for the 21st Century - From Antiseizure Drugs to Prevention, Modification and Cure of Epilepsy'.
Genetic characteristics of non-familial epilepsy.
BACKGROUND:Knowledge of the genetic etiology of epilepsy can provide essential prognostic information and influence decisions regarding treatment and management, leading us into the era of precision medicine. However, the genetic basis underlying epileptogenesis or epilepsy pharmacoresistance is not well-understood, particularly in non-familial epilepsies with heterogeneous phenotypes that last until or start in adulthood. METHODS:We sought to determine the contribution of known epilepsy-associated genes (EAGs) to the causation of non-familial epilepsies with heterogeneous phenotypes and to the genetic basis underlying epilepsy pharmacoresistance. We performed a multi-center study for whole exome sequencing-based screening of 178 selected EAGs in 243 non-familial adult patients with primarily focal epilepsy (122 drug-resistant and 121 drug-responsive epilepsies). The pathogenicity of each variant was assessed through a customized stringent filtering process and classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. RESULTS:Possible causal genetic variants of epilepsy were uncovered in 13.2% of non-familial patients with primarily focal epilepsy. The diagnostic yield according to the seizure onset age was 25% (2/8) in the neonatal and infantile period, 11.1% (14/126) in childhood and 14.7% (16/109) in adulthood. The higher diagnostic yields were from ion channel-related genes and mTOR pathway-related genes, which does not significantly differ from the results of previous studies on familial or early-onset epilepsies. These potentially pathogenic variants, which were identified in genes that have been mainly associated with early-onset epilepsies with severe phenotypes, were also linked to epilepsies that start in or last until adulthood in this study. This finding suggested the presence of one or more disease-modifying factors that regulate the onset time or severity of epileptogenesis. The target hypothesis of epilepsy pharmacoresistance was not verified in our study. Instead, neurodevelopment-associated epilepsy genes, such as or , or structural brain lesions were more strongly associated with epilepsy pharmacoresistance. CONCLUSIONS:We revealed a fraction of possible causal genetic variants of non-familial epilepsies in which genetic testing is usually overlooked. In this study, we highlight the importance of earlier identification of the genetic etiology of non-familial epilepsies, which leads us to the best treatment options in terms of precision medicine and to future neurobiological research for novel drug development. This should be considered a justification for physicians determining the hidden genetics of non-familial epilepsies that last until or start in adulthood.
Aquaporin-4 Dysregulation in a Controlled Cortical Impact Injury Model of Posttraumatic Epilepsy.
Szu Jenny I,Chaturvedi Som,Patel Dillon D,Binder Devin K
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a long-term negative consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which recurrent spontaneous seizures occur after the initial head injury. PTE develops over an undefined period during which circuitry reorganization in the brain causes permanent hyperexcitability. The pathophysiology by which trauma leads to spontaneous seizures is unknown and clinically relevant models of PTE are key to understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the development of PTE. In the present study, we used the controlled-cortical impact (CCI) injury model of TBI to induce PTE in mice and to characterize changes in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression. A moderate-severe TBI was induced in the right frontal cortex and video-electroencephalographic (vEEG) recordings were performed in the ipsilateral hippocampus to monitor for spontaneous seizures at 14, 30, 60, and 90 days post injury (dpi). The percentage of mice that developed PTE were 13%, 20%, 27%, and 14% at 14, 30, 60, and 90 dpi, respectively. We found a significant increase in AQP4 in the ipsilateral frontal cortex and hippocampus of mice that developed PTE compared to those that did not develop PTE. Interestingly, AQP4 was found to be mislocalized away from the perivascular endfeet and towards the neuropil in mice that developed PTE. Here, we report for the first time, AQP4 dysregulation in a model of PTE which may carry significant implications for epileptogenesis after TBI.
Amygdaloid complex anatomopathological findings in animal models of status epilepticus.
Tilelli Cristiane Queixa,Flôres Larissa Ribeiro,Cota Vinicius Rosa,Castro Olagide Wagner de,Garcia-Cairasco Norberto
Epilepsy & behavior : E&B
Temporal lobe epileptic seizures are one of the most common and well-characterized types of epilepsies. The current knowledge on the pathology of temporal lobe epilepsy relies strongly on studies of epileptogenesis caused by experimentally induced status epilepticus (SE). Although several temporal lobe structures have been implicated in the epileptogenic process, the hippocampal formation is the temporal lobe structure studied in the greatest amount and detail. However, studies in human patients and animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy indicate that the amygdaloid complex can be also an important seizure generator, and several pathological processes have been shown in the amygdala during epileptogenesis. Therefore, in the present review, we systematically selected, organized, described, and analyzed the current knowledge on anatomopathological data associated with the amygdaloid complex during SE-induced epileptogenesis. Amygdaloid complex participation in the epileptogenic process is evidenced, among others, by alterations in energy metabolism, circulatory, and fluid regulation, neurotransmission, immediate early genes expression, tissue damage, cell suffering, inflammation, and neuroprotection. We conclude that major efforts should be made in order to include the amygdaloid complex as an important target area for evaluation in future research on SE-induced epileptogenesis. This article is part of the Special Issue "NEWroscience 2018".
High Mobility Group Box 1 is a novel pathogenic factor and a mechanistic biomarker for epilepsy.
Ravizza Teresa,Terrone Gaetano,Salamone Alessia,Frigerio Federica,Balosso Silvia,Antoine Daniel J,Vezzani Annamaria
Brain, behavior, and immunity
Approximately 30% of epilepsy patients experience seizures that are not controlled by the available drugs. Moreover, these drugs provide mainly a symptomatic treatment since they do not interfere with the disease's mechanisms. A mechanistic approach to the discovery of key pathogenic brain modifications causing seizure onset, recurrence and progression is instrumental for designing novel and rationale therapeutic interventions that could modify the disease course or prevent its development. In this regard, increasing evidence shows that neuroinflammation is a pathogenic factor in drug-resistant epilepsies. The High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1)/Toll-like receptor 4 axis is a key initiator of neuroinflammation following brain injuries leading to epilepsy, and its activation contributes to seizure mechanisms in animal models. Recent findings have shown dynamic changes in HMGB1 and its isoforms in the brain and blood of animals exposed to acute brain injuries and undergoing epileptogenesis, and in surgically resected epileptic foci in humans. HMGB1 isoforms reflect different pathophysiological processes, and the disulfide isoform, which is generated in the brain during oxidative stress, is implicated in seizures, cell loss and cognitive dysfunctions. Interfering with disulfide HMGB1-activated cell signaling mediates significant therapeutic effects in epilepsy models. Moreover, both clinical and experimental data suggest that HMGB1 isoforms may serve as mechanistic biomarkers for epileptogenesis and drug-resistant epilepsy. These novel findings suggest that the HMGB1 system could be targeted to prevent seizure generation and may provide clinically useful prognostic biomarkers which may also predict the patient's response to therapy.