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    Conduction velocity is related to morphological cell type in rat dorsal root ganglion neurones. Harper A A,Lawson S N The Journal of physiology Combining intracellular recording and dye-injection techniques permitted direct correlation of neuronal soma size with peripheral nerve conduction velocity in individual neurones of the L4 dorsal root ganglion (d.r.g.) of the anaesthetized 5-8-week-old rat. The conduction velocities fell into two main groups; those greater than 14 m/s (A alpha and beta fibres) and those less than 8 m/s (A delta and C fibres). Fibres with conduction velocities in the A delta range (2.2-8 m/s) in the sciatic nerve between the sciatic notch and the neuronal soma in the d.r.g. often conducted more slowly, that is in the C-fibre range (less than 1.4 m/s), in the periphery from the tibial nerve to the sciatic notch. For the fast-conducting myelinated afferents, there was a loose positive correlation between cell size and the conduction velocity of the peripheral axon, whereas a clearer positive correlation existed between neuronal cell size and axonal conduction velocity both for A delta- and for C-fibre afferents. The relationship of the cell cross-sectional area (measured at the nucleolar level), to the cell volume for each neuronal soma was similar for the different conduction velocity groups. The somata of the fast-conducting myelinated A alpha and A beta fibres had a similar mean and range of cross-sectional areas to those of the large light cell population. The somata with A delta and C fibres were of a more uniform size and were restricted to the smaller cells within the ganglia. The mean and range of cross-sectional areas of the C cells was similar to those of the small dark cell population. A delta somata had a larger mean and range of cell sizes than those of the small dark cell population. The relationships of peripheral axon type to the morphological cell types are discussed. 10.1113/jphysiol.1985.sp015573
    Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels. Eijkelkamp Niels,Linley John E,Baker Mark D,Minett Michael S,Cregg Roman,Werdehausen Robert,Rugiero François,Wood John N Brain : a journal of neurology The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors. 10.1093/brain/aws225
    Batrachotoxin, pyrethroids, and BTG 502 share overlapping binding sites on insect sodium channels. Du Yuzhe,Garden Daniel,Khambay Bhupinder,Zhorov Boris S,Dong Ke Molecular pharmacology Batrachotoxin (BTX), a steroidal alkaloid, and pyrethroid insecticides bind to distinct but allosterically coupled receptor sites on voltage-gated sodium channels and cause persistent channel activation. BTX presumably binds in the inner pore, whereas pyrethroids are predicted to bind at the lipid-exposed cavity formed by the short intracellular linker-helix IIS4-S5 and transmembrane helices IIS5 and IIIS6. The alkylamide insecticide (2E,4E)-N-(1,2-dimethylpropyl)-6-(5-bromo-2-naphthalenyl)-2,4-hexadienamide (BTG 502) reduces sodium currents and antagonizes the action of BTX on cockroach sodium channels, suggesting that it also binds inside the pore. However, a pyrethroid-sensing residue, Phe(3i17) in IIIS6, which does not face the pore, is essential for the activity of BTG 502 but not for BTX. In this study, we found that three additional deltamethrin-sensing residues in IIIS6, Ile(3i12), Gly(3i14), and Phe(3i16) (the latter two are also BTX-sensing), and three BTX-sensing residues, Ser(3i15) and Leu(3i19) in IIIS6 and Phe(4i15) in IVS6, are all critical for BTG 502 action on cockroach sodium channels. Using these data as constraints, we constructed a BTG 502 binding model in which BTG 502 wraps around IIIS6, probably making direct contacts with all of the above residues on the opposite faces of the IIIS6 helix, except for the putative gating hinge Gly(3i14). BTG 502 and its inactive analog DAP 1855 antagonize the action of deltamethrin. The antagonism was eliminated by mutations of Ser(3i15), Phe(3i17), Leu(3i19), and Phe(4i15) but not by mutations of Ile(3i12), Gly(3i14), and Phe(3i16). Our analysis revealed a unique mode of action of BTG 502, its receptor site overlapping with those of both BTX and deltamethrin. 10.1124/mol.111.072504
    Sensory and electrophysiological properties of guinea-pig sensory neurones expressing Nav 1.7 (PN1) Na+ channel alpha subunit protein. Djouhri Laiche,Newton Richard,Levinson Simon Rock,Berry Carol M,Carruthers Barbara,Lawson Sally N The Journal of physiology The TTX-sensitive Na(v)1.7 (PN1) Na(+) channel alpha subunit protein is expressed mainly in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. This study examines immunocytochemically whether it is expressed exclusively or preferentially in nociceptive primary afferent DRG neurones, and determines the electrophysiological properties of neurones that express it. Intracellular somatic action potentials (APs) evoked by dorsal root stimulation were recorded in L6/S1 DRG neurones at 30 +/- 2 degrees C in vivo in deeply anaesthetised young guinea-pigs. Each neurone was classified, from its dorsal root conduction velocity (CV) as a C-, Adelta- or Aalpha/beta-fibre unit and from its response to mechanical and thermal stimuli, as a nociceptive, low threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) or unresponsive unit. Fluorescent dye was injected into the soma and Na(v)1.7-like immunoreactivity (Na(v)1.7-LI) was examined on sections of dye-injected neurones. All C-, 90 % of Adelta- and 40 % of Aalpha/beta-fibre units, including both nociceptive and LTM units, showed Na(v)1.7-LI. Positive units included 1/1 C-LTM, 6/6 C-nociceptive, 4/4 C-unresponsive (possible silent nociceptive) units, 5/6 Adelta-LTM (D hair), 13/14 Adelta-nociceptive, 2/9 Aalpha/beta-nociceptive, 10/18 Aalpha/beta-LTM cutaneous and 0/9 Aalpha/beta-muscle spindle afferent units. Overall, a higher proportion of nociceptive than of LTM neurones was positive, and the median relative staining intensity was greater in nociceptive than LTM units. Na(v)1.7-LI intensity was clearly positively correlated with AP duration and (less strongly) negatively correlated with CV and soma size. Since nociceptive units tend overall to have longer duration APs, slower CVs and smaller somata, these correlations may be related to the generally greater expression of Na(v)1.7 in nociceptive units. 10.1113/jphysiol.2002.026559
    Slow closed-state inactivation: a novel mechanism underlying ramp currents in cells expressing the hNE/PN1 sodium channel. Cummins T R,Howe J R,Waxman S G The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience To better understand why sensory neurons express voltage-gated Na+ channel isoforms that are different from those expressed in other types of excitable cells, we compared the properties of the hNE sodium channel [a human homolog of PN1, which is selectively expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons] with that of the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (hSkM1) [both expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells]. Although the voltage dependence of activation was similar, the inactivation properties were different. The V1/2 for steady-state inactivation was slightly more negative, and the rate of open-state inactivation was approximately 50% slower for hNE. However, the greatest difference was that closed-state inactivation and recovery from inactivation were up to fivefold slower for hNE than for hSkM1 channels. TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) currents in small DRG neurons also have slow closed-state inactivation, suggesting that hNE/PN1 contributes to this TTX-S current. Slow ramp depolarizations (0.25 mV/msec) elicited TTX-S persistent currents in cells expressing hNE channels, and in DRG neurons, but not in cells expressing hSkM1 channels. We propose that slow closed-state inactivation underlies these ramp currents. This conclusion is supported by data showing that divalent cations such as Cd2+ and Zn2+ (50-200 microM) slowed closed-state inactivation and also dramatically increased the ramp currents for DRG TTX-S currents and hNE channels but not for hSkM1 channels. The hNE and DRG TTX-S ramp currents activated near -65 mV and therefore could play an important role in boosting stimulus depolarizations in sensory neurons. These results suggest that differences in the kinetics of closed-state inactivation may confer distinct integrative properties on different Na+ channel isoforms.
    An SCN9A channelopathy causes congenital inability to experience pain. Cox James J,Reimann Frank,Nicholas Adeline K,Thornton Gemma,Roberts Emma,Springell Kelly,Karbani Gulshan,Jafri Hussain,Mannan Jovaria,Raashid Yasmin,Al-Gazali Lihadh,Hamamy Henan,Valente Enza Maria,Gorman Shaun,Williams Richard,McHale Duncan P,Wood John N,Gribble Fiona M,Woods C Geoffrey Nature The complete inability to sense pain in an otherwise healthy individual is a very rare phenotype. In three consanguineous families from northern Pakistan, we mapped the condition as an autosomal-recessive trait to chromosome 2q24.3. This region contains the gene SCN9A, encoding the alpha-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7, which is strongly expressed in nociceptive neurons. Sequence analysis of SCN9A in affected individuals revealed three distinct homozygous nonsense mutations (S459X, I767X and W897X). We show that these mutations cause loss of function of Na(v)1.7 by co-expression of wild-type or mutant human Na(v)1.7 with sodium channel beta(1) and beta(2) subunits in HEK293 cells. In cells expressing mutant Na(v)1.7, the currents were no greater than background. Our data suggest that SCN9A is an essential and non-redundant requirement for nociception in humans. These findings should stimulate the search for novel analgesics that selectively target this sodium channel subunit. 10.1038/nature05413
    Differential modulation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 peripheral nerve sodium channels by the local anesthetic lidocaine. Chevrier P,Vijayaragavan K,Chahine M British journal of pharmacology 1 Voltage-gated Na+ channels are transmembrane proteins that are essential for the propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 dorsal root ganglion Na+ channels exhibit different kinetics and sensitivities to tetrodotoxin (TTX). We investigated the properties of both channels in the presence of lidocaine, a local anesthetic (LA) and class I anti-arrhythmic drug. 2 Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 Na+ channels were coexpressed with the beta1-subunit in Xenopus oocytes. Na+ currents were recorded using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. 3 Dose-response curves for both channels had different EC50 (dose producing 50% maximum current inhibition) (450 microm for Nav1.7 and 104 microm for Nav1.8). Lidocaine enhanced current decrease in a frequency-dependent manner. Steady-state inactivation of both channels was also affected by lidocaine, Nav1.7 being the most sensitive. Only the steady-state activation of Nav1.8 was affected while the entry of both channels into slow inactivation was affected by lidocaine, Nav1.8 being affected to a larger degree. 4 Although the channels share homology at DIV S6, the LA binding site, they differ in their sensitivity to lidocaine. Recent studies suggest that other residues on DI and DII known to influence lidocaine binding may explain the differences in affinities between Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 Na+ channels. 5 Understanding the properties of these channels and their pharmacology is of critical importance to developing drugs and finding effective therapies to treat chronic pain. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0705796
    Roles of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na+ current, TTX-resistant Na+ current, and Ca2+ current in the action potentials of nociceptive sensory neurons. Blair Nathaniel T,Bean Bruce P The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Nociceptive sensory neurons are unusual in expressing voltage-gated inward currents carried by sodium channels resistant to block by tetrodotoxin (TTX) as well as currents carried by conventional TTX-sensitive sodium channels and voltage-dependent calcium channels. To examine how currents carried by each of these helps to shape the action potential in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion cell bodies, we voltage clamped cells by using the action potential recorded from each cell as the command voltage. Using intracellular solutions of physiological ionic composition, we isolated individual components of current flowing during the action potential with the use of channel blockers (TTX for TTX-sensitive sodium currents and a mixture of calcium channel blockers for calcium currents) and ionic substitution (TTX-resistant current measured by the replacement of extracellular sodium by N-methyl-D-glucamine in the presence of TTX, with correction for altered driving force). TTX-resistant sodium channels activated quickly enough to carry the largest inward charge during the upstroke of the nociceptor action potential (approximately 58%), with TTX-sensitive sodium channels also contributing significantly ( approximately 40%), especially near threshold, and high voltage-activated calcium currents much less (approximately 2%). Action potentials had a prominent shoulder during the falling phase, characteristic of nociceptive neurons. TTX-resistant sodium channels did not inactivate completely during the action potential and carried the majority (58%) of inward current flowing during the shoulder, with high voltage-activated calcium current also contributing significantly (39%). Unlike calcium current, TTX-resistant sodium current is not accompanied by opposing calcium-activated potassium current and may provide an effective mechanism by which the duration of action potentials (and consequently calcium entry) can be regulated.
    Expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to central preterminal branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. Black Joel A,Frézel Noémie,Dib-Hajj Sulayman D,Waxman Stephen G Molecular pain BACKGROUND:Sodium channel Nav1.7 has emerged as a target of considerable interest in pain research, since loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene that encodes Nav1.7, are associated with a syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain, gain-of-function mutations are linked to the debiliting chronic pain conditions erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and upregulated expression of Nav1.7 accompanies pain in diabetes and inflammation. Since Nav1.7 has been implicated as playing a critical role in pain pathways, we examined by immunocytochemical methods the expression and distribution of Nav1.7 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, from peripheral terminals in the skin to central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn. RESULTS:Nav1.7 is robustly expressed within the somata of peptidergic and non-peptidergic DRG neurons, and along the peripherally- and centrally-directed C-fibers of these cells. Nav1.7 is also expressed at nodes of Ranvier in a subpopulation of Aδ-fibers within sciatic nerve and dorsal root. The peripheral terminals of DRG neurons within skin, intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF), exhibit robust Nav1.7 immunolabeling. The central projections of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina of spinal cord dorsal horn also display Nav1.7 immunoreactivity which extends to presynaptic terminals. CONCLUSIONS:The expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to preterminal central branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. These data support a major contribution for Nav1.7 in pain pathways, including action potential electrogenesis, conduction along axonal trunks and depolarization/invasion of presynaptic axons. The findings presented here may be important for pharmaceutical development, where target engagement in the right compartment is essential. 10.1186/1744-8069-8-82
    Spinal sensory neurons express multiple sodium channel alpha-subunit mRNAs. Black J A,Dib-Hajj S,McNabola K,Jeste S,Rizzo M A,Kocsis J D,Waxman S G Brain research. Molecular brain research The expression of sodium channel alpha-, beta 1- and beta 2-subunit mRNAs was examined in adult rat DRG neurons in dissociated culture at 1 day in vitro and within sections of intact ganglia by in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results demonstrate that sodium channel alpha-subunit mRNAs are differentially expressed in small (< 25 microns diam), medium (25-45 microns diam.) and large (> 45 microns diam.) cultured DRG neurons at 1 day in vitro (div). Sodium channel mRNA I is expressed at higher levels in large neurons than small DRG neurons, while sodium channel mRNA II is variably expressed, with most cells lacking or exhibiting low levels of detectable signal of these mRNAs and limited numbers of neurons with moderate expression levels. DRG neurons generally exhibit negligible or low levels of hybridization signal for sodium channel mRNA III. Sodium channel mRNAs Na6 and NaG show similar patterns of expression, with most large and many medium DRG neurons exhibiting high levels of expression. The mRNA for the rat cognate of human sodium channel hNE-Na is detected in virtually every DRG neuron; most cells in all size classes exhibit moderate or high levels of hNE-Na expression. Sodium channel SNS mRNA is expressed in all size classes of DRG neurons, but shows greater expression in small and medium DRG neurons than in large neurons. The mRNA for the rat cognate of mouse sodium channel mNa 2.3 is not detected, or is detected at low levels, in most DRG neurons, regardless of size, although moderate expression is detected in some neurons. Sodium channel beta 1- and beta 2-subunit mRNAs exhibit similar expression patterns; they are detected in most DRG neurons, although the level of expression tends to be greater in large neurons than in small neurons. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization of intact adult DRG showed a similar pattern of expression of sodium channel mRNAs to that observed in DRG neurons in vitro. These results demonstrate that adult DRG neurons express multiple sodium channel mRNAs in vitro and in situ and suggest a molecular basis for the biophysical heterogeneity of sodium currents observed in these cells.
    Metabolic activities of ginsenoside Rb1, baicalin, glycyrrhizin and geniposide to their bioactive compounds by human intestinal microflora. Yim Jang-Shim,Kim Young-Suk,Moon Sang-Kwan,Cho Ki-Ho,Bae Hyung-Sup,Kim Jung-Jin,Park Eun-Kyung,Kim Dong-Hyun Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin To evaluate the pharmacological actions of herbal medicines, metabolic activities of herbal medicine components, ginsenoside Rb1, glycyrrhizin, geniposide and baicalin to their bioactive compounds compound K, 18beta-glycyrrhetic acid, genipin and baicalein by fecal specimens were measured. Their metabolic activities were 646.1+/-591.4, 29.4+/-51.7, 926.3+/-569.6 and 3884.6+/-1400.1 micromol/h/g, respectively. The profiles of these metabolic activities of baicalin and ginsenoside Rb1 were not significantly different to those of water extracts of Scutellariae Radix and Ginseng Radix. None of the metabolic activities tested were different between males and females, or between ages. However, the difference in these metabolic activities in individuals was significant. These results suggest that the human intestinal microflora enzymes that convert herbal components to their bioactive compounds may be used as selection markers of responders to traditional medicines. 10.1248/bpb.27.1580
    A review of biotransformation and pharmacology of ginsenoside compound K. Yang Xi-Ding,Yang Yong-Yu,Ouyang Dong-Sheng,Yang Guo-Ping Fitoterapia As an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, ginsenoside compound K (20-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, CK) is a major deglycosylated metabolite form of ginsenosides which is absorbed into the systemic circulation. And it has demonstrated such diverse intriguing biological properties as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammation, antiallergic, anti-diabetic, anti-angiogenesis, anti-aging, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects. The present review shall summarize recent studies on various biotransformation and pharmacological activities of CK. 10.1016/j.fitote.2014.11.019
    Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 via the gypenoside pathway by human gut bacteria. Shen Hong,Leung Weng-Im,Ruan Jian-Qing,Li Song-Lin,Lei Jacky Pui-Cheong,Wang Yi-Tao,Yan Ru Chinese medicine BACKGROUND:Bacterial conversion of ginsenosides is crucial for the health-promoting effects of ginsenosides. Previous studies on the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) by gut bacteria have focused on the ginsenoside Rd (Rd) pathway (Rb1 → Rd → ginsenoside F2 (F2) → compound K (Cpd K)). This study aims to examine the gypenoside pathway in human gut bacteria in vitro. METHODS:The metabolic pathways of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites ginsenoside Rd and gypenoside XVII in human gut bacteria were investigated by incubating the compounds anaerobically with pooled or individual gut bacteria samples from healthy volunteers. Ginsenoside Rb1, the metabolites generated by human gut bacteria, and degraded products in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) were qualitatively analyzed using an LC/MSD Trap system in the negative ion mode and quantitatively determined by HPLC-UV analysis. RESULTS:When incubated anaerobically with pooled gut bacteria, Rb1 generated five metabolites, namely Rd, F2, Cpd K, and the rare gypenosides XVII (G-XVII) and LXXV (G-LXXV). The gypenoside pathway (Rb1 → G-XVII → G-LXXV → Cpd K) was rapid, intermediate, and minor, and finally converted Rb1 to Cpd K via G-XVII → F2 (major)/G-LXXV (minor). Both the Rd and gypenoside pathways exhibited great inter-individual variations in age-and sex-independent manners (P > 0.05). Rb1 was highly acid-labile and degraded rapidly to form F2, ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and Cpd K, but did not generate the gypenosides in SGF. The formation of the gypenosides might be explained by the involvement of a gut bacteria-mediated enzymatic process. CONCLUSIONS:Rb1 was metabolized to G-XVII, F2 (major) or G-LXXL (minor), and finally Cpd K by human gut bacteria in vitro. 10.1186/1749-8546-8-22
    Enzymatic modification enhances the protective activity of citrus flavonoids against alcohol-induced liver disease. Park Ho-Young,Choi Hee-Don,Eom Hyojin,Choi Inwook Food chemistry Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol in a short period of time. ALD is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of orally administrated citrus flavonoids (CFs) and their enzymatically modified ones (EM-CFs) to prevent ALD. Hesperidin and narirutin were extracted from peels of Citrus unshiu by ultra-sonication and purified further. These CFs were modified enzymatically through glycosylation and de-rhamnosylation by the actions of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and hesperidinase, respectively. CFs and EM-CFs were fed to ICR mouse along with ethanol for 8 weeks, and changes in lipid contents, lipid peroxidation, GSH, antioxidant enzymes activity and proinflammatory cytokines in hepatic tissues were observed. Administration of CFs and EM-CFs along with alcohol significantly suppressed increases in prognostic parameters of a hepatocellular injury. Especially, EM-CFs fed groups maintained malondialdehyde, GSH levels and catalase activity in hepatic tissues close to those of the normal diet fed group. Abrupt increases in proinflammatory cytokines such as IκB-α, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in hepatocytes due to a chronic alcohol uptake were significantly suppressed by co-administration of EM-CFs. These results indicate that although the administration of CFs can alleviate ALD through preventing excessive lipid formation, protecting the antioxidant system and suppressing induction of inflammation in hepatocytes, their effectiveness can be further improved by glycosylation and de-rhamnosylation. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.044
    Identification of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonists in ginger. Nievergelt Andreas,Huonker Peter,Schoop Roland,Altmann Karl-Heinz,Gertsch Jürg Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry Animal studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) reduces anxiety. In this study, bioactivity-guided fractionation of a ginger extract identified nine compounds that interact with the human serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor with significant to moderate binding affinities (K(i)=3-20 microM). [(35)S]-GTP gamma S assays indicated that 10-shogaol, 1-dehydro-6-gingerdione, and particularly the whole lipophilic ginger extract (K(i)=11.6 microg/ml) partially activate the 5-HT(1A) receptor (20-60% of maximal activation). In addition, the intestinal absorption of gingerols and shogaols was simulated and their interactions with P-glycoprotein were measured, suggesting a favourable pharmacokinetic profile for the 5-HT(1A) active compounds. 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.02.062
    Ginseng compounds: an update on their molecular mechanisms and medical applications. Lü Jian-Ming,Yao Qizhi,Chen Changyi Current vascular pharmacology Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginsenosides, the major pharmacologically active ingredients of ginseng, appear to be responsible for most of the activities of ginseng including vasorelaxation, antioxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Approximately 40 ginsenoside compounds have been identified. Researchers now focus on using purified individual ginsenoside to reveal the specific mechanism of functions of ginseng instead of using whole ginseng root extracts. Individual ginsenosides may have different effects in pharmacology and mechanisms due to their different chemical structures. Among them the most commonly studied ginsenosides are Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Re, Rd and Rh1. The molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides have attracted much attention and hundreds of papers have been published in the last few years. The general purpose of this update is to provide information of recently described effects of ginsenosides on antioxidation, vascular system, signal transduction pathways and interaction with receptors. Their therapeutic applications in animal models and humans as well as the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of ginsenosides are also discussed in this review. This review concludes with some thoughts for future directions in the further development of ginseng compounds as effective therapeutic agents. 10.2174/157016109788340767
    Identification of BACE1 inhibitors from Panax ginseng saponins-An Insilco approach. Karpagam Veerappan,Sathishkumar Natarajan,Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam,Rasappan Periannan,Shila Samuel,Kim Yeon-Ju,Yang Deok-Chun Computers in biology and medicine BACE1, a β secretase candidate enzyme, initiates the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis via amyloid β (Aβ) peptide production serving as a potential therapeutic target. Previous experimental evidence suggested that ginsenosides, a key component of Panax ginseng, are effective against AD. In this study, we implemented a molecular modeling method to reveal the inhibitory action of ginsenosides on BACE1 activity. We selected 12 ginsenosides and performed molecular docking studies to evaluate its interaction with the BACE1 active site, which is essential for inhibition. Further ADMET filtration was applied to find drug-like molecules with a specific ability to cross blood brain barrier (BBB), and to determine toxicity. The BACE1-ginsenosides complex was further subjected to a molecular dynamics simulation to study the stability of the complex and its hydrogen bond interactions. In summary, our findings show ginsenosides CK, F1, Rh1 and Rh2 are potential BACE1 inhibitors from Panax ginseng. 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2013.05.009
    Randomised clinical trial: the effects of daikenchuto, TU-100, on gastrointestinal and colonic transit, anorectal and bowel function in female patients with functional constipation. Iturrino J,Camilleri M,Wong B S,Linker Nord S J,Burton D,Zinsmeister A R Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics BACKGROUND:Daikenchuto, a Japanese herbal medicine used for post-operative ileus and constipation, dose dependently stimulates gastrointestinal (GI) motility and decreases rectal compliance and sensation. Effects of TU-100 (commercial form of daikenchuto) in adults with constipation are unknown. AIM:To compare the effects of oral TU-100, 2.5 g t.d.s. or 5 g t.d.s. and placebo t.d.s. on GI and colonic transit (CT), rectal compliance (RC) and sensation thresholds (RST), anal sphincter pressures (ASP) and bowel function in female patients with functional constipation (FC). METHODS:We conducted a single-centre, randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, pharmacodynamic study; 45 female patients with FC without evidence of rectal evacuation disorder were assigned to 28 days' treatment with oral placebo or TU-100 (Tsumura USA, Princeton, NJ, USA). Demographic data and CT were measured at baseline and randomisation stratified by baseline CT (GC> or <1.9) and by BMI (<25 or ≥25 kg/m(2) ). At the end of treatment period, we measured GI and CT by scintigraphy, RST and RC by barostat, ASP by manometry, psychosensory sensations, bowel function by daily diary and quality of life (QOL). The study had power to detect effect sizes of 33% (CT), 40% (RC) and 46% (RST). Statistical analysis included BMI as covariate. RESULTS:TU-100 had no significant effects on GI or CT, RC, ASP, recto-anal pressure difference, or RST. The 5 g t.d.s./day dose was associated with lower RST for first sensation and gas (unadjusted P: 0.045 and 0.024 respectively). There were no treatment effects on psychosensory symptoms, stool frequency, stool consistency or QOL. CONCLUSION:Mechanisms underlying the observed clinical benefit of TU-100 remain unclear (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01139216). 10.1111/apt.12264
    Unravelling of the health effects of polyphenols is a complex puzzle complicated by metabolism. Hollman Peter C H Archives of biochemistry and biophysics Plant metabolism creates complex mixtures of polyphenols in plant foods. Epidemiology and human trials reduced this complexity, by studying specific foods; subclasses of polyphenols; individual polyphenols, or total antioxidant capacity (TAC). This implies the following assumptions: (1) a limited number of potent polyphenols exists; (2) well-defined natural potent mixtures of polyphenols exist; (3) polyphenols share a common biological activity (e.g. antioxidant activity). To find potent polyphenols (1st assumption), in vitro screening has been widely applied, but most published results are of limited use because metabolism, changing biological activity profoundly, has frequently not been considered. The abundant anecdotal evidence for natural potent mixtures of polyphenols (2nd assumption) on the internet is very hard to verify. Additionally, cross-cultural studies have revealed the potency of e.g. cocoa. Polyphenols share the antioxidant phenolic group which inspired researchers to measure their antioxidant activity, thus greatly reducing complexity (3rd assumption). Unfortunately, the elegant antioxidant hypothesis has to be rejected, because poor absorption and extensive metabolism annihilate any contribution to the endogenous body antioxidants. In conclusion, the above assumptions are hard to verify, and no quick answers are to be expected. Future research should focus on structure-activity relations at nanomolar levels and explore metabolomics. 10.1016/j.abb.2014.04.013
    Bioavailability of dietary flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Crozier Alan,Del Rio Daniele,Clifford Michael N Molecular aspects of medicine This paper reviews recent human studies on the bioavailability of dietary flavonoids and related compounds, including chlorogenic acids and ellagitannins, in which the identification of metabolites, catabolites and parent compounds in plasma, urine and ileal fluid was based on mass spectrometric methodology. Compounds absorbed in the small intestine appear in the circulatory system predominantly as glucuronide, sulfate and methylated metabolites which seemingly are treated by the body as xenobiotics as they are rapidly removed from the bloodstream. As a consequence, while analysis of plasma provides valuable information on the identity and pharmacokinetic profiles of circulating metabolites after acute supplementation, it does not provide accurate quantitative assessments of uptake from the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary excretion, of which there are great variations with different classes of flavonoids, provides a more realistic figure but, as this does not include the possibility of metabolites being sequestered in body tissues, this too is an under estimate of absorption, but to what degree remains to be determined. Even when absorption occurs in the small intestine, feeding studies with ileostomists reveal that substantial amounts of the parent compounds and some of their metabolites appear in ileal fluid indicating that in volunteers with a functioning colon these compounds will pass to the large intestine where they are subjected to the action of the colonic microflora. A diversity of colonic-derived catabolites is absorbed into the bloodstream and passes through the body prior to excretion in urine. There is growing evidence that these compounds, which were little investigated until recently, are produced in quantity in the colon and form a key part of the bioavailability equation of dietary flavonoids and related phenolic compounds. 10.1016/j.mam.2010.09.007
    Metabolism of [6]-shogaol in mice and in cancer cells. Chen Huadong,Lv Lishuang,Soroka Dominique,Warin Renaud F,Parks Tiffany A,Hu Yuhui,Zhu Yingdong,Chen Xiaoxin,Sang Shengmin Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals Ginger has received extensive attention because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. However, the metabolic fate of its major components is still unclear. In the present study, the metabolism of [6]-shogaol, one of the major active components in ginger, was examined for the first time in mice and in cancer cells. Thirteen metabolites were detected and identified, seven of which were purified from fecal samples collected from [6]-shogaol-treated mice. Their structures were elucidated as 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 5-methoxy-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M7), 3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl-decan-3-one (M8), 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), 5-methylthio-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M10), 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), and 5-methylthio-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M12) on the basis of detailed analysis of their (1)H, (13)C, and two-dimensional NMR data. The rest of the metabolites were identified as 5-cysteinyl-M6 (M1), 5-cysteinyl-[6]-shogaol (M2), 5-cysteinylglycinyl-M6 (M3), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl-M6 (M4), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl-[6]-shogaol (M5), and 5-glutathiol-[6]-shogaol (M13) by analysis of the MS(n) (n = 1-3) spectra and comparison to authentic standards. Among the metabolites, M1 through M5, M10, M12, and M13 were identified as the thiol conjugates of [6]-shogaol and its metabolite M6. M9 and M11 were identified as the major metabolites in four different cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29, H-1299, and CL-13), and M13 was detected as a major metabolite in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. We further showed that M9 and M11 are bioactive compounds that can inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Our results suggest that 1) [6]-shogaol is extensively metabolized in these two models, 2) its metabolites are bioactive compounds, and 3) the mercapturic acid pathway is one of the major biotransformation pathways of [6]-shogaol. 10.1124/dmd.111.043331
    Kit mutants and gastrointestinal physiology. Sanders Kenton M,Ward Sean M The Journal of physiology There has been considerable speculation about the function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) since their discovery more than 100 years ago. It has been difficult to study these cells under native conditions, but great insights about the function of ICC have come from studies of genetic models with loss-of function mutations in the Kit signalling pathway. First it was discovered that signalling via Kit (a receptor tyrosine kinase) was vital for the development and maintenance of the ICC phenotype in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles. In compound heterozygotes (W/W(V) and Sl/Sl(d) animals), where there are partial loss-of-function mutations in Kit receptors or Kit ligand (stem cell factor), ICC failed to develop in various regions of the GI tract, but no major changes in the smooth muscle layers or enteric nervous system occurred in the absence of these cells. Animals with these mutations provided an unprecedented opportunity to understand the role of ICC in GI motor function, and it is now clear from these studies that ICC serve as: (i) pacemaker cells, generating the spontaneous electrical rhythms of the gut known as slow waves; (ii) a propagation pathway for slow waves so that large areas of the musculature can be entrained to a dominant pacemaker frequency; (iii) mediators of excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory nitrergic neural inputs from the enteric nervous system, and (iv) stretch receptors that modulate membrane potential and electrical slow wave frequency. This review describes the use of genetic models to understand the important physiological role of ICC in the GI tract. 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.122473
    Two-pore-domain potassium channels in smooth muscles: new components of myogenic regulation. Sanders Kenton M,Koh Sang Don The Journal of physiology Gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles are influenced by many levels of regulation, including those provided by enteric motor neurones, hormones and paracrine substances. The integrated contractile responses to these regulatory mechanisms depend heavily on the state of excitability of smooth muscle cells. Resting ionic conductances and myogenic responses to agonists and physical parameters, such as stretch, are important in establishing basal excitability. This review discusses the role of 2-pore-domain K+ channels in contributing to background conductances and in mediating responses of GI muscles to enteric inhibitory nerve stimulation and stretch. Murine GI muscles express TREK-1 channels and display a stretch-dependent K+ (SDK) conductance that is also activated by nitric oxide via a cGMP-dependent mechanism. Cloning and expression of mTREK-1 produced an SDK conductance that was activated by cGMP-dependent phosphorylation at serine-351. GI muscle cells also express TASK-1 and TASK-2 channels that are inhibited by lidocaine and external acidification. These conductances appear to provide significant background K+ permeability that contributes to the negative resting potentials of GI muscles. 10.1113/jphysiol.2005.098897
    A functional role for the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK-1 in cerebellar granule neurons. Millar J A,Barratt L,Southan A P,Page K M,Fyffe R E,Robertson B,Mathie A Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are one of the most populous cells in the mammalian brain. They express an outwardly rectifying potassium current, termed a "standing-outward" K(+) current, or IK(SO), which does not inactivate. It is active at the resting potential of CGNs, and blocking IK(SO) leads to cell depolarization. IK(SO) is blocked by Ba(2+) ions and is regulated by activation of muscarinic M(3) receptors, but it is insensitive to the classical broad-spectrum potassium channel blocking drugs 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium ions. The molecular nature of this important current has yet to be established, but in this study, we provide strong evidence to suggest that IK(SO) is the functional correlate of the recently identified two-pore domain potassium channel TASK-1. We show that IK(SO) has no threshold for activation by voltage and that it is blocked by small extracellular acidifications. Both of these are properties that are diagnostic of TASK-1 channels. In addition, we show that TASK-1 currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes are inhibited after activation of endogenous M(3) muscarinic receptors. Finally, we demonstrate that mRNA for TASK-1 is found in CGNs and that TASK-1 protein is expressed in CGN membranes. This description of a functional two-pore domain potassium channel in the mammalian central nervous system indicates its physiological importance in controlling cell excitability and how agents that modify its activity, such as agonists at G protein-coupled receptors and hydrogen ions, can profoundly alter both the neuron's resting potential and its excitability. 10.1073/pnas.97.7.3614
    Biophysical, pharmacological, and functional characteristics of cloned and native mammalian two-pore domain K+ channels. Lotshaw David P Cell biochemistry and biophysics The mammalian family of two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channel proteins are encoded by 15 KCNK genes and subdivided into six subfamilies on the basis of sequence similarities: TWIK, TREK, TASK, TALK, THIK, and TRESK. K2P channels are expressed in cells throughout the body and have been implicated in diverse cellular functions including maintenance of the resting potential and regulation of excitability, sensory transduction, ion transport, and cell volume regulation, as well as metabolic regulation and apoptosis. In recent years K2P channel isoforms have been identified as important targets of several widely employed drugs, including: general anesthetics, local anesthetics, neuroprotectants, and anti-depressants. An important goal of future studies will be to identify the basis of drug actions and channel isoform selectivity. This goal will be facilitated by characterization of native K2P channel isoforms, their pharmacological properties and tissue-specific expression patterns. To this end the present review examines the biophysical, pharmacological, and functional characteristics of cloned mammalian K2P channels and compares this information with the limited data available for native K2P channels in order to determine criteria which may be useful in identifying ionic currents mediated by native channel isoforms and investigating their pharmacological and functional characteristics. 10.1007/s12013-007-0007-8
    TASK-3 immunoreactivity shows differential distribution in the human gastrointestinal tract. Kovács Ilona,Pocsai Krisztina,Czifra Gabriella,Sarkadi László,Szucs Géza,Nemes Zoltán,Rusznák Zoltán Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology The presence and distribution of TASK-3 immunopositivity (a channel with potential oncogenic significance) was investigated in the human gastrointestinal system. The immunohistochemical reactions were performed with two commercially available polyclonal antibodies, targeting different epitopes of the channel protein. Experiments conducted on frozen and formalin-fixed samples indicated that the application of a suitable antigen retrieval (AR) technique was essential to produce consistent, strong and reproducible TASK-3-specific immunolabelling of the formalin-fixed tissue. The lack of or inappropriate selection of the AR resulted in false-negative reactions. As for the distribution of the TASK-3 channels, strong immunolabelling was observed in the gastric and large intestinal mucosa, with particularly prominent immunoreactivity of the epithelial cells. In contrast, the smooth-muscle layers demonstrated weak TASK-3 positivity. Intense TASK-3 expression was noted in both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, but the islets of Langerhans exhibited more powerful reactions. The ductal apparatus of the submandibular gland and lymphocytes situated in pericolonic lymph nodes were also TASK-3 positive. Strong TASK-3 positivity could also be observed in malignant gastrointestinal tumours, with intense nuclear-perinuclear labelling of some of the tumour cells. The present findings suggest that TASK-3 channels may have roles in the gastrointestinal functions, including insular hormone secretion. 10.1007/s00428-005-1205-7
    Epithelial transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1)-dependent adrenomedullin upregulates blood flow in rat small intestine. Kono Toru,Kaneko Atsushi,Omiya Yuji,Ohbuchi Katsuya,Ohno Nagisa,Yamamoto Masahiro American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology The functional roles of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the gastrointestinal tract have garnered considerable attention in recent years. We previously reported that daikenchuto (TU-100), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) via adrenomedullin (ADM) release from intestinal epithelial (IE) cells (Kono T et al. J Crohns Colitis 4: 161-170, 2010). TU-100 contains multiple TRP activators. In the present study, therefore, we examined the involvement of TRP channels in the ADM-mediated vasodilatatory effect of TU-100. Rats were treated intraduodenally with the TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin (CAP), the TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), or TU-100, and jejunum IBF was evaluated using laser-Doppler blood flowmetry. All three compounds resulted in vasodilatation, and the vasodilatory effect of TU-100 was abolished by a TRPA1 antagonist but not by a TRPV1 antagonist. Vasodilatation induced by AITC and TU-100 was abrogated by anti-ADM antibody treatment. RT-PCR and flow cytometry revealed that an IEC-6 cell line originated from the small intestine and purified IE cells expressed ADM and TRPA1 but not TRPV1. AITC increased ADM release in IEC cells remarkably, while CAP had no effect. TU-100 and its ingredient 6-shogaol (6SG) increased ADM release dose-dependently, and the effects were abrogated by a TRPA1 antagonist. 6SG showed similar TRPA1-dependent vasodilatation in vivo. These results indicate that TRPA1 in IE cells may play an important role in controlling bowel microcirculation via ADM release. Epithelial TRPA1 appears to be a promising target for the development of novel strategies for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders. 10.1152/ajpgi.00356.2012
    TASK-3, a new member of the tandem pore K(+) channel family. Kim Y,Bang H,Kim D The Journal of biological chemistry We have isolated from the rat cerebellum cDNA library a complementary DNA encoding a new member of the tandem pore K(+) channel family. Its amino acid sequence shares 54% identity with that of TASK-1, but less than 30% with those of TASK-2 and other tandem pore K(+) channels (TWIK, TREK, TRAAK). Therefore, the new clone was named TASK-3. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that TASK-3 mRNA is expressed in many rat tissues including brain, kidney, liver, lung, colon, stomach, spleen, testis, and skeletal muscle, and at very low levels in the heart and small intestine. When expressed in COS-7 cells, TASK-3 exhibited a time-independent, noninactivating K(+)-selective current. Single-channel conductance was 27 pS at -60 mV and 17 pS at 60 mV in symmetrical 140 mM KCl. TASK-3 current was highly sensitive to changes in extracellular pH (pH(o)), a hallmark of the TASK family of K(+) channels. Thus, a change in pH(o) from 7.2 to 6.4 and 6.0 decreased TASK-3 current by 74 and 96%, respectively. Mutation of histidine at position 98 to aspartate abolished pH(o) sensitivity. TASK-3 was blocked by barium (57%, 3 mM), quinidine (37%, 100 microM), and lidocaine (62%, 1 mM). Thus, TASK-3 is a new member of the acid-sensing K(+) channel subfamily (TASK). 10.1074/jbc.275.13.9340
    Two independent networks of interstitial cells of cajal work cooperatively with the enteric nervous system to create colonic motor patterns. Huizinga Jan D,Martz Sarah,Gil Victor,Wang Xuan-Yu,Jimenez Marcel,Parsons Sean Frontiers in neuroscience Normal motility of the colon is critical for quality of life and efforts to normalize abnormal colon function have had limited success. A better understanding of control systems of colonic motility is therefore essential. We report here a hypothesis with supporting experimental data to explain the origin of rhythmic propulsive colonic motor activity induced by general distention. The theory holds that both networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), those associated with the submuscular plexus (ICC-SMP) and those associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP), orchestrate propagating contractions as pacemaker cells in concert with the enteric nervous system (ENS). ICC-SMP generate an omnipresent slow wave activity that causes propagating but non-propulsive contractions ("rhythmic propagating ripples") enhancing absorption. The ICC-MP generate stimulus-dependent cyclic depolarizations propagating anally and directing propulsive activity ("rhythmic propulsive motor complexes"). The ENS is not essential for both rhythmic motor patterns since distention and pharmacological means can produce the motor patterns after blocking neural activity, but it supplies the primary stimulus in vivo. Supporting data come from studies on segments of the rat colon, simultaneously measuring motility through spatiotemporal mapping of video recordings, intraluminal pressure, and outflow measurements. 10.3389/fnins.2011.00093
    Localized release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) by a fecal pellet regulates migrating motor complexes in murine colon. Heredia Dante J,Dickson Eamonn J,Bayguinov Peter O,Hennig Grant W,Smith Terence K Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) is a motor pattern that regulates the movement of fecal matter through a rhythmic sequence of electrical activity and/or contractions along the large bowel. CMMCs have largely been studied in empty preparations; we investigated whether local reflexes generated by a fecal pellet modify the CMMC to initiate propulsive activity. METHODS:Recordings of CMMCs were made from the isolated murine large bowel, with or without a fecal pellet. Transducers were placed along the colon to record muscle tension and propulsive force on the pellet and microelectrodes were used to record electrical activity from either side of a fecal pellet, circular muscle cells oral and anal of a pellet, and in colons without the mucosa. RESULTS:Spontaneous CMMCs propagated in both an oral or anal direction. When a pellet was inserted, CMMCs increased in frequency and propagated anally, exerting propulsive force on the pellet. The amplitude of slow waves increased during the CMMC. Localized mucosal stimulation/circumferential stretch evoked a CMMC, regardless of stimulus strength. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine-3) receptor antagonist ondansetron reduced the amplitude of the CMMC, the propulsive force on the pellet, and the response to mucosal stroking, but increased the apparent conduction velocity of the CMMC. Removing the mucosa abolished spontaneous CMMCs, which still could be evoked by electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS:The fecal pellet activates local mucosal reflexes, which release serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from enterochromaffin cells, and stretch reflexes that determine the site of origin and propagation of the CMMC, facilitating propulsion. 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.12.010
    Potassium leak channels and the KCNK family of two-P-domain subunits. Goldstein S A,Bockenhauer D,O'Kelly I,Zilberberg N Nature reviews. Neuroscience With a bang, a new family of potassium channels has exploded into view. Although KCNK channels were discovered only five years ago, they already outnumber other channel types. KCNK channels are easy to identify because of their unique structure--they possess two preforming domains in each subunit. The new channels function in a most remarkable fashion: they are highly regulated, potassium-selective leak channels. Although leak currents are fundamental to the function of nerves and muscles, the molecular basis for this type of conductance had been a mystery. Here we review the discovery of KCNK channels, what has been learned about them and what lies ahead. Even though two-P-domain channels are widespread and essential, they were hidden from sight in plain view--our most basic questions remain to be answered. 10.1038/35058574
    TASK Channel Deletion Reduces Sensitivity to Local Anesthetic-induced Seizures. Du Guizhi,Chen Xiangdong,Todorovic Marko S,Shu Shaofang,Kapur Jaideep,Bayliss Douglas A Anesthesiology BACKGROUND:Local anesthetics (LAs) are typically used for regional anesthesia but can be given systemically to mitigate postoperative pain, supplement general anesthesia, or prevent cardiac arrhythmias. However, systemic application or inadvertent intravenous injection can be associated with substantial toxicity, including seizure induction. The molecular basis for this toxic action remains unclear. METHODS:We characterized inhibition by different LAs of homomeric and heteromeric K channels containing TASK-1 (K2P3.1, KCNK3) and TASK-3 (K2P9.1, KCNK9) subunits in a mammalian expression system. In addition, we used TASK-1/TASK-3 knockout mice to test the possibility that TASK channels contribute to LA-evoked seizures. RESULTS:LAs inhibited homomeric and heteromeric TASK channels in a range relevant for seizure induction; channels containing TASK-1 subunits were most sensitive and IC₅₀ values indicated a rank order potency of bupivacaine > ropivacaine >> lidocaine. LAs induced tonic-clonic seizures in mice with the same rank order potency, but higher LA doses were required to evoke seizures in TASK knockout mice. For bupivacaine, which produced the longest seizure times, seizure duration was significantly shorter in TASK knockout mice; bupivacaine-induced seizures were associated with an increase in electroencephalogram power at frequencies less than 5 Hz in both wild-type and TASK knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that increased neuronal excitability associated with TASK channel inhibition by LAs contributes to seizure induction. Because all LAs were capable of evoking seizures in TASK channel deleted mice, albeit at higher doses, the results imply that other molecular targets must also be involved in this toxic action. 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182343660
    A pH-sensitive potassium conductance (TASK) and its function in the murine gastrointestinal tract. Cho Sang Yun,Beckett Elizabeth A,Baker Salah A,Han Insoo,Park Kyu Joo,Monaghan Kevin,Ward Sean M,Sanders Kenton M,Koh Sang Don The Journal of physiology The excitability of smooth muscles is regulated, in part, by background K+ conductances that determine resting membrane potential. However, the K+ conductances so far described in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles are not sufficient to explain the negative resting potentials of these cells. Here we describe expression of two-pore K+ channels of the TASK family in murine small and large intestinal muscles. TASK-2, cloned from murine intestinal muscles, resulted in a pH-sensitive, time-dependent, non-inactivating K+ conductance with slow activation kinetics. A similar conductance was found in native intestinal myocytes using whole-cell patch-clamp conditions. The pH-sensitive current was blocked by local anaesthetics. Lidocaine, bupivacaine and acidic pH depolarized circular muscle cells in intact muscles and decreased amplitude and frequency of slow waves. The effects of lidocaine were not blocked by tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-aminopyridine, glibenclamide, apamin or MK-499. However, depolarization by acidic pH was abolished by pre-treatment with lidocaine, suggesting that lidocaine-sensitive K+ channels were responsible for pH-sensitive changes in membrane potential. The kinetics of activation, sensitivity to pH, and pharmacology of the conductance in intestinal myocytes and the expression of TASK-1 and TASK-2 in these cells suggest that the pH-sensitive background conductance is encoded by TASK genes. This conductance appears to contribute significantly to resting potential and may regulate excitability of GI muscles. 10.1113/jphysiol.2005.084574
    Neurogenic and myogenic properties of pan-colonic motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organization in rats. Chen Ji-Hong,Zhang Qian,Yu Yuanjie,Li Kongling,Liao Hong,Jiang Longying,Hong Lu,Du Xiaohui,Hu Xinghai,Chen Sifeng,Yin Sheng,Gao Qingmin,Yin Xiangdong,Luo Hesheng,Huizinga Jan D PloS one BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Better understanding of intrinsic control mechanisms of colonic motility will lead to better treatment options for colonic dysmotility. The aim was to investigate neurogenic and myogenic control mechanisms underlying pan-colonic motor patterns. METHODS:Analysis of in vitro video recordings of whole rat colon motility was used to explore motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organizations and to identify mechanisms of neurogenic and myogenic control using pharmacological tools. RESULTS:Study of the pan-colonic spatiotemporal organization of motor patterns revealed: fluid-induced or spontaneous rhythmic propulsive long distance contractions (LDCs, 0.4-1.5/min, involving the whole colon), rhythmic propulsive motor complexes (RPMCs) (0.8-2.5/min, dominant in distal colon), ripples (10-14/min, dominant in proximal colon), segmentation and retrograde contractions (0.1-0.8/min, prominent in distal and mid colon). Spontaneous rhythmic LDCs were the dominant pattern, blocked by tetrodotoxin, lidocaine or blockers of cholinergic, nitrergic or serotonergic pathways. Change from propulsion to segmentation and distal retrograde contractions was most prominent after blocking 5-HT3 receptors. In the presence of all neural blockers, bethanechol consistently evoked rhythmic LDC-like propulsive contractions in the same frequency range as the LDCs, indicating the existence of myogenic mechanisms of initiation and propulsion. CONCLUSIONS:Neurogenic and myogenic control systems orchestrate distinct and variable motor patterns at different regions of the pan-colon. Cholinergic, nitrergic and serotonergic pathways are essential for rhythmic LDCs to develop. Rhythmic motor patterns in presence of neural blockade indicate the involvement of myogenic control systems and suggest a role for the networks of interstitial cells of Cajal as pacemakers. 10.1371/journal.pone.0060474
    Emerging roles for two-pore-domain potassium channels and their potential therapeutic impact. Bayliss Douglas A,Barrett Paula Q Trends in pharmacological sciences A distinct gene family of widely distributed and well-modulated two-pore-domain background potassium (K(2P)) channels establish resting membrane potential and cell excitability. By using new mouse models in which K(2P)-channel genes are deleted, the contributions of these channels to important physiological functions are now being revealed. Here, we highlight results of recent studies using mice deleted for K(2P)-channel subunits that uncover physiological functions of these channels, mostly those of the TASK and TREK subgroup. Consistent with activation of these K(2P) channels by volatile anesthetics, TASK-1, TASK-3 and TREK-1 contribute to anesthetic-induced hypnosis and immobilization. The acid-sensitive TASK channels are not required for brainstem control of breathing by CO(2) or pH, despite widespread expression in respiratory-related neurons. TASK channels are necessary, however, for homeostatic regulation of adrenal aldosterone secretion. The heat-, stretch- and lipid-activated TREK-1 channels contribute to temperature and mechanical pain sensation, neuroprotection by polyunsaturated fatty acids and, unexpectedly, mood regulation. The alkaline-activated TASK-2 channel is necessary for HCO(3)(-) reabsorption and osmotic volume regulation in kidney proximal tubule cells. Development of compounds that selectively modulate K(2P) channels is crucial for verifying these results and assessing the efficacy of therapies targeting these interesting channels. 10.1016/j.tips.2008.07.013
    Compounds from Sichuan and Melegueta peppers activate, covalently and non-covalently, TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. Riera C E,Menozzi-Smarrito C,Affolter M,Michlig S,Munari C,Robert F,Vogel H,Simon S A,le Coutre J British journal of pharmacology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Oily extracts of Sichuan and Melegueta peppers evoke pungent sensations mediated by different alkylamides [mainly hydroxy-alpha-sanshool (alpha-SOH)] and hydroxyarylalkanones (6-shogaol and 6-paradol). We assessed how transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), two chemosensory ion channels, participate in these pungent sensations. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The structure-activity relationships of these molecules on TRPA1 and TRPV1 was measured by testing natural and synthetic analogues using calcium and voltage imaging on dissociated dorsal root ganglia neurons and human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing the wild-type channels or specific cysteine mutants using glutathione trapping as a model to probe TRPA1 activation. In addition, using Trpv1 knockout mice, the compounds' aversive responses were measured in a taste brief-access test. KEY RESULTS:For TRPA1 activation, the cis C6 double bond in the polyenic chain of alpha-SOH was critical, whereas no structural specificity was required for activation of TRPV1. Both 6-shogaol and 6-paradol were found to activate TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels, whereas linalool, an abundant terpene in Sichuan pepper, activated TRPA1 but not TRPV1 channels. Alkylamides and 6-shogaol act on TRPA1 by covalent bonding whereas none of these compounds activated TRPV1 through such interactions. Finally, TRPV1 mutant mice retained sensitivity to 6-shogaol but were not responsive to alpha-SOH. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The pungent nature of components of Sichuan and Melegueta peppers was mediated via interactions with TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels and may explain the aversive properties of these compounds. 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00307.x
    Ginger phenylpropanoids inhibit IL-1beta and prostanoid secretion and disrupt arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling by targeting phospholipases A2. Nievergelt Andreas,Marazzi Janine,Schoop Roland,Altmann Karl-Heinz,Gertsch Jürg Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) is employed in Asian traditional medicine to treat mild forms of rheumatoid arthritis and fever. We have profiled ginger constituents for robust effects on proinflammatory signaling and cytokine expression in a validated assay using human whole blood. Independent of the stimulus used (LPS, PMA, anti-CD28 Ab, anti-CD3 Ab, and thapsigargin), ginger constituents potently and specifically inhibited IL-1β expression in monocytes/macrophages. Both the calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2))-triggered maturation and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2))-dependent secretion of IL-1β from isolated human monocytes were inhibited. In a fluorescence-coupled PLA(2) assay, most major ginger phenylpropanoids directly inhibited i/cPLA(2) from U937 macrophages, but not hog pancreas secretory phospholipase A(2). The effects of the ginger constituents were additive and the potency comparable to the mechanism-based inhibitor bromoenol lactone for iPLA(2) and methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate for cPLA(2), with 10-gingerol/-shogaol being most effective. Furthermore, a ginger extract (2 μg/ml) and 10-shogaol (2 μM) potently inhibited the release of PGE(2) and thromboxane B2 (>50%) and partially also leukotriene B(4) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Intriguingly, the total cellular arachidonic acid was increased 2- to 3-fold in U937 cells under all experimental conditions. Our data show that the concurrent inhibition of iPLA(2) and prostanoid production causes an accumulation of free intracellular arachidonic acid by disrupting the phospholipid deacylation-reacylation cycle. The inhibition of i/cPLA(2), the resulting attenuation of IL-1β secretion, and the simultaneous inhibition of prostanoid production by common ginger phenylpropanoids uncover a new anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of dietary ginger that may be exploited therapeutically. 10.4049/jimmunol.1100880
    Identification of CB1/CB2 ligands from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Dossou Katina S S,Devkota Krishna P,Morton Cynthia,Egan Josephine M,Lu Guanghua,Beutler John A,Moaddel Ruin Journal of natural products In order to study cannabinoid receptor ligands, a novel plate-based assay was developed previously to measure internalization of CB1/CB2 receptors by determining the change in the intracellular levels of the radiolabeled agonists. This plate-based assay was also used for screening against complex matrices, specifically, in the present study screening for CB1/CB2 receptor activity of extracts for several species of the plant genus Zanthoxylum. The objective of this screen was to identify novel antagonists of the CB1 receptor, which simultaneously displayed agonist activity against the CB2 receptor, since compounds matching this criterion could be potential candidates for the treatment of type-1 diabetes. As a result, two Z. bungeanum extracts were deemed active, leading to the identification of eight compounds, of which compound 7 [(2E,4E,8E,10E,12E)-N-isobutyl-2,4,8,10,12-tetradecapentaenamide, γ-sanshool] was obtained as a promising lead compound. 10.1021/np400478c
    Pungent agents from Szechuan peppers excite sensory neurons by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels. Bautista Diana M,Sigal Yaron M,Milstein Aaron D,Garrison Jennifer L,Zorn Julie A,Tsuruda Pamela R,Nicoll Roger A,Julius David Nature neuroscience In traditional folk medicine, Xanthoxylum plants are referred to as 'toothache trees' because their anesthetic or counter-irritant properties render them useful in the treatment of pain. Psychophysical studies have identified hydroxy-alpha-sanshool as the compound most responsible for the unique tingling and buzzing sensations produced by Szechuan peppercorns or other Xanthoxylum preparations. Although it is generally agreed that sanshool elicits its effects by activating somatosensory neurons, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain a matter of debate. Here we show that hydroxy-alpha-sanshool excites two types of sensory neurons, including small-diameter unmyelinated cells that respond to capsaicin (but not mustard oil) as well as large-diameter myelinated neurons that express the neurotrophin receptor TrkC. We found that hydroxy-alpha-sanshool excites neurons through a unique mechanism involving inhibition of pH- and anesthetic-sensitive two-pore potassium channels (KCNK3, KCNK9 and KCNK18), providing a framework for understanding the unique and complex psychophysical sensations associated with the Szechuan pepper experience. 10.1038/nn.2143
    Allyl isothiocyanate as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. Zhang Yuesheng Molecular nutrition & food research Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which occurs in many common cruciferous vegetables, is widely and often frequently consumed by humans. Besides antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it showed anticancer activity in both cultured cancer cells and animal models, although the underlining mechanisms remain largely undefined. Bioavailability of AITC is extremely high, as nearly 90% of orally administered AITC is absorbed. AITC absorbed in vivo is metabolized mainly through the mercapturic acid pathway and excreted in urine. Available data suggest that urinary concentrations of AITC equivalent are at least ten times higher than in the plasma, and tissue levels of AITC equivalent in the urinary bladder were 14-79 times higher than in other organs after oral AITC administration to rats. These findings suggest that AITC may be most effective in the bladder as a cancer chemopreventive compound. AITC at high-dose levels also exhibit a low degree of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in animal studies, but such adverse effects are unlikely in humans exposed to dietary levels of AITC. Overall, AITC exhibits many desirable attributes of a cancer chemopreventive agent, and further studies are warranted in order to elucidate its mechanism of action and to assess its protective activity in humans. 10.1002/mnfr.200900323
    Identification of enteroendocrine cells that express TRPA1 channels in the mouse intestine. Cho Hyun-Jung,Callaghan Brid,Bron Romke,Bravo David M,Furness John B Cell and tissue research TRPA1 is an ion channel that detects specific chemicals in food and also transduces mechanical, cold and chemical stimulation. Its presence in sensory nerve endings is well known and recent evidence indicates that it is expressed by some gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC). The purpose of the present work is to identify and quantify EEC that express TRPA1 in the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Combined in situ hybridisation histochemistry for TRPA1 and immunofluorescence for EEC hormones was used. TRPA1 expressing EEC were common in the duodenum and jejunum, were rare in the distal small intestine and were absent from the stomach and large intestine. In the duodenum and jejunum, TRPA1 occurred in EEC that contained both cholecystokinin (CCK) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and in a small number of cells expressing 5HT but not CCK. TRPA1 was absent from CCK cells that did not express 5HT and from EEC containing glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide. Thus TRPA1 is contained in very specific EEC populations. It is suggested that foods such as garlic and cinnamon that contain TRPA1 stimulants may aid digestion by facilitating the release of CCK. 10.1007/s00441-013-1780-x
    Intracolonic Administration of the TRPA1 Agonist Allyl Isothiocyanate Stimulates Colonic Motility and Defecation in Conscious Dogs. Someya Soutoku,Nagao Munenori,Shibata Chikashi,Tanaka Naoki,Sasaki Hiroyuki,Kikuchi Daisuke,Miyachi Tomohiro,Naitoh Takeshi,Unno Michiaki Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract BACKGROUND:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the intracolonic transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on colonic motility and defecation. METHODS:The effects of AITC administered into the proximal colonic lumen on colonic motility and defecation were studied in neurally intact dogs equipped with strain-gauge force transducers on the colon, with or without various antagonists. Effects of intracolonic AITC were also studied in dogs with either transection/re-anastomosis (T/R) between the proximal and middle colon and complete extrinsic denervation of an ileocolonic segment. RESULTS:AITC increased colonic motility and induced giant migrating contractions (GMCs) with defecations in 75% of experiments in neurally intact dogs. These effects were inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ondansetron, and HC-030031 but unaltered by capsazepine. In dogs with T/R, the increase in colonic motility was inhibited in the middle-distal colon. In dogs with extrinsic denervation, the increase in colonic motility in the distal colon was decreased. CONCLUSIONS:Intracolonic AITC stimulates colonic motility and defecation via cholinergic, serotonergic, and TRPA1 pathways. Continuity of colonic enteric neurons plays an essential role in the intracolonic AITC-induced colonic motor response, while extrinsic nerves are important in occurrence and propagation of GMCs. 10.1007/s11605-015-2813-4
    TRPA1 agonists delay gastric emptying in rats through serotonergic pathways. Doihara Hitoshi,Nozawa Katsura,Kawabata-Shoda Eri,Kojima Ryosuke,Yokoyama Toshihide,Ito Hiroyuki Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology Our recent study found that TRPA1 is highly expressed in enterochromaffin cells and that stimulation of these cells with TRPA1 agonists enhances 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) secretion in vitro. Here, to demonstrate the 5-HT-releasing effect of TRPA1 agonists in vivo, we examined the effect of TRPA1 agonists on gastric emptying in rats. The results showed that TRPA1 agonists dose-dependently delayed gastric emptying. Further, the effects of TRPA1 agonists on this delay were abolished in rats treated with a TRPA1 antagonist, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, or a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist. Taken together, these results indicate that TRPA1 agonists delay in vivo gastric emptying through serotonergic pathways. 10.1007/s00210-009-0435-7
    The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying. Kim Min Jung,Son Hee Jin,Song Seo Hyeon,Jung Myungji,Kim Yiseul,Rhyu Mee-Ra PloS one Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression. 10.1371/journal.pone.0071603
    Molecular cloning and characterization of dog TRPA1 and AITC stimulate the gastrointestinal motility through TRPA1 in conscious dogs. Doihara Hitoshi,Nozawa Katsura,Kawabata-Shoda Eri,Kojima Ryosuke,Yokoyama Toshihide,Ito Hiroyuki European journal of pharmacology Transient receptor potential ankyrin1 (TRPA1) is a non-selective cation channel activated by cold stimuli under 17 degrees C, mechanosensation, and pungent irritants such as allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CA). In this study, we cloned the dog orthologue of TRPA1 for the first time and induced its heterologous expression in HEK293 cells to investigate its functional properties using a fluorescence imaging plate reader-based Ca(2+) influx assay. Moreover, we examined the effect of AITC on gastrointestinal motility in dogs. At the amino acid level, the sequence of dog TRPA1 was 82-83% identical to that of human, mouse, and rat orthologues. TRPA1 is strongly expressed in the brain, cerebellum, stomach, pancreas, and small and large intestine of dogs. Like other mammalian orthologues, TRPA1 agonists, including AITC, CA, allicin, and diallyl disulfide, evoked a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) influx in dog TRPA1-expressing cells. AITC stimulated gastric antrum and jejunum motility and induced the occurrence of giant migrating contractions in the colon of fasted dogs. The effects of AITC were inhibited by ruthenium red, a TRPA1 antagonist. These results indicate that AITC stimulated the gastrointestinal motility through TRPA1 in conscious dogs. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.06.038
    Contractile effect of TRPA1 receptor agonists in the isolated mouse intestine. Penuelas Angelica,Tashima Kimihito,Tsuchiya Shizuko,Matsumoto Kenjiro,Nakamura Tomonori,Horie Syunji,Yano Shingo European journal of pharmacology TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family expressed in sensory neurons. The present study focused on the effects of TRPA1 activation on contractile responses in isolated mouse intestine preparations. The jejunum, ileum, and proximal and distal colon were surgically isolated from male ddY mice. Intestinal motility was recorded as changes in isotonic tension. TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV1 expressions were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) dose-dependently induced contractions in the proximal and distal colon, whereas in the jejunum and ileum, even 100 muM AITC caused very little contraction. Likewise, a TRPA1 and TRPM8 agonist icilin, a TRPA1 agonist allicin, and a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin induced contractions in the colon. However, a TRPM8 agonist menthol induced long-lasting relaxation in the colon. Repeated exposure to AITC produced desensitization of its own contraction in the colon. Moreover, contractions induced by AITC generate cross-desensitization with icilin and capsaicin. Tetrodotoxin completely abolished AITC-induced contractions in the colon, whereas atropine significantly attenuated AITC-induced contractions in the distal colon, but not in the proximal colon. Menthol-induced relaxation in the colon was not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and atropine. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1, but not TRPM8, throughout the mouse intestine. These results suggest that TRPA1, but not TRPM8, are functionally expressed in the enteric nervous system throughout the mouse intestine on neurons that may also co-express TRPV1, yet the contractile responses to TRPA1 activation differ depending on their location along the intestine. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.08.015
    Modulation of mouse gastrointestinal motility by allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae): evidence for TRPA1-independent effects. Capasso Raffaele,Aviello Gabriella,Romano Barbara,Borrelli Francesca,De Petrocellis Luciano,Di Marzo Vincenzo,Izzo Angelo A British journal of pharmacology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil), a constituent of many common cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae), activates transient receptor potential of ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) channels, claimed to regulate gastrointestinal contractility. In this study, we have investigated the effect of AITC on intestinal motility. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Effects of AITC were investigated in vivo on upper gastrointestinal transit in mice and in mouse isolated ileum [contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine and spontaneous contractility]. The contractor activity of AITC was studied in mouse isolated colon. The ability of TRPA1 channel antagonists to block AITC-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)](i) was assessed in HEK293 cells transfected with rat TRPA1 channels. KEY RESULTS:AITC increased [Ca(2+)](i) in HEK293 cells, reduced ileal contractility (acetylcholine-, EFS-induced contractions and spontaneous contractility), but contracted the isolated colon. Gentamicin and camphor (non-selective TRPA1 channel antagonists), HC-030031 and AP18 (selective TRPA1 channel agonists) inhibited AITC-induced effects in HEK293 cells but not in the ileum or colon. AITC-induced contractions were reduced by tetrodotoxin and strongly reduced by nifedipine, cyclopiazonic acid and ryanodine. In vivo, AITC reduced (following i.p. administration) or increased (following intragastric administration) upper gastrointestinal transit in mice These effects were not affected by HC-030031. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:AITC, depending, in vitro, on the regions of gut examined and, in vivo, on the route of administration, exerted both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on intestinal motility, which were not sensitive to TRPA1 channel antagonists. The proposition that TRPA1 channels are the primary targets for AITC to induce contraction should be revised. 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01703.x
    Purinoceptor-mediated, capsaicin-resistant excitatory effect of allyl isothiocyanate on neurons of the guinea-pig small intestine. Bartho Lorand,Nordtveit Elin,Szombati Veronika,Benko Rita Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 200 μM) caused atropine- and tetrodotoxin-sensitive longitudinal muscle contraction on the guinea-pig small intestine. The response was not influenced by hexamethonium, a functional blockade of capsaicin-sensitive neurons or by antagonists acting at TRPV1 or TRPA1, but was abolished by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist PPADS (50 μM). It is concluded that cholinergic motoneurons are activated by a purinergic mechanism in the course of the AITC response, independently of capsaicin-sensitive processes or even TRPA1. 10.1111/bcpt.12060
    Effect of jatrorrhizine on delayed gastrointestinal transit in rat postoperative ileus. Zhang Beibei,Cao Aili,Zhou Jiyan,Hu Zhibi,Wu Dazheng The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology OBJECTIVES:Postoperative ileus is major cause of postoperative complication and prolonged hospitalization. Jatrorrhizine, which is a protoberberine alkaloid isolated from the medicinal plants Berberis aristata and Coptis chinensis, has been found to increase contractility of gastric antral and ileum smooth muscles of rat gastrointestinal tract. We have investigated whether jatrorrhizine could offset gastrointestinal transit in rat with postoperative ileus. METHODS:Postoperative ileus was induced by laparotomy with intestinal manipulation under anaesthesia. Gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by measurement of gastric emptying, geometric centre and the migration of Evans blue. KEY FINDINGS:Postoperative ileus significantly delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Jatrorrhizine dose-dependently (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg) offset delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit (geometric centre and the migration of Evans blue) in postoperative ileus. Pretreatment of animals with atropine inhibited the action of jatrorrhizine on gastric emptying and intestinal transit, but pretreatment of animals with SB204070 did not influence the effect of jatrorrhizine on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in postoperative ileus. CONCLUSIONS:Jatrorrhizine offset postoperative ileus-induced delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats, an action mediated via the cholinergic pathway, but not involving activation of 5-HT(4) receptors. 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01407.x
    Preoperative short-term parenteral administration of polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates intestinal inflammation and postoperative ileus in rodents. Wehner Sven,Meder Katharina,Vilz Tim O,Alteheld Birgit,Stehle Peter,Pech Thomas,Kalff Joerg C Langenbeck's archives of surgery PURPOSE:Abdominal surgery results in an inflammation of the intestinal muscularis externa (ME), subsequently leading to postoperative ileus (POI). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to modulate inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of preoperative parenteral administration of marine (n-3) or soybean (n-6) PUFA lipid emulsions (PUFA-LE) on POI and tissue fatty acid profiles. METHODS:Rodents underwent intestinal manipulation (IM) after 5 days of parenteral administration of 10-mL/kg body weight saline, (n-3), or (n-6) PUFA-LE. Sham animals received saline treatment without IM. In rats, postoperative inflammation was quantified by ME neutrophil levels and NO production in organ culture, and ME function was determined by an in vitro contractility measurement. Additionally, in vivo gastrointestinal transit (GIT) was analyzed in mice. Lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 expression of rat bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and ME was analyzed. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in rat blood, bone marrow cells, and ME. RESULTS:The (n-3) PUFA-LE reduced neutrophil levels and NO production after IM and improved in vitro jejunal contractility and GIT time. The (n-6) PUFA-LE significantly reduced postoperative inflammation and tended to improve intestinal motility (P < 0.06). Interestingly, (n-6) PUFA-LE significantly reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in ME (-63%), while (n-3) PUFA-LE reduced arachidonic acid (-20%) and additionally raised EPA (+550%). CONCLUSION:Short-term preoperative parenteral administration of (n-3) or (n-6) PUFA-LE significantly alters tissue-specific fatty acid profiles. Preoperative parenteral PUFA-LE supplementation, preferably by marine (n-3) PUFA, ameliorates postoperative intestinal inflammation and dysmotility and could be a promising therapeutic option in POI prophylaxis. 10.1007/s00423-011-0862-z
    Anti-inflammatory role of glycine in reducing rodent postoperative inflammatory ileus. Stoffels B,Türler A,Schmidt J,Nazir A,Tsukamoto T,Moore B A,Schnurr C,Kalff J C,Bauer A J Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society BACKGROUND:Inflammatory events within the intestinal muscularis, including macrophage activation and leukocyte recruitment, have been demonstrated to participate in causing postoperative ileus. Recently, glycine has gained attention due to its beneficial immunomodulatory effects in transplantation, shock and sepsis. METHODS:Muscularis glycine receptors were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed by in vivo transit distribution histograms with calculated geometric center analysis and jejunal circular smooth muscle contractility in a standard organ bath. The impact of glycine on the muscularis inflammatory responses to surgical manipulation of the intestine were measured by real-time PCR, nitric oxide Griess reaction, prostaglandin ELISA, Luminex and histochemistry. KEY RESULTS:Glycine-gated chloride channels were immunohistochemically localized to muscularis macrophages and postoperative infiltrating leukocytes. Preoperative glycine treatment significantly improved postoperative gastrointestinal transit and jejunal circular muscle contractility. Preoperative glycine injection significantly reduced the induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNAs, which was associated with the attenuation in postoperative leukocyte recruitment. Nitric oxide and prostanoid release from the postsurgical inflamed muscularis was diminished by glycine. The secretion of the inflammatory proteins IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1/chemokine ligand 2 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/chemokine ligand 3 were also significantly decreased by glycine pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES:The data indicate that preoperative glycine reduces postoperative ileus via the early attenuation of primal inflammatory events within the surgically manipulated gut wall. Therapeutic modulation of resident macrophages by glycine is a potential novel pharmacological target for the prevention of postoperative ileus. 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010.01603.x
    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition reduces inflammation and improves motility in murine models of postoperative ileus. Moore Beverley A,Manthey Carl L,Johnson Dana L,Bauer Anthony J Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a member of the gelatinase family of MMPs, mediates leukocyte migration during inflammation. Inflammation contributes to development of postoperative ileus (POI), which is caused by physical disturbances to the bowel during abdominal surgery. We evaluated the role of MMP-9 in POI and investigated whether disruption of MMP-9 or administration of an inhibitor of MMP-9 activity reduced cellular inflammation and bowel dysmotility in rat and mouse models of POI. METHODS:Mice and rats underwent laparotomy and bowel manipulation; bowel tissues were collected 3 to 24 hours later and analyzed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, in situ zymography, and functional analyses. RESULTS:Bowel manipulation resulted in a time-dependent increase in MMP-9 expression within the intestinal muscularis; increases in MMP-9 messenger RNA were inducible nitric oxide synthase dependent. Immunoblot analyses confirmed the presence of the proenzyme and the catalytically active form of MMP-9. Administration of MMP-2/MMP-9 II, a dual active-site inhibitor, reduced the number of myeloperoxidase-positive immune cells that infiltrated the muscularis and prevented the surgically induced reduction in bowel smooth muscle contractility. Zymography analysis, performed in muscularis whole mounts in situ, indicated that MMP-9 and not MMP-2 mediated the gelatinase activity observed in infiltrating cells. MMP-9 knockout mice were protected from the inflammation and dysmotility associated with POI. CONCLUSIONS:MMP-9 mediates cellular inflammatory responses within the intestinal muscularis in mouse and rat models of POI. Inhibition of MMP-9 activity reduced recruitment of immune cells to the intestinal muscularis, preventing loss of smooth muscle contractility. Induction of MMP-9 expression requires inducible nitric oxide synthase. 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.06.035
    Inhibition of MK2 shows promise for preventing postoperative ileus in mice. Liu Xiaodong,Wu Ting,Chi Pan The Journal of surgical research BACKGROUND:Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common iatrogenic complication caused by physical disturbances to the bowel during abdominal surgery. Inflammation contributes to the development of POI and leads to impaired intestinal motility. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) plays an essential role in inflammation and is an established drug target for many inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the role of MK2 in POI and investigated whether MK2 inhibition will alleviate POI. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One group of mice were sham operated as controls. In another two groups, POI was induced by intestinal manipulation, and in one of the groups, MK2 inhibitor was administered 1 h before intestinal manipulation. The bowel tissues were collected and analyzed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, whole-mount histochemistry, immunofluorescence in muscularis, and functional analyses. RESULTS:Bowel manipulation resulted in an upregulation of MK2 activation. Preoperative treatment with an MK2 inhibitor reduced the proinflammatory gene expression induced by intestinal manipulation, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. MK2 inhibitor administration significantly reduced the number of myeloperoxidase-positive polymorphonuclear neutrophils, mast cells, and monocyte-derived macrophages that infiltrated the muscularis and prevented the surgically induced reduction in bowel smooth muscle contractility and gastrointestinal transit ability. CONCLUSIONS:MK2 mediated the cellular inflammatory responses within the intestinal muscularis in a mouse model of POI. Inhibition of MK2 activity reduced recruitment of immune cells to the intestinal muscularis, preventing loss of intestine smooth muscle contractility. These findings suggest MK2 inhibition is a promising potential target for preventing POI. 10.1016/j.jss.2013.05.028
    The ICAM-1 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS-3082 prevents the development of postoperative ileus in mice. The Frans O,de Jonge Wouter J,Bennink Roel J,van den Wijngaard Rene M,Boeckxstaens Guy E British journal of pharmacology Intestinal manipulation (IM) during abdominal surgery triggers the influx of inflammatory cells, leading to postoperative ileus. Prevention of this local muscle inflammation, using intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-specific antibodies, has been shown to shorten postoperative ileus. However, the therapeutic use of antibodies has considerable disadvantages. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ISIS-3082, a mouse-specific ICAM-1 antisense oligonucleotide, on postoperative ileus in mice. Mice underwent a laparotomy or a laparotomy combined with IM after treatment with ICAM-1 antibodies, 0.1-10 mg kg(-1) ISIS-3082, saline or ISIS-8997 (scrambled control antisense oligonucleotides, 1 and 3 mg kg(-1)). At 24 h after surgery, gastric emptying of a 99mTC labelled semi-liquid meal was determined using scintigraphy. Intestinal inflammation was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in ileal muscle whole mounts. IM significantly reduced gastric emptying compared to laparotomy. Pretreatment with ISIS-3082 (0.1-1 mg kg(-1)) as well as ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg kg(-1)), but not ISIS-8997 or saline, improved gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner. This effect diminished with higher doses of ISIS-3082 (3-10 mg kg(-1)). Similarly, ISIS-3082 (0.1-1 mg kg(-1)) and ICAM-1 antibodies, but not ISIS-8997 or higher doses of ISIS-3082 (3-10 mg kg(-1)), reduced manipulation-induced inflammation. Immunohistochemistry showed reduction of ICAM-1 expression with ISIS-3082 only. ISIS-3082 pretreatment prevents postoperative ileus in mice by reduction of manipulation-induced local intestinal muscle inflammation. Our data suggest that targeting ICAM-1 using antisense oligonucleotides may represent a new therapeutic approach to the prevention of postoperative ileus. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706303
    Alvimopan and COX-2 inhibition reverse opioid and inflammatory components of postoperative ileus. Schmidt J,Stoffels B,Nazir A,Dehaven-Hudkins D L,Bauer A J Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society Our objective was to investigate the therapeutic potential of peripheral opioid antagonism with alvimopan and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition in an animal model of postoperative ileus with pain management. Intestinal manipulation was conducted in mice and rats with or without postoperative morphine injection. Rodents were orally fed non-digestible fluorescein (FITC)-labelled dextran and transit measured after a period of 90 min. The immunomodulatory effects of morphine and alvimopan were determined on nitric oxide released from the organ cultured muscularis externa. Surgical manipulation of the intestine resulted in a delay in gastrointestinal transit after 24 h that worsened with exogenous morphine. Alvimopan did not significantly alter transit of control or manipulated animals, but significantly antagonized the transit delaying effects of morphine. However, when the inflammatory component was robust enough to obscure a further opioid induced delay in gastrointestinal transit, alvimopan ceased to be effective in improving postoperative intestinal function. Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibition significantly diminished the inflammatory component of postoperative ileus. Surgical manipulation resulted in an increased release of nitric oxide from the inflamed isolated muscularis externa in 24-h organ culture which was not altered by morphine or alvimopan. Two distinct mechanisms exist which participate in postoperative bowel dysfunction: a local inflammatory response which is antagonized by COX-2 inhibition, and a morphine-induced alteration in neural function which can be blocked with alvimopan. 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.01078.x
    Inhibition of macrophage function prevents intestinal inflammation and postoperative ileus in rodents. Wehner Sven,Behrendt Florian F,Lyutenski Boris N,Lysson Mariola,Bauer Anthony J,Hirner Andreas,Kalff Jörg C Gut BACKGROUND:Abdominal surgery results in a molecular and cellular inflammatory response in the intestine, leading to postoperative ileus. It was hypothesised that resident macrophages within the intestinal muscularis have an important role in this local inflammation. AIMS:To investigate whether chemical or genetic depletion of resident muscularis macrophages would lead to a reduction in the local inflammation and smooth-muscle dysfunction. METHODS:Two rodent models were used to deplete and inactivate macrophages: (1) a rat model in which resident macrophages were depleted by chlodronate liposomes; (2) a model of mice with osteopetrosis mice, completely lacking the resident muscularis macrophages, used as an additional genetic approach. Animals with normal or altered intestinal macrophages underwent surgical intestinal manipulation. The inflammatory response was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for mRNA of MIP-1alpha, interleukin (IL)1beta, IL6, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemotractant protein 1 (MCP)-1 in the isolated small bowel muscularis. In addition, muscularis whole mounts were used for histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis to quantify leucocyte infiltration and detect cytokine expression. Subsequently, in vitro muscle contractility and in vivo gastrointestinal transit were measured. RESULTS:Both models resulted in markedly decreased expression of MIP-1alpha, IL1beta, IL6, ICAM-1 and MCP-1 after manipulation compared with controls. In addition to this decrease in inflammatory mediators, recruitment of leucocytes into the muscularis was also diminished. Macrophage-altered animals had near normal in vitro jejunal circular muscle function and gastrointestinal transit despite surgical manipulation. CONCLUSIONS:Resident intestinal muscularis macrophages are initially involved in inflammatory responses resulting in postoperative ileus. Depletion and inactivation of the muscularis macrophage network prevents postoperative ileus. 10.1136/gut.2005.089615
    Novel method for studying postoperative ileus in mice. van Bree Sjoerd Hw,Nemethova Andrea,van Bovenkamp Fleur S,Gomez-Pinilla Pedro,Elbers L,Di Giovangiulio Martina,Matteoli Gianluca,van Vliet Jan,Cailotto Cathy,Tanck Michael Wt,Boeckxstaens Guy Ee International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology INTRODUCTION:Postoperative ileus (POI) is characterized by a transient inhibition of coordinated motility of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after abdominal surgery and leads to increased morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Currently, intestinal manipulation of the intestine is widely used as a preclinical model of POI. The technique used to manipulate the intestine is however highly variable and difficult to standardize, leading to large variations and inconsistent findings between different investigators. Therefore, we developed a device by which a fixed and adjustable pressure can be applied during intestinal manipulation. METHODS:The standardized pressure manipulation method was developed using the purpose-designed device. First, the effect of graded manipulation was examined on postoperative GI transit. Next, this new technique was compared to the conventional manipulation technique used in previous studies. GI transit was measured by evaluating the intestinal distribution of orally gavaged fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran. Infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells and cytokine production (ELISA) in the muscularis externa of the intestine were assessed. RESULTS:Increasing pressures resulted in a graded reduction of intestinal transit and was associated with intestinal inflammation as demonstrated by influx of leukocytes and increased levels of IL-6, IL-1β and MCP-1 compared to control mice. With an applied pressure of 9 grams a similar delay in intestinal transit could be obtained with a smaller standard deviation, leading to a reduced intra-individual variation. CONCLUSIONS:This method provides a reproducible model with small variation to study the pathophysiology of POI and to evaluate new anti-inflammatory strategies.
    Controlling postoperative ileus by vagal activation. Lubbers Tim,Buurman Wim,Luyer Misha World journal of gastroenterology Postoperative ileus is a frequently occurring surgical complication, leading to increased morbidity and hospital stay. Abdominal surgical interventions are known to result in a protracted cessation of bowel movement. Activation of inhibitory neural pathways by nociceptive stimuli leads to an inhibition of propulsive activity, which resolves shortly after closure of the abdomen. The subsequent formation of an inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular layers of the intestine results in a more prolonged phase of ileus. Over the last decade, clinical strategies focusing on reduction of surgical stress and promoting postoperative recovery have improved the course of postoperative ileus. Additionally, recent experimental evidence implicated antiinflammatory interventions, such as vagal stimulation, as potential targets to treat postoperative ileus and reduce the period of intestinal hypomotility. Activation of nicotinic receptors on inflammatory cells by vagal input attenuates inflammation and promotes gastrointestinal motility in experimental models of ileus. A novel physiological intervention to activate this neuroimmune pathway is enteral administration of lipid-rich nutrition. Perioperative administration of lipid-rich nutrition reduced manipulation-induced local inflammation of the intestine and accelerated recovery of bowel movement. The application of safe and easy to use antiinflammatory interventions, together with the current multimodal approach, could reduce postoperative ileus to an absolute minimum and shorten hospital stay. 10.3748/wjg.v16.i14.1683
    Effect of adrenergic and nitrergic blockade on experimental ileus in rats. De Winter B Y,Boeckxstaens G E,De Man J G,Moreels T G,Herman A G,Pelckmans P A British journal of pharmacology 1. In a rat model of experimental ileus, the effect of blockade of adrenergic and nitrergic neurotransmission was studied on the intestinal transit of Evans blue. 2. Ether anaesthesia and skin incision had no influence on the transit. Laparotomy significantly inhibited the transit of Evans blue. This inhibition was even more pronounced when the small intestine was manipulated. 3. Reserpine (5 mg kg-1), a drug that blocks adrenergic neurotransmission, completely reversed the inhibition of the transit induced by laparotomy but only partially reversed that induced by laparotomy with manipulation of the small intestine. 4. N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 5 mg kg-1), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, completely reversed the reserpine-resistant inhibition induced by laparotomy with manipulation of the small intestine. The effect of L-NOARG was prevented by concomitant administration of L-arginine. L-Arginine itself slightly, but significantly enhanced the inhibition. S-methylisothiourea and aminoguanidine, selective inhibitors of the inducible NO synthase, had no effect on the transit after the three operations. 5. Treatment of the rats with reserpine plus L-NOARG had no additional effect on the transit after laparotomy as compared to reserpine alone. However, reserpine plus L-NNA completely reversed the inhibition of the transit induced by laparotomy with manipulation of the small intestine. 6. These findings support the involvement of adrenergic pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus and suggest that the additional inhibitory effect of mechanical stimulation results from an enhanced release of NO by the constitutive NO synthase. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0700913
    Anti-colitis and -adhesion effects of daikenchuto via endogenous adrenomedullin enhancement in Crohn's disease mouse model. Kono Toru,Kaneko Atsushi,Hira Yoshiki,Suzuki Tatsuya,Chisato Naoyuki,Ohtake Nobuhiro,Miura Naoko,Watanabe Tsuyoshi Journal of Crohn's & colitis BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a member of the calcitonin family of regulatory peptides, and is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated the therapeutic effects of daikenchuto (DKT), an extracted Japanese herbal medicine, on the regulation of endogenous ADM in the gastrointestinal tract in a CD mouse model. METHODS:Colitis was induced in mice by intrarectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); afterwards, DKT was given orally. Colonic damage was assessed on day 3 by macroscopic and microscopic observation, enzyme immunoassays of proinflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa, and serum amyloid A (SAA), a hepatic acute-phase protein. To determine the involvement of ADM, an ADM antagonist was instilled intrarectally before DKT administration. The effect of DKT on ADM production by intestinal epithelial cells was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR. RESULTS:DKT significantly attenuated mucosal damage and colonic inflammatory adhesions, and inhibited elevations of SAA in plasma and the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IFNγ in the colon. Small and large intestinal epithelial cells produced higher levels of ADM after DKT stimulation. A DKT-treated IEC-6 cell line also showed enhanced ADM production at protein and mRNA levels. Abolition of this effect by pretreatment with an ADM antagonist shows that DKT appears to exert its anti-colitis effect via up-regulation of endogenous ADM in the intestinal tract. CONCLUSION:DKT exerts beneficial effects in a CD mouse model through endogenous release and production of ADM. Endogenous ADM may be a therapeutic target for CD. 10.1016/j.crohns.2009.09.006
    Mechanism of atropine-resistant contraction induced by Dai-kenchu-to in guinea pig ileum. Satoh K,Hashimoto K,Hayakawa T,Ishige A,Kaneko M,Ogihara S,Kurosawa S,Yakabi K,Nakamura T Japanese journal of pharmacology To clarify the contractile mechanism of Dai-kenchu-to, the effects of hydroxy beta-sanshool (an ingredient of Zanthoxylum fruit), Zanthoxylum fruit (a constituent herb of Dai-kenchu-to) and Dai-kenchu-to were studied in mucosa-free longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum. Hydroxy beta-sanshool at 10(-7)-10(-5) g/ml induced dose-related contractions accompanied by autonomous contraction and produced an initial contraction at a concentration of 10(-4) g/ml or more. The contraction induced by hydroxy beta-sanshool (10(-5) g/ml) was significantly inhibited by tetrodotoxin or the capsaicin-receptor antagonist capsazepine. Although atropine or the substance P antagonist spantide tended to inhibit the contraction, a combination of atropine and spantide almost abolished the contraction by hydroxy beta-sanshool. The P2-purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid did not affect hydroxy beta-sanshool-induced contraction in the presence or absence of spantide. The tonic contractions by Zanthoxylum fruit (2 x 10(-4) g/ml) and Dai-kenchu-to (10(-3) g/ml) were significantly inhibited or tended to be inhibited by atropine, spantide, tetrodotoxin or capsazepine and were remarkably suppressed by the combination of atropine and spantide. These results suggested that acetylcholine release from intrinsic cholinergic nerves and tachykinins from sensory neurons are involved in the contractions induced by hydroxy beta-sanshool and that tachykinins may be involved in the atropine-resistant contraction by Dai-kenchu-to.
    Intragastric Dai-Kenchu-To, a Japanese herbal medicine, stimulates colonic motility via transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 in dogs. Kikuchi Daisuke,Shibata Chikashi,Imoto Hirofumi,Naitoh Takeshi,Miura Koh,Unno Michiaki The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine Japanese herbal medicine, also known as Kampo, is used for various diseases in Japan. One of those medicines, Dai-Kenchu-To (DKT), is considered clinically effective for adhesive bowel obstruction and chronic constipation. Although scientific evidence of DKT to improve adhesive bowel obstruction was shown in several previous reports, mechanism of DKT to improve constipation remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effect of intragastric DKT on colonic motility and defecation, and the involvement of various receptors in DKT-induced colonic contractions. Five beagle dogs were instructed with serosal strain-gauge force transducers to measure circular muscle activity at the proximal, middle, and distal colon. Dogs are suitable for a present study to administer the drugs repeatedly to the same individual and look at its effect on colonic motility. We studied the effects of DKT (2.5 or 5 g) administered into the stomach on colonic motility. Muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamthonium, or 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist ondansetron was injected intravenously 10 min before DKT administration. Capsazepine, an antagonist to transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), was administered into the stomach 5 min before DKT administration. Intragastric DKT (2.5 or 5 g) induced colonic contractions within 10 min after administration but did not induce defecation. Pretreatment with atropine, hexamthonium, ondansetron, or capsazepine inhibited DKT-induced colonic contractions. These results indicate that orally administered DKT stimulates colonic motility via TRPV1, muscarinic, nicotinic, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptors, thereby providing scientific support for the efficacy of oral DKT in chronic constipation.
    A novel method for the evaluation of intestinal transit and contractility in mice using fluorescence imaging and spatiotemporal motility mapping. de Backer O,Blanckaert B,Leybaert L,Lefebvre R A Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society This study introduces a novel, simplified method for the evaluation of murine intestinal transit and contractility using fluorescence and video imaging. Intestinal transit was measured by evaluating the intestinal distribution of non-absorbable fluorescein-labelled dextran (70 kDa, FD70) along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. After excision of the GI tract, two full-field images--one in normal illumination mode and another in fluorescent mode--were taken with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera and subsequently matched for calculation of fluorescence distribution along the GI tract. Immediately after, intestinal contractility was evaluated in different regions of the intact intestine by spatiotemporal motility mapping (i.e. video imaging). In control mice, the small intestine showed vigorous oscillatory contractions and FD70 was primarily distributed within the terminal ileum/caecum at 90 min postgavage. As validation step, the effect of intestinal manipulation (IM, surgical procedure) and two pharmacological agents--known to alter GI motility--was tested. At 24 h postoperatively, spontaneous contractile activity of the small intestine was nearly abolished in IM mice, leaving the small intestine distended and resulting in a significantly delayed intestinal transit. In accordance, spontaneous mechanical activity of circular muscle strips in standard organ baths was significantly reduced in IM mice compared to control mice. Administration of atropine (1-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) suppressed spontaneous contractile activity along the entire intestinal tract and induced a dose-related delay in intestinal transit. In contrast, metoclopramide (3-10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) markedly increased contractile activity--however only in the upper GI tract--and accelerated intestinal transit in a dose-dependent manner. 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.01073.x
    Clinical efficacy of Daikenchuto for gastrointestinal dysfunction following colon surgery: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study (JFMC39-0902). Katsuno Hidetoshi,Maeda Koutarou,Kaiho Takashi,Kunieda Katsuyuki,Funahashi Kimihiko,Sakamoto Junichi,Kono Toru,Hasegawa Hirotoshi,Furukawa Yoshiyuki,Imazu Yoshihiro,Morita Satoshi,Watanabe Masahiko Japanese journal of clinical oncology OBJECTIVE:This exploratory trial was performed to determine whether Daikenchuto accelerates recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients undergoing open colectomy for colon cancer. METHODS:A total of 386 patients undergoing colectomy at 1 of the 51 clinical trial sites in Japan from January 2009 to June 2011 were registered for the study (JFMC39-0902). Patients received either placebo or Daikenchuto (15.0 g/day, t.i.d) between post-operative day 2 and post-operative day 8. Primary end-points included time to first bowel movement, frequency of bowel movement and stool form. The incidence of intestinal obstruction was evaluated post-operatively. The safety profile of Daikenchuto until post-operative day 8 was also evaluated. RESULTS:The results for 336 patients (Daikenchuto, n = 174; placebo, n = 162) were available for statistical analysis. The time to first bowel movement did not differ significantly between the two groups. All patients reported having diarrhea or soft stools immediately after surgery, and the time until stool normalization (50th percentile) in the Daikenchuto and placebo groups was 6 days and 7 days, respectively. The placebo group had a significantly greater number of hard stools at post-operative day 8 (P = 0.016), and bowel movement frequency continued to increase until post-operative day 8 as well. In contrast, bowel movement frequency in the Daikenchuto group increased until post-operative day 6, however decreased from post-operative day 7 and was significantly lower at post-operative day 8 compared with the placebo group (P = 0.024). CONCLUSION:The moderate effects of Daikenchuto were observed ∼1 week after the operation. Although Daikenchuto had an effect on gastrointestinal function after open surgery in patients with colon cancer, this study did not show its clinical benefits adequately. 10.1093/jjco/hyv056
    Effects of daikenchuto, a Japanese herb, on intestinal motility after total gastrectomy: a prospective randomized trial. Akamaru Yusuke,Takahashi Tsuyoshi,Nishida Toshirou,Omori Takeshi,Nishikawa Kazuhiro,Mikata Shoki,Yamamura Noriyuki,Miyazaki Satoru,Noro Hiroshi,Takiguchi Shuji,Mori Masaki,Doki Yuichiro Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract PURPOSE:This study aimed to assess the efficacy of daikenchuto (DKT), a commonly prescribed, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, on postoperative intestinal dysfunction after gastric cancer surgery. METHODS:Patients with gastric cancer scheduled for a total gastrectomy were randomly assigned before surgery to receive either no treatment (n = 40; control group) or DKT (7.5 g/day, t.i.d.) for 3 months (n = 41) postoperatively. We examined gastrointestinal motility, stool attributes, the quantity of bowel gas, the quality of life, and the incidence of postoperative ileus. RESULTS:During the hospital stay, significant differences were observed between the DKT group and controls in the number of stools per day (1.1 ± 0.6 vs 0.8 ± 0.4, respectively; P = 0.037) and stool consistencies (Bristol scale ratings were 3.7 ± 0.8 vs 3.1 ± 0.8, respectively; P = 0.041). The DKT group showed significant reductions in gas volume scores, calculated from abdominal radiographs, at 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. The groups did not show significant differences in quality of life scores (based on the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale) or in the incidence of postoperative ileus. CONCLUSION:DKT improved bowel movements, stool properties, and bowel gas. These results suggested that DKT promoted early postoperative bowel functions after total gastrectomy. 10.1007/s11605-014-2730-y
    Effect of TU-100, a traditional Japanese medicine, administered after hepatic resection in patients with liver cancer: a multi-center, phase III trial (JFMC40-1001). Shimada Mitsuo,Morine Yuji,Nagano Hiroaki,Hatano Etsuro,Kaiho Takashi,Miyazaki Masaru,Kono Toru,Kamiyama Toshiya,Morita Satoshi,Sakamoto Junichi,Kusano Mitsuo,Saji Shigetoyo,Kanematsu Takashi,Kitajima Masaki International journal of clinical oncology BACKGROUND:This multi-center, phase III trial assesses the efficacy of daikenchuto (TU-100) on gastrointestinal disorders after hepatic resection (UMIN Registration No. 000003103). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 231 patients, who underwent hepatic resection at 26 Japanese centers, were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either oral doses (15 g/day, three times a day) of TU-100 or placebo control from preoperative day 3 to postoperative day 10, except on the day of surgery. Primary end points were the time from extubation until the first postoperative bowel movement (FBM-T), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and ammonia levels. RESULTS:Finally, 209 patients (TU-100: n = 108, placebo: n = 101) were included in the statistical analysis. The median FBM-T was 88.2 h (95 % CI 74.0-94.1) in the TU-100 group and 93.1 h (95 % CI 83.3-99.4) in the placebo group, demonstrating that TU-100 accelerated the time to first bowel movement significantly more than placebo control. Serum CRP levels did not differ significantly during the study period, although serum CRP levels in the TU-100 group tended to be lower than those in the placebo group in patients with grade B liver damage. Meanwhile, the two groups had similar serum ammonia levels. TU-100-related serious adverse events did not occur during the study. CONCLUSIONS:TU-100 appears to improve gastrointestinal dysmotility and reduce serum CRP levels in patients with grade B liver damage after hepatectomy. TU-100 is an effective treatment option after hepatic resection in patients with liver cancer. 10.1007/s10147-014-0678-2
    Effect of daikenchuto (TU-100) on gastrointestinal and colonic transit in humans. Manabe Noriaki,Camilleri Michael,Rao Archana,Wong Banny S,Burton Duane,Busciglio Irene,Zinsmeister Alan R,Haruma Ken American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Daikenchuto (TU-100) is a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine used to treat postoperative ileus. TU-100 dose dependently increases gastrointestinal (GI) motility by modulating cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms in animal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered TU-100 on GI and colonic transit and bowel function in healthy humans. In a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study, 60 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to placebo or TU-100 2.5 g or 5 g tid ingested immediately before meals for 5 consecutive days. We measured GI and colonic transit by validated scintigraphy and stool frequency and consistency by daily diaries of bowel function. There were overall treatment effects on colonic filling at 6 h without any significant differences between each dose of TU-100 and placebo. There tended to be overall treatment effects on ascending colon (AC) emptying half-time; the TU-100 (7.5 g/day) treatment significantly accelerated AC emptying compared with placebo. There were numerically higher values of GC24 (which reflect overall colonic transit) with both doses of TU-100, but these changes were not statistically significant. There were no significant overall treatment effects on gastric emptying or stool frequency and consistency. One subject, who received 7.5 g/day of TU-100, had elevated creatine phosphokinase following the study. TU-100 (7.5 g/day) significantly accelerated AC emptying. Further randomized controlled trials in patients with functional constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation are warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of TU-100 in these disorders. 10.1152/ajpgi.00043.2010
    Exodus of Kampo, traditional Japanese medicine, from the complementary and alternative medicines: is it time yet? Kono Toru,Kanematsu Takashi,Kitajima Masaki Surgery 10.1016/j.surg.2009.06.012
    TRPA1 regulates gastrointestinal motility through serotonin release from enterochromaffin cells. Nozawa Katsura,Kawabata-Shoda Eri,Doihara Hitoshi,Kojima Ryosuke,Okada Hidetsugu,Mochizuki Shinobu,Sano Yorikata,Inamura Kohei,Matsushime Hitoshi,Koizumi Tomonobu,Yokoyama Toshihide,Ito Hiroyuki Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is abundantly present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and stored mostly in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which are located on the mucosal surface. 5-HT released from EC cells stimulate both intrinsic and extrinsic nerves, which results in various physiological and pathophysiological responses, such as gastrointestinal contractions. EC cells are believed to have the ability to respond to the chemical composition of the luminal contents of the gut; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel TRPA1, which is activated by pungent compounds or cold temperature, is highly expressed in EC cells. We also found that TRPA1 agonists, including allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, stimulate EC cell functions, such as increasing intracellular Ca(2+) levels and 5-HT release, by using highly concentrated EC cell fractions and a model of EC cell function, the RIN14B cell line. Furthermore, we showed that allyl isothiocyanate promotes the contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum via the 5-HT(3) receptor. Taken together, our results indicate that TRPA1 acts as a sensor molecule for EC cells and may regulate gastrointestinal function. 10.1073/pnas.0805323106
    Activation of TRPA1 by luminal stimuli induces EP4-mediated anion secretion in human and rat colon. Kaji Izumi,Yasuoka Yukiko,Karaki Shin-Ichiro,Kuwahara Atsukazu American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology In gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, anion and fluid secretion is an important function for host defense and is induced by changes in the luminal environment. The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is considered to be a chemosensor in several sensory tissues. Although the function of TRPA1 has been studied in GI motility, its contribution to the transepithelial ion transport system has rarely been discussed. In the present study, we investigated the secretory effect of the potential TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in rat and human colon using an Ussing chamber. The mucosal application of AITC (10(-6)-10(-3) M) induced Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the serosal application induced a significantly weaker effect. AITC-evoked anion secretion was attenuated by tissue pretreatment with piroxicam and prostaglandin (PG) E(2); however, this secretion was not affected by TTX, atropine, or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion. These experiments indicate that TRPA1 activation induces anion secretion through PG synthesis, independent of neural pathways in the colon. Further analysis also indicates that AITC-evoked anion secretion is mediated mainly by the EP(4) receptor subtype. The magnitude of the secretory response exhibited segmental heterogeneity in rat colon. Real-time PCR analysis showed the segmental difference was corresponding to the differential expression of EP(4) receptor and cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. In addition, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical studies showed TRPA1 expression in the colonic epithelia. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of TRPA1 in colonic epithelial cells is likely involved in the host defense mechanism through rapid anion secretion. 10.1152/ajpgi.00289.2011
    Effects of luminal thymol on epithelial transport in human and rat colon. Kaji Izumi,Karaki Shin-ichiro,Kuwahara Atsukazu American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Gut lumen is continually exposed to a great variety of agents, including noxious compounds. Chemical receptors that detect the luminal environment are thought to play an important role as sensors and to modulate gastrointestinal functions. Recently, it has been reported that odorant receptors (ORs) are expressed in the small intestinal mucosa and that odorants stimulate serotonin secretion. However, ion transport in the responses to odorants has rarely been discussed, particularly in relation to the large intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of the OR ligand thymol on ion transport in human and rat colonic epithelia using an Ussing chamber. In the mucosal-submucosal preparations, the mucosal addition of thymol evoked anion secretion concentration dependently. In addition, dextran (4 kDa) permeability was enhanced by the mucosal treatment with thymol. The response to thymol was not affected by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or piroxicam treatments in human or rat colon. Thymol-evoked electrogenic anion secretion was abolished under Ca(2+)-free conditions or mucosal treatment with transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 blocker (HC-030031). Pretreatment of thymol did not affect electrical field stimulation-evoked anion secretion but significantly attenuated short-chain fatty acid-evoked secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. OR1G1 and TRPA1 expression was investigated in isolated colonic mucosa by RT-PCR. The present results provide evidence that the OR ligand thymol modulates epithelial permeability and electrogenic anion secretion in human and rat colon. The anion secretion by luminal thymol is most likely mediated by direct activation of TRPA1 channel. We suggest that the sensing and responding to odorants in the colon also plays a role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. 10.1152/ajpgi.00503.2010
    Stimulation of neuronal receptors, neuropeptides and cytokines during experimental oil of mustard colitis. Kimball E S,Prouty S P,Pavlick K P,Wallace N H,Schneider C R,Hornby P J Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society Oil of mustard (OM), administered intracolonically, produces severe colitis in mice that is maximized within 3 days. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cytokine response, and to establish expression patterns of enteric neuronal mediators and neuronal receptors affected during active colitis. We measured the changes in the mRNA levels for neuronal receptors and mediators by real-time PCR, and cytokine and chemokine protein levels in the affected tissue. Significant increases in neuronal receptors, such as transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1), cannabinoid type 1 receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and delta-opioid receptor; prokineticin-1 receptor; and soluble mediators, such as prodynorphin, proenkephalin1, NK1, prokineticin-1 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, occurred. Significant increases in cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and in chemokines, such as macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1alpha) and Kupffer cell derived chemokine (KC), were detected, with no changes in T-cell-derived cytokines. Furthermore, immunodeficient C57Bl/6 RAG2(-/-) mice exhibited OM colitis of equal severity as seen in wt C57Bl/6 and CD-1 mice. The results demonstrate rapidly increased levels of mRNA for neuronal receptors and soluble mediators associated with pain and inflammation, and increases in cytokines associated with macrophage and neutrophil activation and recruitment. Collectively, the data support a neurogenic component in OM colitis coupled with a myeloid cell-related, T- and B-cell-independent inflammatory component. 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.00939.x
    Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 participates in visceral hyperalgesia following experimental colitis. Yang Jing,Li Yanqing,Zuo Xiuli,Zhen Yanbo,Yu Yanbo,Gao Lijun Neuroscience letters Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) is an important receptor that contributes to inflammatory pain. However, previous studies were mainly concerned with its function in somatic hyperalgesia while few referred to visceral, especially colonic inflammatory hyperalgesia. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of TRPA1 in visceral hyperalgesia after trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Results indicate that TNBS induced a significant increase in visceral sensitivity to colonic distension and chemical irritation accompanied by up-regulation of TRPA1 in colonic afferent dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Intrathecal administration of TRPA1 antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) reduced the TRPA1 expression in DRG as well as suppressed the colitis-induced hyperalgesia to nociceptive colonic distension and intracolonic allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Meanwhile the TRPA1 antisense ODN had no effect on transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) expression, which was proposed to highly co-express with TRPA1, and no effect on the response to TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin. These data suggest an apparent role of TRPA1 in visceral hyperalgesia following colitis that might provide a novel therapeutic target for the relief of pain. 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.05.093
    Role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension during experimental colitis in rats. Vermeulen Wim,De Man Joris G,De Schepper Heiko U,Bult Hidde,Moreels Tom G,Pelckmans Paul A,De Winter Benedicte Y European journal of pharmacology The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptor antagonists and their synergism on the visceromotor responses during experimental colitis in rats. Colitis was induced in rats by a TNBS/ethanol enema at day 0 and was assessed at day 3 using endoscopy, histology and a myeloperoxidase assay. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension (10-80 mmHg) was evaluated in conscious rats before (control condition) and 3 days after 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) administration (colitis condition). At day 3, visceromotor responses were assessed before and after treatment with a TRPV1 (BCTC) or TRPA1 (TCS-5861528) receptor antagonist either alone or in combination and either after intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration. Endoscopy, microscopy and myeloperoxidase activity indicated severe colonic tissue damage 3 days after TNBS administration. Colorectal distension-evoked visceromotor responses demonstrated a 2.9-fold increase during acute colitis (day 3) compared to control conditions. Intraperitoneal and intrathecal administration of BCTC or TCS-5861528 partially reversed the colitis-induced increase in visceromotor responses compared to control conditions (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1 further decreased the enhanced visceromotor responses at high distension pressures (40-80 mmHg) compared to blockade of either TRPV1 or TRPA1 alone. This synergistic effect was not seen after combined intrathecal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1. The present study demonstrates that in the rat, TRPV1 and TRPA1 play a pivotal role in visceral hypersensitivity at the peripheral and spinal cord level during acute TNBS colitis. Target interaction, however, is presumably mediated via a peripheral site of action. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.10.014
    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system. Holzer Peter Pharmacology & therapeutics Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.03.006
    Intestinal, portal, and peripheral profiles of daikenchuto (TU-100)'s active ingredients after oral administration. Watanabe Junko,Kaifuchi Noriko,Kushida Hirotaka,Matsumoto Takashi,Fukutake Miwako,Nishiyama Mitsue,Yamamoto Masahiro,Kono Toru Pharmacology research & perspectives A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes. 10.1002/prp2.165
    Hydroxy-α sanshool induces colonic motor activity in rat proximal colon: a possible involvement of KCNK9. Kubota Kunitsugu,Ohtake Nobuhiro,Ohbuchi Katsuya,Mase Akihito,Imamura Sachiko,Sudo Yuka,Miyano Kanako,Yamamoto Masahiro,Kono Toru,Uezono Yasuhito American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Various colonic motor activities are thought to mediate propulsion and mixing/absorption of colonic content. The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100), which is widely used for postoperative ileus in Japan, accelerates colonic emptying in healthy humans. Hydroxy-α sanshool (HAS), a readily absorbable active ingredient of TU-100 and a KCNK3/KCNK9/KCNK18 blocker as well as TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, has been investigated for its effects on colonic motility. Motility was evaluated by intraluminal pressure and video imaging of rat proximal colons in an organ bath. Distribution of KCNKs was investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Current and membrane potential were evaluated with use of recombinant KCNK3- or KCNK9-expressing Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Defecation frequency in rats was measured. HAS dose dependently induced strong propulsive "squeezing" motility, presumably as long-distance contraction (LDC). TRPV1/TRPA1 agonists induced different motility patterns. The effect of HAS was unaltered by TRPV1/TRPA1 antagonists and desensitization. Lidocaine (a nonselective KCNK blocker) and hydroxy-β sanshool (a geometrical isomer of HAS and KCNK3 blocker) also induced colonic motility as a rhythmic propagating ripple (RPR) and a LDC-like motion, respectively. HAS-induced "LDC," but not lidocaine-induced "RPR," was abrogated by a neuroleptic agent tetrodotoxin. KCNK3 and KCNK9 were located mainly in longitudinal smooth muscle cells and in neural cells in the myenteric plexus, respectively. Administration of HAS or TU-100 increased defecation frequency in normal and laparotomy rats. HAS may evoke strong LDC possibly via blockage of the neural KCNK9 channel in the colonic myenteric plexus. 10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2014
    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 agonists improve intestinal transit in a murine model of postoperative ileus. Tsuchiya K,Kubota K,Ohbuchi K,Kaneko A,Ohno N,Mase A,Matsushima H,Yamamoto M,Miyano K,Uezono Y,Kono T Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society BACKGROUND:Stimulation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), which abundantly expressed in enterochromaffin cells (ECC), has been reported to exert apparently contradictory results in in vitro contractility and in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) transit evaluations. The pharmaceutical-grade Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100) has been reported to be beneficial for postoperative ileus (POI) and accelerate GI transit in animals and humans. TU-100 was recently shown to increase intestinal blood flow via stimulation of TRPA1 in the epithelial cells of the small intestine (SI). METHODS:The effects of various TRPA1 agonists on motility were examined in a manipulation-induced murine POI model, in vitro culture of SI segments and an ECC model cell line, RIN-14B. KEY RESULTS:Orally administered TRPA1 agonists, aryl isothiocyanate (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CA), TU-100 ingredients, [6]-shogaol (6S) and γ-sanshool (GS), improved SI transit in a POI model. The effects of AITC, 6S and GS but not CA were abrogated in TRPA1-deficient mice. SI segments show periodic peristaltic motor activity whose periodicity disappeared in TRPA1-deficient mice. TU-100 augmented the motility. AITC, CA and 6S increased 5-HT release from isolated SI segments and the effects of all these compounds except for CA were lost in TRPA1-deficient mice. 6S and GS induced a release of 5-HT from RIN-14B cells in a dose- and TRPA1-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES:Intraluminal TRPA1 stimulation is a potential therapeutic strategy for GI motility disorders. Further investigation is required to determine whether 5-HT and/or ECC are involved in the effect of TRPA1 on motility. 10.1111/nmo.12877
    A 'toothache tree' alkylamide inhibits Aδ mechanonociceptors to alleviate mechanical pain. Tsunozaki Makoto,Lennertz Richard C,Vilceanu Daniel,Katta Samata,Stucky Cheryl L,Bautista Diana M The Journal of physiology In traditional medicine, the 'toothache tree' and other plants of the Zanthoxylum genus have been used to treat inflammatory pain conditions, such as toothache and rheumatoid arthritis. Here we examined the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic properties of hydroxy-α-sanshool, the active alkylamide produced by Zanthoxylum plants. Consistent with its analgesic effects in humans, sanshool treatment in mice caused a selective attenuation of mechanical sensitivity under naïve and inflammatory conditions, with no effect on thermal sensitivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which sanshool attenuates mechanical pain, we performed single fibre recordings, calcium imaging and whole-cell electrophysiology of cultured sensory neurons. We found that: (1) sanshool potently inhibits Aδ mechanonociceptors that mediate both sharp acute pain and inflammatory pain; (2) sanshool inhibits action potential firing by blocking voltage-gated sodium currents in a subset of somatosensory neurons, which express a unique combination of voltage-gated sodium channels; and (3) heterologously expressed Nav1.7 is most strongly inhibited by sanshool as compared to other sodium channels expressed in sensory neurons. These results suggest that sanshool targets voltage-gated sodium channels on Aδ mechanosensory nociceptors to dampen excitability and thus induce 'fast pain' analgesia. 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.252106